آموزش انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم

بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

Present Simple/Present Continuous Practice
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥٢ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۳/٦/۱٢
 

In your notebook, write these sentences putting the verbs into the correct tense.

1 She (read) at the moment.

She's reading at the moment.

2 (You go) to work by car?

Do you qo to work by car?

3 I (not watch} television every night.

/ don't watch television every night.

4 I (not watch) television at the moment.

I'm not watching television at the moment.

33

Verbs

5 We {see] our parents every week.

6 (You listen) to the radio now?

7 I (not get up) at seven o'clock every morning.

8 Peter (talk) to Susan now.

9 (They work) in the restaurant at the weekends?

10 She (listen) to the radio in her bedroom at the moment.

11 They (not come) to school every day.

12 (You work) now?

13 The children (go) to bed at eight o'clock.

14 1 (leave) the office every day at five.

15 I'm sorry i can't talk to you now. I (go) out.

16 (Peter and Jane work) in London at the moment?

17 (Mary and Susan drive) to the office every day?

18 We (go) to the beach now.

19 (John listen) to the radio at the moment?

20 (Your parents sit) in the garden now?

21 The film (start) every night at eight o'clock

22 They (not go) to the cinema very often.

23 (You go) into the office every month?

24 I (not study) at the moment


 
 
Simple Present - Diagram
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٩:٤٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۳/٥/٢٢
 

We use the Simple Present when we talk about something which happens repeatedly.

 


We use the Simple Present to describe a series of actions in the present.

Simple Present - Long forms, short forms

 

Long forms and short forms in the Simple Present

We often use short forms of the auxiliaries. The Simple Present is formed with a full verb. Short forms are only used in negative phrases.

affirmative

long form

short form

I, we, you, they:

-

I read

-

he, she, it:

-

he reads

-

 

negative (do not)

long form

short form

I, we, you, they:

I, we, you, they:

I do not read

I don't read

he, she, it:

he, she, it:

he does not read

he doesn't read

 


 
 
Simple Present - Spelling
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:۳۱ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۳/٤/۳۱
 

Be careful with some words when using the 3rd person singular.

1) verbs ending in a sibilant [s] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ] [ʧ] [ʤ] or verbs ending in -o preceded by a consonant

We add -es to the infinitive.

Examples:
I watch - he watches
I pass - he passes
I go - he goes
I do - he does


2) verbs ending in -y

verbs ending in 'y' preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u): Add -s.

Example:
I play - he plays

verbs ending in 'y' preceded by a consonant: Change 'y' to 'i' and add 'es'.

Example:
I hurry - he hurries

Special verbs in the Simple Present

1) have as a full verb

affirmative sentence

negative sentence

question

I, we, you, they:

I have a book.

I do not have a book.

Do I have a book?

he, she, it:

He has a book.

He does not have a book.

Does he have a book?

 

2) be as a full verb

affirmative sentence

negative sentence

question

I am from Britain.

I am not from Britain.

Am I from Britain?

he, she, it:

He is from Britain.

He is not from Britain.

Is he from Britain?

we, you, they:

We are from Britain.

We are not from Britain.

Are we from Britain?

We often use the short forms with this verb.

3) do as a full verb

affirmative sentence

negative sentence

question

I, we, you, they:

I do an exercise.

I do not do an exercise.

Do I do an exercise?

he, she, it:

He does an exercise.

He does not do an exercise.

Does he do an exercise?

 

4) modal auxiliaries can, could, may, must, need, will etc.

affirmative sentence

negative sentence

question

every time regardless the subject (I, he, she, it, we, you, they):

I can play tennis.

I cannot play tennis.

Can I play tennis?

NOTE:
We can subtitute don't (can't) for do not (cannot).

Modals have the same form every time regardless the subject. We do not add an -s to the infinitive


 
 
Simple Present - Signal words
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٥:۱٧ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۳/٤/٢۳
 

These words tell you what tense you have to use. For the Simple Present these are adverbs of frequency:

always
often
usually
sometimes
seldom
never

Other phrases of time can occur, like:
every day
every week
every year
on Mondays
after school

Form of the Simple Present

We use the infinitive of the verb. In the 3rd person Singular (he, she, it - or a name) we put an -s to the end of the infinitive.

infinitive - 3rd person Singular (he, she, it) infinitive + -s


Affirmative sentences:

I/we/you/they play football.
He/she/it plays football.

NOTE: he, she, it - Do not forget the -s.


Negative sentences:

We use the auxiliary do.
I/we/you/they do not play football.
He/she/it does not play football.

NOTE: We often use short forms in negative sentences in the Simple Present:
I/we/you/they don't play football.
He/she/it doesn't play football.


Questions:

Do I/we/you/they play football?
Does he/she/it play football?


 
 
Simple Present
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٥:۱٥ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۳/٤/٢۳
 

Use

Signal words

Form of affirmative, negative sentences and questions

Spelling

Special verbs

Diagram

Long forms and short forms

Simple Present - Complex Test 1Complex Test 2

Exercises - Simple Present

Use

1) repeated actions

My friend often draws nice posters.


2) things in general

The sun rises in the East.


3) fixed arrangements, scheduled events

The plane flies to London every Monday.


4) sequence of actions in the present

First I get up, then I have breakfast.


5) instructions

Open your books at page 34.


6) with special verbs

I understand English.


Signal words

every day, often, always, sometimes, never


Form

infinitive (3rd person singular he, she, it: infinitive + -s)


Examples

Affirmative sentences:

I read books.

My brother reads books.

We sing pop songs.

She sings pop songs.

I play handball.

John plays handball.

Negative sentences:

You must not negate a full verb in English. Always use the auxiliary do for negations.

I

 

like

computers.

I

don't

like

computers at all.

 

My friend

 

likes

computers.

My mum

doesn't

like

computers at all.

Questions:

Use the auxiliary do.
Do you play football?
Does he play football?


 
 
Simple future tense : زمان آینده ساده
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:٤٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/۱۱/٢٢
 

Simple future tense : زمان آینده ساده

زمان آینده : کاری است که در زمان آینده انجام خواهد شد.

فاعل + will / shall + طرز ساخت : بقیه جمله + فعل اصلی

هم استفاده کنیم . shall می توانیم از (will) برای اول شخص مفرد و اول شخص جمع بیشتر به جای

نشانه های زمان آینده ساده:

بین فاعل و فعل اصلی shall و یا will الف) وجود فعل کمکی

( tomorrow) ب) وجود قیود زمان مثل فردا

قیود زمان :

tomorrow فردا

soon به زودی

sooner or later دیر یا زود

three weeks تا سه هفته دیگر

next + در آینده زمان

in+ زمان ( a week/ a year/ a month (تا یک هفته، یک سال ،یک ماه دیگه

منفی می شوند و به شکل not می باشد که با shall یا will تغییرات در زمان آینده : به عمده فعل کمکی

در می آیند. shan’t و یا won’t

به کار نمی رود. shall یا will تذکر بسیار مهم: با کلمات زیر

if 􀃆 اگر unless 􀃆 مگر

43

when􀃆 وقتیکه as long as 􀃆 مادامیکه

while 􀃆 وقتیکه s uppose 􀃆 به فرض اینکه

before 􀃆 قبل از as soon as 􀃆 بمحض اینکه

after 􀃆 بعد از to pass 􀃆 قبول شدن

till 􀃆 تا

until 􀃆 تا

فرمولهای طرز ساخت :

( I ) آینده + before + زمان حال

( II ) before + آینده و حال

You will pass if you study.

If you study you will pass.

I will call you as soon as I get home.

As soon as I get home , I will call you.


 
 
Simple Present Tense ( زمان حال ساده )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 


زمان حال ساده: کاری است که به صورت عادت و تکرار انجام می شود.

ی مصدری را برداریم و به جای آن فاعل بگذاریم فعلی که به دست می آید زمان حال ساده یا to طرز ساخت : اگر

اضافه می شود . (ies-es-s) به آخر فعل (it-she-he) حاضر ساده است .در سوم شخص یعنی

نشانه های حال ساده :

در سوم شخص مفرد در آخر فعل مثل : s -1 وجود

He works/she eats/it runs

در آخر فعل در سوم شخص مفرد es -2 وجود

می گیرند مثل: es ختم می شوند در سوم شخص مفرد z,o,x,ch,sh,s تذکر: افعالیکه به

Washes/buzzes/watches/fixes/misses/mixes

s داشته باشد در سوم شخص فقط “a,e,I,o,u” حرف صدادار y ختم می شوند اگر قبل از y -3 افعالی که به

می گیرد.

play 􀃆 سوم شخص مفرد 􀃆 Plays

را برمی داریم و به جای y حرف صدادار نداشته باشد در سوم شخص y ختم می شوند اگر قبل از y افعالی که به

می گذاریم . es و سپس i آن در سوم شخص مفرد

Carry 􀃆 carries

Study􀃆 studies

یا

-4 وجود قیود زمان مثل :

very other + زمان ( every other week (یک هفته در میان

-5 وجود قید تکرار مثل :

ever – never – always – usually – often – sometimes

They never play golf.

-6 با حقایق دنیا و یا چیزهایی که قب ً لا اثبات شده است، جمله زمان حاضر ساده است.

The sun sets in the west. . خورشید در غرب، غروب می کند

انجام می شود. does ,do تذکر مهم : تغییرات در حاضر ساده یا حال با دو فعل کمکی

هم همین طور) doesn’t پران است و ies - پران es - پران s ) does : بسیار مهم

تکراری از قبل : قیود مکان همیشه قبل از قیود زمان می آیند.

He goes to school every day.

تمرین جملات فارسی :

جملات زیر را به انگلیسی ترجمه کنید.

-1 او به مدرسه می رود هر روز

-2 معلم کمک می کند به ما در کلاس ساعت 2 روزهای زوج

-3 پدرم درس می خواند در خانه روزهای فرد

-4 پدرش می خواهد کمک کند به آنها اینجا هر روز

پاسخ:

1. He goes to school every day.

2. The teacher helps us in the class at 2 o’clock on odd days.

3. My father studies at home on even days.

4. His father wants to help them here every day


 
 
زمان حال کامل استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٥:٠۱ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٥/٦
 

 

 

طرز شناختن حال کامل استمراری:

شناختن این زمان مثل حال کامل می باشد با این فرق که ماضی نقلی در زمان حال کامل می شود، ولی ماضی نقلی استمراری هنوز در زمان حال ادامه دارد که البته حروف اضافه و یا قیودی که برای ماضی نقلی بکار می رود برای ماضی استمراری هم صدق می کند

- He is lying on the floor now.حال استمراری

- He has been lying there for two hours.حال کامل استمراری



طرز ساختن حال کامل استمراری:

 

این زمان را با ماضی نقلی فعل بودن (have/has been) بعلاوه ی شکل (ing) فعل اصلی می سازند.



طرز منفی و سوالی کردن حال کامل استمراری:


  عیناً مانند ماضی نقلی، سوالی و منفی می شود


 
 
زمان حال کامل استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٤:٢٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٥/٦
 

 

فاعل+ have/has + been+ فعل + ing + مفعول 


این زمان نشان می دهد که کاری در گذشته در یک زمان معین یا نامعین شروع شده و تا زمان حال ادامه داشته و هنوز هم ادامه دارد

 

I have been living here since 1983

یعنی زندگی کردن من اینجا از سال 1362 شروع شده و تا زمان حال ادامه داشنه و هنوز هم ادامه دارد

 

I have been watching tv

 

It has been snowing all day, and the streets are too wet to go out now

یعنی در یک زمان نامعینی امروز برف شروع شد و هنوز هم ادامه دارد

 

یعنی از سال 1384 در سایت سلام زبان انگلیسی تدریس کردیم و این کار هنوز هم ادامه دارد

 

 

 


البته در افعالی که در حالت سکون هستند بهتر است از زمان حال کامل استمراری استفاده شود تا زمان حال کامل.


افعالیکه در حالت سکون هستند مثل:

 

Stay, sit, rest, work, sleep, live, stand, wait, talk, learn, look, lie, listen, study.


 
 
طرز شناختن زمان گذشته ساده
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۳:٠۱ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/۳۱
 

 

طرز شناختن زمان گذشته ساده

ادامه جمله+مفعول+گذشته فعل+فاعل


نشان می دهد که کاری در گذشته بدون قید و شرط انجام گرفته که معمولاً در این جملات باید یک قید زمان که دلالت به گذشته کند وجود داشته باشد.

I went to the mosque last night.-


طرز ساختن گذشته ساده


اگر به آخر افعال با قاعده
d و یا ed اضافه شود بصورت گذشته در می آید ولی افعال بی قاعده قسمت دوم آنها گذشته می باشد.

 

طرز منفی و سوالی کردن گذشته ساده


برای منفی کردن جمله، اگر جمله دارای فعل کمکی بود، با آوردن آن به ابتدای جمله آن را سوالی می کنیم و با گذاردن کلمه
not بعد از فعل کمکی آن را منفی می کنیم .


ولی اگر جمله دارای فعل کمکی نبود برای سوالی کردن
did را قبل از فاعل آورده و فعل جمله را به زمان حال تبدیل کرده وبرای منفی کردن did not را بعد از فاعل می آوریم.


 
 
زمان آینده کامل استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٥٧ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/۳۱
 

 

زمان آینده کامل استمراری

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

طرز ساختن:

فعل با ing +

+ been

+ have

shall

+ فاعل

will

 

موارد استعمال:

قرینه این زمان در زبان فارسی وجود ندارد ، این زمان برای کاری است که تا زمان معینی در آینده انجام گرفته و کامل شده یا فبل از زمانی در آینده تمام شده ولی ضمناً مدتی نیز ادامه داشته باشد:

I shall have been living in Tehran for 20 years by next month.


 
 
زمان آینده کامل
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٥٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/۳۱
 

 

زمان آینده کامل

زمان آینده کاملFuture Perfect Tense

طرز ساختن:

اسم مفعول فعل

+ have

shall

+ فاعل

will

 

موارد استعمال:

1- کاری که قبل از کار دیگری در آینده تمام و کامل شده است:

When you return, I shall have done my work.

 

2- کاری که تا زمان معینی در آینده انجام گرفته و تمام شده است.در این مورد معمولاً حرف اضافه زمانی by قبل از قید زمان آینده به کار می رود:

This trip will have sailed by 9 o'clock tomorrow night.

 

نکته: بعد از حروف ربطی مانند as soon as , until , till که زمان موقت و نزدیک را می رسانند به جای آینده کامل،ماضی نقلی به کار می برند:

I will see you as soon as I have finished my work.


 
 
زمان آینده استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٤٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/۳۱
 

 

زمان آینده استمراری

Future Continuous Tense

طرز ساختن:

فعل با ing +

be

shall

+ فاعل

will

 

موارد استعمال:

این زمان قرینه ماضی استمراری است و تقریباً در آن موارد منتها در آینده به کار می رود:

1- کاری که در آینده ادامه دارد و کاری بر آن واقع می شود:

When you arrive, we shall be having dinner.

 

2- کاری که در زمان معینی در آینده در حال ادامه است:

At 2 o'clock tomorrow afternoon we shall be playing football.

 

3- کارهایی که همزمان با هم در آینده ادامه خواهد داشت:

While they will be listening to the radio, we shall be playing chess.

 

4- کاری که در طول زمان معینی در آینده ادامه خواهد داشت:

I shall be traveling round Europe all next month.

 

نکته: موارد استعمال و تغییرات مربوط به will , shall در اشخاص مختلف در این زمان نیز نظیر آینده ساده است


 
 
زمان آینده ساده
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۳:۳۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/٢٦
 


زمان آینده ساده

Simple Future Tense

طرز ساختن:

مصدر بدون to +

shall

+ فاعل

will

 

نکته1: در اول شخص مفرد و جمع از فعل معین shall و در بقیه اشخاص ازwill استفاده می شود.

نکته2: در موقع سوال در دوم شخص در صورتی که منظور گوینده درخواست و تقاضا باشد ازwill استفادهمی کنن:

آیا ممکن است در را باز کنید؟

Will you open the door?

 

ولی اگر صرفاً آینده سوالی معمولی مورد نظر باشد جمله فوق به این ترتیب خواهد بود:

آیا در را باز خواهید کرد؟

Shall you open the door?

کاربردwill , shall منظورهای مختلفی را بیان می کند که در زیر به آنها اشاره می کنیم:

الف_ will در اول شخص به جایshall مفهوم قصد و قول و یا تمایل دارد:

قول می دهم این کار را برای شما انجام دهم.

I will do it for you.

 

ب_ در دوم شخص مفرد و جمع کاربردshall به جایwill در حالت منفی و سوالی بیان تهدید و یا قول است که گوینده در مورد مخاطب خود به کار می برد:

این کار را نخواهی کرد.

You shall not do it.

 

پ_ کاربردshall در سوم شخص مفرد و جمع مبین تهدید و یا قولی است که گوینده در مورد سوم شخص مخاطب خود می دهد:

این مسئله را حل خواهدکرد.

He shall solve this problem.

 

ت_ در دوم شخص مفرد و جمع همچنین در سوم شخص مفرد و جمع آوری برای بیان اجازه،shall به کار می برند:

You shall see him if you want.

 

ث_ ترکیبshall we معادلlet us بوده و مفهوم کسب اجازه است.

اجازه می دهید بازی را آغاز کنیم؟

Shall we begin the play?

 

موارد استعمال:

برای بیان کارهایی که در زمان معینی در آینده احتمال وقوع دارد:

We shall take an exam next month.

 

یادآوری1_ در انگلیسی آمریکایی امروزه فعلwill را برای تمام اشخاص به کار می برند.

یادآوری2_ افعال:hope, want, intend, promise, except, choose, like, mean به جای فعل آینده به کار برده می شود:

He hopes to visit Europe next summer.

 

یادآوری3_ افعال ناقص در آینده به کار نمیروند و به جای آنها از افعال مترادف آنها استفاده می شود مانندcan که در آینده به صورتbeable به کار می رود:

I shall we able to finish my article tonight.

 

توجه1_ یکی دیگر از فرمول هایی که در آینده به کار می رود:

 

مصدر +

be going to

+ فاعل

 

این فرمول از آینده صرفاً برای کارهای قطعی و معین در آینده است.موقع ترجمه این ترکیب در فارسی از عبارات نظیر قصد دارم،می خواهم،و غیره استفاده می کنند:

میخواهند ما را به شام دعوت نمایند.

They are going to invite us to dinner.

 

توجه2_ غیر از دو فرمول بالا که بررسی گردید برای آینده نزدیک از دو ترکیب

"tobeaboutto" و "tobeonthepointof" نیز استفاده می کنند:

در شرف اتمام کار خویش است.

He is about to finish his work.

قصد فرار دارند.

They are on the point of running away.

 


 
 
طرز شناختن زمان آینده
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٤٠ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/٢٥
 


زمان آینده

فاعل+shall/will+فعل مصدر بدون to+ مفعول

 

این زمان نشان دهنده کاری است که در آینده انجام خواهد شد و بیشتر از تصمیمات و قولها سخن می گوید.


این زمان به کمک افعال
shall و مصدر بدون to هر فعلی می سازند، البته shall برای اول شخص مفرد و جمع بکار برده می شود ولی امروزه برای تمام صیغه ها از will استفاده می کنند.

اگر قید زمان جمله ای مربوط به آینده باشد مثل
next year, tomorrow فعل آن به زمان آینده خواهد بود.


طرز منفی و سوالی کردن زمان آینده

برای سوالی کردن افعال کمکی
shall و will را به ابتدای جمله آورده و برای منفی کردن کلمه ی not بعد از shall و will گذاشته می شود.

مخفف will not می‏شود won't

I will not go tomorrow.

I will not kill her.


 
 
طرز شناختن زمان آینده استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:۳٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/٢٥
 

زمان آینده استمراری


این زمان نشان می دهد که کاری در آینده در یک زمان تعیین شده در حال انجام خواهد بود، که معمولاً این زمان آینده استمراری با قید های:

 

At this time, tomorrow, next month, next week


و یا همراه با کلماتی مثل:
if- wish همراه زمان حال ساده می آید.



طرز ساختن آینده استمراری
این زمان با آینده ساده فعل
to be و شکل ing هر فعل ساخته می شود.

I will be going



منفی سوالی کردن آینده استمراری

با آوردن کلمه
not بعد از فعل کمکی will منفی می شود و برای سوالی کردن فعل کمکی will را به ابتدای جمله می آوریم.


 
 
طرز شناختن زمان آینده استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:۱٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/۱٥
 

زمان آینده استمراری


این زمان نشان می دهد که کاری در آینده در یک زمان تعیین شده در حال انجام خواهد بود، که معمولاً این زمان آینده استمراری با قید های:

 

At this time, tomorrow, next month, next week


و یا همراه با کلماتی مثل:
if- wish همراه زمان حال ساده می آید.



طرز ساختن آینده استمراری
این زمان با آینده ساده فعل
to be و شکل ing هر فعل ساخته می شود.

I will be going



منفی سوالی کردن آینده استمراری

با آوردن کلمه
not بعد از فعل کمکی will منفی می شود و برای سوالی کردن فعل کمکی will را به ابتدای جمله می آوریم.


 
 
شناخت زمان آینده کامل
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:۱٧ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/۱٥
 

زمان آینده کامل


این زمان نشان می دهد که کاری در زمان آینده قبل از زمان معینی خاتمه پیدا خواهد کرد


معمولاً آینده کامل با قیدها و یا حروف ربط

after- before- when - by

همراه با زمان حال به کار می روند.

I will have done it before six o'clock.

 

طرز ساختن آینده کامل

این زمان با آینده ساده فعل have و اسم مفعول فعل اصلی می آید


- I will have done.
- You will have seen


شکل منفی سوالی 
با کلمه
not بعد از افعال کمکی shall و will منفی شده و اگر این دو فعل کمکی را به ابتدای جمله بیاوریم جمله سوالی می شود.

 


 
 
زمان آینده کامل استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:٥۱ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/۱٥
 

 


 موقعی به کار می رود که می خواهید بگویید یا بدانید تا چقدر یک کاری در یک زمانی در آینده در حال انجام بوده. البته آن عمل قبل از آن تاریخ که در آینده بررسی می شود شروع گردیده و بعد از آن زمان که در موردش صحبت می کنیم هم یا ادامه خواهد داشت و یا نخواهد داشت


 


By the year 2030, people will have been using www.salamzaban.com for 24 years.

- At 10 o'clock I will have been working for 5 hours.

I will have been working here for ten years next week.

You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.

* They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
* She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
* James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
* How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
* We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.
* A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?
B: No, I will not have been living here that long.

 

طرز ساختن آینده کامل استمراری:

 


این زمان را با آینده کامل، فعل
to be و شکل ing هر فعل ساخته می شود.

 

[will have been + present participle]


یا

 

[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]

 

 

* You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
* Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
* You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

* You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
* Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
* You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

 
 

 

 

طرز منفی سوالی کردن آینده کامل استمراری:


با کلمه
not بعد از افعال کمکی shall و will منفی شده و اگر دو فعل کمکی shall و یا will را به ابتدای جمله بیاوریم سوالی می شود.
 

تذکر:


علامت مشخصه این زمان در اینگلیسی این است که قبل از قید زمان آینده حرف اضافه
by
و قبل از طول مدت انجام کار حرف اضافه
for به کار می رود.

By the year 2053, man will have been flying for 300 years.
By the time they arrive, we will have been waiting for 4 hours!
John will have been studying for 6 years by the time he finishes his exam.

این زمان معمولا اصطلاح 
by the time 
را که به معنی 
before that time
هست را دارد

 

نکته:

بعضی افعال نمی توانند ing بگیرند

know     understand     owe     possess     be
have*     belong     contain     equal     resemble
tend     perceive     suppose     believe     decide
conclude     prefer     love     like     seem

* have به معنای مالکیت

I have a car

 

بنابراین به جای آینده کامل استمراری آن ها را در آینده کامل استفاده می نماییم

By the time I retire in 2025, I will have been knowing you for 36 years.
By the time I retire in 2025, I will have known you for 36 years.

 

نکته:

بعضی از افعال هم در هر دو زمان آینده کامل استمراری و آینده کامل یک معنا دارند

progressive     By 2010, I will have been living in San Francisco for 20 years.

same meaning


future perfect     By 2010, I will have lived in San Francisco for 20 years.


 
 
بررسی زمان آینده در گذشته
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:۱٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٤/۱٥
 

زمان آینده در گذشته

این زمان نشان می دهد که کاری در گذشته به صورت آینده بوده است، به این معنی که وقتی عملی را در گذشته به صورت آینده بوده است بخواهند در زمان حال آن را ییان کنند آن را آینده در گذشته نامند که معمولاً این زمان در نقل و قول غیر مستقیم به کار می رود. (یعنی اگر بخواهیم بگوییم که شخص دیگری در زمان گذشته چه چیزی در مورد آینده می گفت از این زمان استفاده می کنیم.)

طرز ساختن آینده در گذشته


عیناً مثل آینده است، با این فرق که به جای
shall از should و به جای will از would استفاده می کنند.
مثال:

 

-I will go to Tehran tomorrow.آینده

He said that he would go to Tehran the next day. -آینده در گذشته


 
 
درس نهم زبان سال اول نظری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۱٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٢/٢٧
 

 

نمونه سئوال            

ماضی نقلی : شکل صحیح افعال داخل پرانتز را بنویسید .

 

1. They ……………… in Shiraz since 1383 .   ( be )

2. We ……………… here for the last nine weeks . ( live )

3. Ali …………. There letter since Aban .    ( write )

4. They …………. Tehran since 1380  .      ( leave )

5. I …………. Him since last Mehr .    ( not to see )

----------------------------------------

جملات زیر را since      یا    for   کامل کنید .

   

6. We have been good friends ………… years .

7. I have had this car ……………… 1381 .

8. She has been absent …………….. Wednesday .

9. They have been in Europe ………….. last May .

10. He has lived in Ardebil …………… about five months .

 

------------------------------------------

بهترین گزینه را انتخاب نمایید .

 

11. They have ………….. to the radio since 9 o'clock .

a. listen               b. to listen               c. listened                  d. listening

12. She has ………… her homework for three hours .

a. do                 b. does                 c. done                  d. doing

13.Have they …………. Lunch here last week ? No , they haven't .

a. eat               b. ate                  c. eaten                d. to eat

14. His children …………….. a lot of milk since this morning .

a. drink               b. drank                c. has drunk             d. have drunk

15. She ………….. cleaned the house for 5 weeks .

a. hasn't                b. haven't             c. hadn't                 d. didn't

16.We ………….. TV for half an hour .

a. have watch         b. has watched         c. have watched      d. watched

17. Have you ………….. this film before .

a. see                  b. saw               c. sees                d. seen

18. They ………… in Tehran for two years , haven't they ?

a. were                b. was                  c. be                d. been

19. He ………… three cups of tea since four o'clock .

a. will drink             b. could drink             c. has drunk          d. was drunk

20. They ………… in the same house since 1375 .

a. are living              b. lived             c. have lived             d. live

 

----------------

GOOD   LUCK      :   ABBASI

 


 
 
نمونه سوال از ماضی بعید در زبان انگلیسی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۱٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٢/٢٧
 

 

1. After they had played football , they ………….. home .

a. went                 b. go                  c. had gone                 d. are going

2. The train ………………. The station when we got there .

a. had left              b. has left              c. has been               d. had leaving

3. He …………… the house before you came in .

a. had left              b. has left               c. leaves               d. is leaving

4. The teacher ………….. the lesson when Mina entered the class.

a. would begin          b. has begun             c. had begun         d. will begin

5.Ali's mother was happy because she ………… the poor man .

a. helped              b. has helped           c. had helped             d. helps

6. Had she washed the dishes before the guests …………  .

a. had left              b. left               c. leave              d. has left

7. she didn't go to their party because they ………….. invited her .

a. didn't                b. had                c. hadn't                 d. did

8. Ahmad ………… tired because he had worked all day long .

a. is                  b. were                  c. was                    d. are

9. I …………. The room before they arrived .

a. have clean          b. have cleaned                c. had cleaned        d. clean

10. I was unhappy last night because I ………. A sad story .

a. had read               b. had reads             c. read               d. had reading

11. Before you came , I …………… the TV .

a. watch           b. had watched              c. will watch        d. have watch

 

 

شکل صحیح افعال داخل پرانتز را بنویسید .

 

12. I decided to go  to the party because I …………….. my homework .

( finish )

13. He was tired because , He ………….. hard all day long . ( work )

14. They were punished because they …………… the table . ( break )

15. Mina …………. The dinner before her father arrived . ( cook )

16. I was tired because I …………. No rest yesterday . ( had )

17. He ………….. The house before you came in . ( leave )

18. He died after he ………. Ill for a long time . ( be )

19. When I telephoned , he ………. There for two weeks . ( go )

20. I …………. Asleep when they came to the house . ( be )

 

Good    luck    : Abbasi


 
 
زمان حال ساده / زمان حال استمراری / ماضی نقلی / وجود قیود زمانی در ماضی نقلی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:۱٠ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٢/٢٢
 

 

  

زمان حال ساده

زمان حال ساده برای بیان عملی است که به صورت تکرار و یا عادت انجام می شود و وجود قیود تکرار می تواند یکی از نشانه های این زمان باشد.

Usually- always- generally

 

1- How much ……… you generally pay for a pair of shoes?
a) do *
b) dose
c) was
d) were

2- We ……… ten new words every day.
a) learns
b) learned
c) learn *
d) to learn

3- He ……… to Washington once a week.
a) drives *
b) driving
c) drove
d) driven

4- Water ……… at 100 cc
a) boil
b) is boiling
c) boils *
d) to boil

 

 

زمان حال استمراری

زمان حال استمراری در بیان عملی است که هم اکنون و در حال حاضر در حال انجام است. وجود قیود زمانی می تواند نشانه این زمان باشند.

(at this moment, at present- now)

 

1- At present they ……… many new highways in Tehran.
a) build
b) built
c) are building *
d) to build

2- He ……..pepper on his egg now.
a) puts
b) has put
c) put
d) is putting *

3- I see that you ……….your new Suit now.
a) wear
b) are wearing *
c) wears
d) wore

4- The weather ……… better and better.
a) got
b) gets
c) is getting *
d) get

 

 

 

وجود افعال
(Look! Be quiet! Listen! Be careful!)
در جملات حال استمراری

 

1- Be quiet! The body ……
a) is sleeping *
b) sleeps
c) had slept
d) sleeps

2- Look! The man ………. after the train.
a) runs
b) has run
c) run
d) is running *

3- Look! The cat ……….. To climb that tell tree.
a) try
b) tries
c) is trying *
d) to try

4- Listen! Some one ……… at the door.
a) is knocking *
b) knock
c) knocks
d) to knock

 

 

ماضی نقلی

این زمان برای بیان عملی است که در وقت نامشخص در گذشته آغاز شده و اثر آن تا زمان حال باقی است.
طرز ساختن این زمان: since و for قید زمانی + قسمت سوم فعل+ have و has + فاعل
مبدأ زمان: since، طول زمان: for

1- He is tired, because he …….. football since afternoon.
a) have played
b) has played *
c) had played
d) played

جمله ای که قبل از because قرار گرفته زمان حال ساده است و جمله ای که بعد از because قرار می گیرد باید ماضی نقلی باشد.

2- John is unhappy because he ……….his money.
a) lost
b) have lost
c) has lost *
d) lose

3- She …….. here since 1948.
a) worked
b) have worked
c) has worked *
d) was working

4- I ……… in Greece since 1976.
a) have lived *
b) lived
c) has lived
d) was living

 

 

وجود قیود زمانی در ماضی نقلی

ماضی نقلی یک سری علائم دارد. مثل:

(several times- yet- so for- up to now)

 

1- I ……… to him a bout it several times.
a) have spoken *
b) am speaking
c) speak
d) spokes

2- She …….. English for 8 years.
a) studied
b) have studied
c) has studied*
d) studying

3- We …….. 17 lesson so for.
a) have learned *
b) has learned
c) learned
d) were learning

4- Ali ……..yet
a) didn’t come
b) haven’t come
c) hasn’t come *
d) wasn’t coming


 
 
افعال کمکی (Helping Verbs) : 2
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٧:۱٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱/٢٢
 

 

افعال کمکی به خودی خود معنایی ندارند ولی وجود آنها در ساختار جمله ضروری است. معمولا افعال کمکی را همراه با افعال اصلی به کار می بریم تا به افعال اصلی کمک کنند. در کل حدود 15 فعل کمکی وجود دارد که ما آنها را به دو دسته تقسیم می کنیم:

افعال کمکی اولیه (Primary Helping Verbs)

1- be همان (am, is و are).

  • to make continuous tense برای ایجاد زمان فعل به صورت پیوسته مانند :
  •   he is watching TV (یعنی به فعل اصلی watching کمک می کند که به طور پیوسته و در حال انجام جلوه کند) 
  •  to make the passive برای نشان دادن تأثیر پذیری یا کنش پذیری :
  •   Small fishes are eaten by big fishes

2- Have:

  • to make perfect tenses برای ایجاد زمان فعل به صورت کامل شده :
  •  I have finished my homework 
  •  (یعنی به فعل اصلی finished کمک می کند تا به صورت عمل تمام شده جلوه کند)

3- Do :

  • to make negatives برای منفی کردن : not like you  I do
  • to make questions برای سوال پرسیدن : ? you want some coffee Do
  • to show emphasis برای نشان دادن تأکید : I do want you to pass your exam
  • to stand for a main verbs in some constructions برای پشتیبانی از فعل اصلی در برخی جملات :
  • he speaks faster than she does

 

افعال کمکی کیفی (Modal Helping Verbs)

از افعال کمکی کیفی استفاده می کنیم تا بتوانیم به نوعی در کیفیت و معنای افعال اصلی جمله تغییر ایجاد کنیم. این افعال به گونه ای لزوم و یا امکان داشتن را به معنای فعل اصلی اضافه می کنند:

  • can, could
  • may, might
  • will, would
  • shall, should
  • must
  • ought to

مثال:

 I can't speak Chinese.

John may arrive late.

Would you like a cup of coffee?

you should see a doctor.

I really must go now.

 

نکته: به افعال زیر توجه کنید

  • need
  • dare
  • used to

به این افعال افعال نیمه کمکی کیفی(semi-modal verbs) نیز می گویند چون گاها شبیه افعال کمکی کیفی عمل کرده و گاها مانند افعال اصلی.

از فعل کمکی کیفی Can چه هنگام استفاده می کنیم :

  • برای صحبت در مورد توانایی و امکان داشتن چیزی.
  • درخواست کردن.
  • درخواست اجازه و یا اجازه دادن.

ساختار کلی :

Subject + can + main verb

مثال برای صحبت در مورد توانایی و امکان داشتن :

  •  She can drive a car.

مثال برای درخواست کردن :

  • Can you put the TV on.
  • Can you be quiet!

مثال برای درخواست اجازه و یا اجازه دادن :

  • Can I smoke in this room ?
  • you can smoke in the room.

از فعل کمکی کیفی Could چه هنگام استفاده می کنیم :

  • صحبت در مورد توانایی و یا امکان داشتن چیزی در گذشته.
  • در خواست کردن.

ساختار کلی :

Subject + can + main verb

مثال برای صحبت در مورد توانایی و یا امکان داشتن چیزی در گذشته :

  • I could swim when I was 5 years old.
  • My grandmother could speak seven language.
  • Could you understand what he was saying?

مثال برای درخواست کردن :

نکته : معمولا از could جهت درخواست از کسی برای انجام کاری استفاده می شود. که مؤدبانه تر از can است.

  • Could you tell me where the bank is, Please?
  • Could you send me a catalogue ,please?

میزان درک مطلب خود را بسنجید.

از فعل اصلی Have to چه موقع استفاده کنیم : (التزام شهودی)

هنگامی که می خواهیم ضرورت چیزی را نشان بدهیم از این فعل استفاده می کنیم.

مثال :

  • Children have to go to school.
  • In France, you have to drive on the right.

ساختار کلی :

subject + auxiliary verb + have + infinitive (with to)

مثالی دیگر :

  • I do not have to see a doctor.
  • I have to see a doctor.
  • I do have to see a doctor.

تنها فرق جمله دوم با سوم این است که جمله سوم تأکید بیشتر برای دیدن دکتر دارد.

از فعل کمکی Must چه موقع استفاده کنیم: ( التزام ذهنی)

منظور از التزام ذهنی این است که انجام عمل به نظر گوینده لازم و ضروری است ولی در حالتی که از Have to استفاده می کردیم یک التزام کلی و برای همه بود.

ساختار کلی :

subject + must + main verb

چند مثال :

  • You must visit us soon.
  • I must call my mother tomorrow.

چه هنگام از Must not یا Mustn't استفاده کنیم :

برای نشان دادن ممنوعیت چیزی از این فعل کمکی استفاده می کنیم.

ساختار کلی :

subject + must not + main verb

مثال :

  • Passengers must not talk to the driver.
  • Policeman mustn't drink on duty.
  • Visitors must not smoke. (present)
  • I mustn't forget Tara's Birthday.(future)

نکته : از must not نمی توانیم برای زمان گذشته استفاه کنیم.  باید از ساختار های دیگر استفاده کرد :

 


 
 
اولین شرط (First Conditional) :
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٧:۱٢ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱/٢٢
 

 

به اولین شرط " امکان واقعی " یا "Real Possibility" نیز می گویند.

در این حالت ما درباره آینده صحبت می کنیم. ما به یک وضعیت یا موقعیتی خاص در آینده و نتیجه آن فکر می کنیم.

به نظر شما چرا به آن Real Possibility نیز می گویند؟

زیرا در واقعیت امکان آن وجو دارد که وضعیت خاصی که به آن می اندیشیم رخ دهد.

فرض کنید اکنون صبح است. شما در خانه خود نشستید. برای خود برنامه ریزی کرده اید که بعد از ظهر تنیس بازی کنید. ولی هوا ابری است. احتمال می دهید که باران ببارد. شما چه می کنید ؟

IF

condition

result

 

present simple

WILL + base verb

If

it rains

I will stay at home.

توجه داشته  باشید که ما داریم در مورد آینده فکر می کنیم و هنوز بارانی نباریده است. ولی هوا ابریست و فکر می کنید که امکان دارد باران ببارد. همان طور که در جدول فوق می بینید برای نتیجه وضعیت ما از Will و فعل در حالت پایه استفاده می کنیم.

به مثال های بیشتری توجه کنید:

IF

condition

result

 

present simple

WILL + base verb

If

I see Mary

I will tell her.

If

Tara is free tomorrow

he will invite her.

If

they do not pass their exam

their teacher will be sad.

If

it rains tomorrow

will you stay at home?

If

it rains tomorrow

what will you do?

مثال های جدول فوق را به گونه ای دیگر نیز می توان بیان کرد : 

result

IF

condition

WILL + base verb

 

present simple

I will tell Mary

if

I see her.

He will invite Tara

if

she is free tomorrow.

Their teacher will be sad

if

they do not pass their exam.

Will you stay at home

if

it rains tomorrow?

What will you do

if

it rains tomorrow?

 

نکته : گاهی اوقات به جای Will از کلماتی چون Can ، Shall و یا may نیز استفاده می کنیم :

  • if you are good today, you can watch TV tonight.

 


 
 
افعال کمکی (Helping Verbs) :
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٧:٠٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱/٢٢
 

 

افعال کمکی به خودی خود معنایی ندارند ولی وجود آنها در ساختار جمله ضروری است. معمولا افعال کمکی را همراه با افعال اصلی به کار می بریم تا به افعال اصلی کمک کنند. در کل حدود 15 فعل کمکی وجود دارد که ما آنها را به دو دسته تقسیم می کنیم:

افعال کمکی اولیه (Primary Helping Verbs)

1- be همان (am, is و are).

  • to make continuous tense برای ایجاد زمان فعل به صورت پیوسته مانند :
  •   he is watching TV (یعنی به فعل اصلی watching کمک می کند که به طور پیوسته و در حال انجام جلوه کند) 
  •  to make the passive برای نشان دادن تأثیر پذیری یا کنش پذیری :
  •   Small fishes are eaten by big fishes

2- Have:

  • to make perfect tenses برای ایجاد زمان فعل به صورت کامل شده :
  •  I have finished my homework 
  •  (یعنی به فعل اصلی finished کمک می کند تا به صورت عمل تمام شده جلوه کند)

3- Do :

  • to make negatives برای منفی کردن : not like you  I do
  • to make questions برای سوال پرسیدن : ? you want some coffee Do
  • to show emphasis برای نشان دادن تأکید : I do want you to pass your exam
  • to stand for a main verbs in some constructions برای پشتیبانی از فعل اصلی در برخی جملات :
  • he speaks faster than she does

 

افعال کمکی کیفی (Modal Helping Verbs)

از افعال کمکی کیفی استفاده می کنیم تا بتوانیم به نوعی در کیفیت و معنای افعال اصلی جمله تغییر ایجاد کنیم. این افعال به گونه ای لزوم و یا امکان داشتن را به معنای فعل اصلی اضافه می کنند:

  • can, could
  • may, might
  • will, would
  • shall, should
  • must
  • ought to

مثال:

 I can't speak Chinese.

John may arrive late.

Would you like a cup of coffee?

you should see a doctor.

I really must go now.

 

نکته: به افعال زیر توجه کنید

  • need
  • dare
  • used to

به این افعال افعال نیمه کمکی کیفی(semi-modal verbs) نیز می گویند چون گاها شبیه افعال کمکی کیفی عمل کرده و گاها مانند افعال اصلی.

از فعل کمکی کیفی Can چه هنگام استفاده می کنیم :

  • برای صحبت در مورد توانایی و امکان داشتن چیزی.
  • درخواست کردن.
  • درخواست اجازه و یا اجازه دادن.

ساختار کلی :

Subject + can + main verb

مثال برای صحبت در مورد توانایی و امکان داشتن :

  •  She can drive a car.

مثال برای درخواست کردن :

  • Can you put the TV on.
  • Can you be quiet!

مثال برای درخواست اجازه و یا اجازه دادن :

  • Can I smoke in this room ?
  • you can smoke in the room.

از فعل کمکی کیفی Could چه هنگام استفاده می کنیم :

  • صحبت در مورد توانایی و یا امکان داشتن چیزی در گذشته.
  • در خواست کردن.

ساختار کلی :

Subject + can + main verb

مثال برای صحبت در مورد توانایی و یا امکان داشتن چیزی در گذشته :

  • I could swim when I was 5 years old.
  • My grandmother could speak seven language.
  • Could you understand what he was saying?

مثال برای درخواست کردن :

نکته : معمولا از could جهت درخواست از کسی برای انجام کاری استفاده می شود. که مؤدبانه تر از can است.

  • Could you tell me where the bank is, Please?
  • Could you send me a catalogue ,please?

میزان درک مطلب خود را بسنجید.

از فعل اصلی Have to چه موقع استفاده کنیم : (التزام شهودی)

هنگامی که می خواهیم ضرورت چیزی را نشان بدهیم از این فعل استفاده می کنیم.

مثال :

  • Children have to go to school.
  • In France, you have to drive on the right.

ساختار کلی :

subject + auxiliary verb + have + infinitive (with to)

مثالی دیگر :

  • I do not have to see a doctor.
  • I have to see a doctor.
  • I do have to see a doctor.

تنها فرق جمله دوم با سوم این است که جمله سوم تأکید بیشتر برای دیدن دکتر دارد.

از فعل کمکی Must چه موقع استفاده کنیم: ( التزام ذهنی)

منظور از التزام ذهنی این است که انجام عمل به نظر گوینده لازم و ضروری است ولی در حالتی که از Have to استفاده می کردیم یک التزام کلی و برای همه بود.

ساختار کلی :

subject + must + main verb

چند مثال :

  • You must visit us soon.
  • I must call my mother tomorrow.

چه هنگام از Must not یا Mustn't استفاده کنیم :

برای نشان دادن ممنوعیت چیزی از این فعل کمکی استفاده می کنیم.

ساختار کلی :

subject + must not + main verb

مثال :

  • Passengers must not talk to the driver.
  • Policeman mustn't drink on duty.
  • Visitors must not smoke. (present)
  • I mustn't forget Tara's Birthday.(future)

نکته : از must not نمی توانیم برای زمان گذشته استفاه کنیم.  باید از ساختار های دیگر استفاده کرد :

  • I couldn't park out side the parking.
  • We were not  allowed to enter

 
 
Guide to Future with Will and Going to
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٦:٥۸ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱/٢٠
 

 

The Basics: Future with Will :

There are two basic future tenses used to describe things that happen in the future. Besides these two there are some other future tenses which can be started on the advanced future tenses page. The first future tense is the future with 'will'. Use the future with will to talk about an event in the future that you have just decided to do, for predictions and for promises.

I think I'll go to that party next week.
The economy will get better soon.
Yes, I will marry you.

The Basics: Future with Going to:

The future with 'going to' is used to express events you have already planned in the future and your intentions for the future. We sometimes also use the present continuous for planned events in the near future.

She's going to attend university and study to become a doctor.
We're going to make the presentation next week.

Future with Will Structure:

Positive

Subject + will + verb

I, You, He, She, We, They will come to the party.

Negative

Subject + will + not (won't) + verb

I, You, He, She, We, They won't have time tomorrow.

Questions

Question word + will + subject + verb

What will he, she, you, we, they do?

Future with Going to Structure:

Positive

Subject + to be + going to + verb

I am going to attend the meeting.
He, She is going to attend the meeting.
You, We, They are going to attend the meeting.

Negative

Subject + to be + not + going to + verb

I'm not going to visit Rome next year.
He, She isn't going to visit Rome next year.
You, We, They aren't going to visit Rome next year.

Questions

(Question word) + to be + subject + going to + verb

Where am I going to stay?
Where is she, he going to stay?
Where are you, we, they going to stay


 
 
زمان حال استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٦:٥۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱/٢٠
 

                                                

 زمان حال ساده استمراری به استمرار عملی در زمان حال اشاره دارد. زمان حال استمراری زمان حال واقعی است یعنی برای کاری است که هم اکنون در حال انجام است.

1-     طریقه ساختن زمان حال استمراری

(ing) + فعل  + ((Am/Is/Are  + فاعل

 

مثال :

ما داریم قدم می زنیم

We are walking

من درام قدم می زنم

I am  walking

دارید قدم می زنید

You are walking

او دارد قدم می زنی

You are walking

دارند قدم می زنند

They are walking

او دارد قدم می زند(مذکر)

He is walking

 

 

او دارد قدم می زند(مونث)

She is walking

 

 

آن دارد قدم می زند

It is walking

2- طریقه سوالی کردن زمان حال استمراری :

برای سوالی کردن زمان حال ساده استمراری در زبان انگلیسی از الگوی زیر استفاده می شود:

برای این کار کافیست که am , is , are  را قبل از فاعل و در ابتدای جمله قرار می دهیم.

Ing  + فعل + فاعل + Am / Is / Are

 

مثال :

Working?

 I

Am

 You

 

 We

Are

 They

 

 He

 

 She

IS

 It

 

 

3- طریقه منفی کردن زمان حال استمراری:

برای منفی کردن زمان حال ساده استمراری در زبان انگلیسی از الگوی زیر استفاده می شود:

برای این منظور بعد از  am , is , are از کلمه  NOT استفاده می شود.

Ing + فعل + (am/is/are) not + فاعل

 

مثال :

working

 

Am

 I

 

 

 You

 

Are

 We

NOT

 

 They

 

Isn't

 He

 

 She

 

 It

 

4- موارد کاربرد زمان حال  استمراری در زبان انگلیسی:

1-      زمان حال استمراری برای بیان اموری که هم اکنون دارد انجام می گیرد به کار می رود.

مثال :

I am studing English now.

من الان دارم انگلیسی مطالعه می کنم.

2-      برای بیان عملی که بصورت موقتی است و هنوز کامل نشده.

مثال :

They are building a house.

آنها دارند یک خانه می سازند.

3-      برای بیان تصمیم و عمل قطعی و ارادی در آینده :

Mr.abdi leaving tomorrow morning

آقای عبدی فردا صبح عازم است.

4-      بعد از جملات امری وهشدار دهنده:

Be quite My father is sleeping

ساکت، پدرم دارد می خوابد.

5-      همراه با صفت تفضیلی برای عملی است که تدریجا انجام می گیرد.

It is getting colder and colder each day

روز به روز هوا سردتر می شود.

6-      توجه : زمان حال استمراری عمدتا با افعالی به کار می رود که عمدی هستند. و برای افعالی که تحت اراده و کنترل بشر نباشند و همچنین بیانگر مالکیت باشند زمان حال استمراری به کار نمی رود و بجای آن از زمان حال ساده استفاده می شود.

غلط I am understanding the lesson better now.

درست I understand the lesson better now


 
 
نمونه سوال گرامری از کل دروس دبیرستان زمانهای حال ( 1 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:٢۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱/۱۸
 


  1-Don’t ask for another book until You …… this one.

1) finish              2) finished                     3) had finished               4) will finish

    2-Afshin’s father wants him to get home before it …….. dark.

1)got                             2) gets              3) getting             4) will get

    3-“Let’s get off”

“Don’t be in a hurry. You shouldn’t get off the train before it “…….…”

1) stops                    2) stopped              3) will be stopped                      4) will stop

 4- At this moment I ……….we have a good chance of victory.

1) feel                        2) am feeling                 3)  felt                          4) am felt

 5- Mr. Smith …..to his office in his car every morning.

1) went                         2) goes                    3) is going                         4)go

 6- In autumn the trees …..their leaves.

1)are losing                   2) are lost                     3) lose                      4) have lost

  7- “Is he studying now?”

      “No, he is not. He …….in the afternoon.”

1) doesn’t study             2) not study                   3) study                         4) don’t study

 8- The child always cries when her mother ……out of the house.

1)went                          2) had gone                   3) goes                             4) will go

 9- “Doesn’t Mehdi want to sell his car?”  “Yes , He…………”

1)does                          2) doesn’t                     3) sells                          4) wants

  10- “Who can pass the exam?”     “Every body unless they ……..hard enough”

    1) don’t work                        2) work                         3) worked              4) won’t work

 11-“Will you pay for my lunch today?” “Not unless you ……..to pay for mine tomorrow.”

1)promise                      2) promised                   3) will promise               4) would promise

 12-“Are you usually awake at mid night?”

       “No, I ……..until midnight.”

1) am never staying up                                        2) never stay up

3) never stayed up                                             4) might never stay up

 13-“ How long are you going to stay?”      “I’ll wait for him until he …..”

1) comes back                                       2) has come back

3) is going to come back                        4) will come back

 14- At the moment he ………to be getting better.

1) has seemed               2) seems                       3) seemed                     4) had seemed

15- I ….cook my own meal .

1)often does                  2) often have to          3)have to often           4)have often

 16- I see that you ……. your new suit today.

1) are wearing               2) were wearing            3) are worn                   4)be were worn

  17- “Does she still live in Tehran?”        “yes , she ….”.

1) is living there still                               2) is still living there

3) still is there living                               4) there is still living

  18- Look! That boy …..to break the window.

1) tries                          2) is trying                    3) tried                          4) is tried

 19- “ Is the class busy?”          “Yes , the student are ……. pronunciation.”

1) practice                    2) practiced          3) practices                      4) practicing

  20- Just now he ….. his dinner but he says he’ll see you when he’s finished.

1)has had              2) was having                3) is having                        4) had

21- Many countries …..to solve such problems nowadays.

1) are trying                  2) will try                      3) tried                          4) try

 22- Listen! The telephone……

1) ring                           2) rings                 3) are ringing                 4) is ringing

  23- They ……to the radio at present.

1) listen                    2) are listening               3) have listened                  4) is listening

 24- Listen! Someone …… upstairs.

1) walks               2) was walking              3) walked                         4) is walking

    25- “Has he ever been here before?”

        “No , he says that he …….tomorrow.”

1)would came               2) was walking              3) walked                       4) is walking

26- Be quiet or you will wake father up, he……..

1)slept                          2) sleeps                   3) is sleeping                 4) can sleep

  27- My great grand father …….. a new house nowadays.

1) builds               2) is building                  3)had built                        4) built

 28- Mehdi can’t have the newspaper now because his aunt…….it

1) reads                     2) has read                    3) is reading                  4)will read

 29- I think he …..his supper at the moment.

1) has                           2) having                       3)is having                   4) had

 30- For the time being he …..in Shiraz.

1) is studying                 2) will study      3) studied                                  4) studies

31- “Do you like Dr Irani’s new book?”    “Yes , it’s the best book he……….”.

1) is ever writing           2) has ever written          3) had ever written        4)was ever writin

  32- “Has anybody called today?”

        “The telephone has not rung…. I came”.

1) before                                   2) for                            3) since                        4) until

  33- I ……to the cinema since last month.

1)didn’t go                    2) hadn’t gone   3) haven’t gone             4) wouldn’t go

  34- Since the beginning of the term, we ……a lot of time on tenses.

1) are spending              2) have spent    3) spend                         4) will spend

  35- I ….him so angry.

1)never have seen         2)have never seen         3)am never seeing          4)never am seeing

  36- He ….those jobs since he started work five years ago.

1) was having                2) has had                     3) would have had          4) had had

  37- Since when ……….absent from class?

1) is he                  2) was he                      3) has he been               4) had he been

  38- I wonder how Ali’s trip was. I don’t know. I haven’t seen him……..

1) since he arrived         2) until he arrived    3) when he arrived   4) by the time he arrived

39- “Do you still work at the library?”     “Oh , no I …there for the last two months.”

1) don’t work                2) didn’t work      3) haven’t worked      4) won’t have worked

  40- I knew everything about the mysterious letter, but up to now I ….to anybody about it.

1) didn’t speak              2) won’t speak  3) haven’t spoken                      4) wouldn’t speak

  41- Poor mummy …….the dishes in the kitchen for an hour and there are still plenty of them unwashed.

1) washes           2) washed                     3) is washing                 4) has been washin

42- A: Please call John and tell him we can’t go to visit him today.

        B: But , he …..for us since this morning.

1) was waiting               2) is waiting          3) has been waiting        4) will been waiting

 43- Teacher : you look hot, Mary?

        Mary: I ….all the way to school to be on time.

1) am running                2) had run                     3) would run          4) have been running

 44-  “ I can’t decide on which color to buy”

         “You ….for ages, I can’t wait for ever”

1)would hesitate      2) are hesitating             3) hesitating               4) have been hesitating

    45- The patients ……in hospital since 8 o’clock.

1)were waiting              2) have been waited      3)are waiting     4)have been waiting

   46- She …for an hour, and she isn’t tired yet.

1) talks                  2) has talked                 3)have built                   4) has been talking

 47- The workers …..that bridge for over a year, but it is not finished yet.

1) are building               2) built              3) have built      4) have been building

48- The children playing volleyball over there ..since half past eight.

1) are playing                2) have been playing      3) had been playing        4) had played

 49- My friend Parviz …..on this difficult problem since 8 o’clock.

1) has been working                              2) had been working

3) is working                                         4) was working

  50- I ……. Mr. Duke because he speaks so fast.

1) never will understand                                     2) never understood

3) have never understood                                   4) has never understood


 
 
نمونه سوال گرامری از کل دروس دبیرستان زمانهای حال ( 1 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:۱٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/۱٢/۱٦
 

  1-Don’t ask for another book until You …… this one.

1) finish              2) finished                     3) had finished               4) will finish

    2-Afshin’s father wants him to get home before it …….. dark.

1)got                     2) gets              3) getting                                  4) will get

    3-“Let’s get off”

“Don’t be in a hurry. You shouldn’t get off the train before it “…….…”

1) stops             2) stopped              3) will be stopped                      4) will stop

 4- At this moment I ……….we have a good chance of victory.

1) feel                        2) am feeling             3)  felt                          4) am felt

 5- Mr. Smith …..to his office in his car every morning.

1) went                         2) goes                    3) is going                         4)go

 6- In autumn the trees …..their leaves.

1)are losing                   2) are lost                3) lose                      4) have lost

  7- “Is he studying now?”

      “No, he is not. He …….in the afternoon.”

1) doesn’t study             2) not study                3) study                 4) don’t study

 8- The child always cries when her mother ……out of the house.

1)went                          2) had gone                   3) goes                  4) will go

 9- “Doesn’t Mehdi want to sell his car?”  “Yes , He…………”

1)does                    2) doesn’t                     3) sells                          4) wants

  10- “Who can pass the exam?”     “Every body unless they ……..hard enough”

    1) don’t work                        2) work                3) worked              4) won’t work

 11-“Will you pay for my lunch today?” “Not unless you ……..to pay for mine tomorrow.”

1)promise           2) promised            3) will promise          4) would promise

 12-“Are you usually awake at mid night?”

       “No, I ……..until midnight.”

1) am never staying up                                        2) never stay up

3) never stayed up                                             4) might never stay up

 13-“ How long are you going to stay?”      “I’ll wait for him until he …..”

1) comes back                                       2) has come back

3) is going to come back                        4) will come back

 14- At the moment he ………to be getting better.

1) has seemed               2) seems              3) seemed               4) had seemed

15- I ….cook my own meal .

1)often does             2) often have to          3)have to often           4)have often

 16- I see that you ……. your new suit today.

1) are wearing           2) were wearing         3) are worn          4)be were worn

  17- “Does she still live in Tehran?”        “yes , she ….”.

1) is living there still                               2) is still living there

3) still is there living                               4) there is still living

  18- Look! That boy …..to break the window.

1) tries              2) is trying                    3) tried                          4) is tried

 19- “ Is the class busy?”          “Yes , the student are ……. pronunciation.”

1) practice         2) practiced          3) practices                      4) practicing

  20- Just now he ….. his dinner but he says he’ll see you when he’s finished.

1)has had              2) was having                3) is having                        4) had

21- Many countries …..to solve such problems nowadays.

1) are trying                  2) will try                      3) tried                          4) try

 22- Listen! The telephone……

1) ring                           2) rings          3) are ringing                 4) is ringing

  23- They ……to the radio at present.

1) listen                    2) are listening          3) have listened          4) is listening

 24- Listen! Someone …… upstairs.

1) walks               2) was walking              3) walked              4) is walking

    25- “Has he ever been here before?”

        “No , he says that he …….tomorrow.”

1)would came               2) was walking              3) walked             4) is walking

26- Be quiet or you will wake father up, he……..

1)slept              2) sleeps                   3) is sleeping                 4) can sleep

  27- My great grand father …….. a new house nowadays.

1) builds               2) is building                  3)had built                        4) built

 28- Mehdi can’t have the newspaper now because his aunt…….it

1) reads          2) has read                    3) is reading                  4)will read

 29- I think he …..his supper at the moment.

1) has                           2) having                       3)is having                   4) had

 30- For the time being he …..in Shiraz.

1) is studying                 2) will study      3) studied                4) studies

31- “Do you like Dr Irani’s new book?”    “Yes , it’s the best book he……….”.

1) is ever writing      2) has ever written      3) had ever written        4)was ever writin

  32- “Has anybody called today?”

        “The telephone has not rung…. I came”.

1) before               2) for                            3) since                        4) until

  33- I ……to the cinema since last month.

1)didn’t go             2) hadn’t gone   3) haven’t gone             4) wouldn’t go

  34- Since the beginning of the term, we ……a lot of time on tenses.

1) are spending              2) have spent    3) spend                         4) will spend

  35- I ….him so angry.

1)never have seen         2)have never seen         3)am never seeing          4)never am seeing

  36- He ….those jobs since he started work five years ago.

1) was having                2) has had         3) would have had          4) had had

  37- Since when ……….absent from class?

1) is he                  2) was he            3) has he been               4) had he been

  38- I wonder how Ali’s trip was. I don’t know. I haven’t seen him……..

1) since he arrived         2) until he arrived    3) when he arrived   4) by the time he arrived

39- “Do you still work at the library?”     “Oh , no I …there for the last two months.”

1) don’t work      2) didn’t work      3) haven’t worked      4) won’t have worked

  40- I knew everything about the mysterious letter, but up to now I ….to anybody about it.

1) didn’t speak      2) won’t speak  3) haven’t spoken           4) wouldn’t speak

  41- Poor mummy …….the dishes in the kitchen for an hour and there are still plenty of them unwashed.

1) washes           2) washed                     3) is washing                 4) has been washin

42- A: Please call John and tell him we can’t go to visit him today.

        B: But , he …..for us since this morning.

1) was waiting     2) is waiting  3) has been waiting        4) will been waiting

 43- Teacher : you look hot, Mary?

        Mary: I ….all the way to school to be on time.

1) am running      2) had run         3) would run          4) have been running

 44-  “ I can’t decide on which color to buy”

         “You ….for ages, I can’t wait for ever”

1)would hesitate     2) are hesitating      3) hesitating       4) have been hesitating

    45- The patients ……in hospital since 8 o’clock.

1)were waiting              2) have been waited      3)are waiting     4)have been waiting

   46- She …for an hour, and she isn’t tired yet.

1) talks                  2) has talked       3)have built                   4) has been talking

 47- The workers …..that bridge for over a year, but it is not finished yet.

1) are building               2) built              3) have built      4) have been building

48- The children playing volleyball over there ..since half past eight.

1) are playing       2) have been playing      3) had been playing       4) had played

 49- My friend Parviz …..on this difficult problem since 8 o’clock.

1) has been working                              2) had been working

3) is working                                         4) was working

  50- I ……. Mr. Duke because he speaks so fast.

1) never will understand                                     2) never understood

3) have never understood                                   4) has never understood


 
 
زمان حال ساده استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:٠٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٢/۱٥
 

 

                             

 زمان حال ساده استمراری به استمرار عملی در زمان حال اشاره دارد. زمان حال استمراری زمان حال واقعی است یعنی برای کاری است که هم اکنون در حال انجام است.

1-     طریقه ساختن زمان حال استمراری

(ing) + فعل  + ((Am/Is/Are  + فاعل

 

مثال :

ما داریم قدم می زنیم

We are walking

من درام قدم می زنم

I am  walking

دارید قدم می زنید

You are walking

او دارد قدم می زنی

You are walking

دارند قدم می زنند

They are walking

او دارد قدم می زند(مذکر)

He is walking

 

 

او دارد قدم می زند(مونث)

She is walking

 

 

آن دارد قدم می زند

It is walking

2- طریقه سوالی کردن زمان حال استمراری :

برای سوالی کردن زمان حال ساده استمراری در زبان انگلیسی از الگوی زیر استفاده می شود:

برای این کار کافیست که am , is , are  را قبل از فاعل و در ابتدای جمله قرار می دهیم.

Ing  + فعل + فاعل + Am / Is / Are

 

مثال :

Working?

 I

Am

 You

 

 We

Are

 They

 

 He

 

 She

IS

 It

 

 

3- طریقه منفی کردن زمان حال استمراری:

برای منفی کردن زمان حال ساده استمراری در زبان انگلیسی از الگوی زیر استفاده می شود:

برای این منظور بعد از  am , is , are از کلمه  NOT استفاده می شود.

Ing + فعل + (am/is/are) not + فاعل

 

مثال :

working

 

Am

 I

 

 

 You

 

Are

 We

NOT

 

 They

 

Isn't

 He

 

 She

 

 It

 

4- موارد کاربرد زمان حال  استمراری در زبان انگلیسی:

1-      زمان حال استمراری برای بیان اموری که هم اکنون دارد انجام می گیرد به کار می رود.

مثال :

I am studing English now.

من الان دارم انگلیسی مطالعه می کنم.

2-      برای بیان عملی که بصورت موقتی است و هنوز کامل نشده.

مثال :

They are building a house.

آنها دارند یک خانه می سازند.

3-      برای بیان تصمیم و عمل قطعی و ارادی در آینده :

Mr.abdi leaving tomorrow morning

آقای عبدی فردا صبح عازم است.

4-      بعد از جملات امری وهشدار دهنده:

Be quite My father is sleeping

ساکت، پدرم دارد می خوابد.

5-      همراه با صفت تفضیلی برای عملی است که تدریجا انجام می گیرد.

It is getting colder and colder each day

روز به روز هوا سردتر می شود.

6-      توجه : زمان حال استمراری عمدتا با افعالی به کار می رود که عمدی هستند. و برای افعالی که تحت اراده و کنترل بشر نباشند و همچنین بیانگر مالکیت باشند زمان حال استمراری به کار نمی رود و بجای آن از زمان حال ساده استفاده می شود.

غلط I am understanding the lesson better now.

درست I understand the lesson better now

 

 

 طریقه ساختن زمان حال ساده

 

مصدر بدون to + فاعل

 

مثال :

قدم می زنیم

We walk

من قدم می زنم

I walk

قدم می زنید

You walk

او قدم می زنی

You walk

قدم می زنند

They walk

او قدم می زند(مذکر)

He walks

 

 

او قدم می زند(مونث)

She walks

 

 

آن قدم می زند

It walks

 

توجه 1 : در سوم شخص مفرد آخر فعل "s" یا "es" میگیرد و اگر آخر فعل به "z,x,o,ch,sh,s" ختم شود""

"es"خواهد گرفت.

I walk          à    Amir walks.

I watch TV   à    Amir watches TV.

توجه 1 : اگر آخر فعل به "y" ختم شود و قبل از آن حروف بیصدا وجود داشته باشد "y" تبدیل به "i" شده و سپس "es" اضافه می شود.

I study  à   He studies

توجه 3 : اگر قبل از y حروف صدادار (u,o,I,e,a) وجود داشته باشد در سوم شخص مفرد فقط "s" اضافه می شود.

I play    à   He plays

طریقه سوالی کردن زمان حال ساده :

برای سوالی کردن زمان حال ساده از الگوی زیر استفاده می شود:

مصدر بدون to + فاعل + Do / Does

 

مثال :

Work?

 I

Do

 You

 We

 They

 He

Does

 She

 

 It

 

 

تذکر: برای سوالی کردن جمله در سوم شخص مفرد "s" و "es" را از آخر فعل حذف می کنیم.

طریقه منفی کردن زمان حال ساده:

برای منفی کردن زمان حال ساده از الگوی زیر استفاده می شود:

مصدر بدون to + do not + فاعل

 

dos not

 

 

مثال :

work

Don't

 I

 You

 We

 They

Does'nt

 He

 She

 It

 

تذکر: برای منفی کردن جمله در سوم شخص مفرد "s" و "es" را از آخر فعل حذف می کنیم.

موارد کاربرد زمان حال ساده در زبان انگلیسی:

1-      برای بیان امور روزمره و عادت از این زمان استفاده می شود.

مثال :

Amir usually leaves the house at 8 o'clock in the morning.

امیر معمولا ساعت 8 صبح خانه را ترک می کند

2-      برای بیان واقعیتها ، قوانین علمی و طبیعی.

مثال :

I like tea but ido'nt like milk in it!

من چای دوست دارم ولی با شیر دوست ندارم.

The sun rises in the east.

خورشید از مشرق طلوع می کند.

3-      برای بیان واقعیتهای مشخص آینده :

Mr.abdi's train leaves at 10:25 tomorrow morning

قطار آقای عبدی فردا ساعت ده و بیست وپنج صبح راه آهن را ترک می کند.

4-      برای بیان افکار و احساسات هنگام صحبت کرن:

I feel sick

مریضم

I'm sorry I don't understand.

متاسفم. متوجه نمی شوم.

5-      به هنگام صحبت آنچه نویسنده یا گوینده ای به ما اطلاع داده و یا در روزنامه و کتاب آمده.

Shakespear says, "Nither a borrower nor a lender be."

شکسپیر می گوید : نه قرض بده و نه قرض بگیر.

6-      برای توصیف وقایع داستانها و عناوین اخبار.

Peace talks fail.

گفتگوهای صلح به شکست انجامید


 
 
نمونه سوال گرامری از کل دروس دبیرستان زمانهای حال ( 1 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٥:٥٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/۱/۳۱
 

1-Don’t ask for another book until You …… this one.

1) finish              2) finished                     3) had finished               4) will finish

    2-Afshin’s father wants him to get home before it …….. dark.

1)got                             2) gets              3) getting                                  4) will get

    3-“Let’s get off”

“Don’t be in a hurry. You shouldn’t get off the train before it “…….…”

1) stops                    2) stopped              3) will be stopped                      4) will stop

 4- At this moment I ……….we have a good chance of victory.

1) feel                        2) am feeling                 3)  felt                          4) am felt

 5- Mr. Smith …..to his office in his car every morning.

1) went                         2) goes                    3) is going                         4)go

 6- In autumn the trees …..their leaves.

1)are losing                   2) are lost                     3) lose                      4) have lost

  7- “Is he studying now?”

      “No, he is not. He …….in the afternoon.”

1) doesn’t study             2) not study                   3) study                         4) don’t study

 8- The child always cries when her mother ……out of the house.

1)went                          2) had gone                   3) goes                             4) will go

 9- “Doesn’t Mehdi want to sell his car?”  “Yes , He…………”

1)does                          2) doesn’t                     3) sells                          4) wants

  10- “Who can pass the exam?”     “Every body unless they ……..hard enough”

    1) don’t work                        2) work                         3) worked              4) won’t work

 11-“Will you pay for my lunch today?” “Not unless you ……..to pay for mine tomorrow.”

1)promise                      2) promised                   3) will promise               4) would promise

 12-“Are you usually awake at mid night?”

       “No, I ……..until midnight.”

1) am never staying up                                        2) never stay up

3) never stayed up                                             4) might never stay up

 13-“ How long are you going to stay?”      “I’ll wait for him until he …..”

1) comes back                                       2) has come back

3) is going to come back                        4) will come back

 14- At the moment he ………to be getting better.

1) has seemed               2) seems                       3) seemed                     4) had seemed

15- I ….cook my own meal .

1)often does                  2) often have to          3)have to often           4)have often

 16- I see that you ……. your new suit today.

1) are wearing               2) were wearing            3) are worn                   4)be were worn

  17- “Does she still live in Tehran?”        “yes , she ….”.

1) is living there still                               2) is still living there

3) still is there living                               4) there is still living

  18- Look! That boy …..to break the window.

1) tries                          2) is trying                    3) tried                          4) is tried

 19- “ Is the class busy?”          “Yes , the student are ……. pronunciation.”

1) practice                    2) practiced          3) practices                      4) practicing

  20- Just now he ….. his dinner but he says he’ll see you when he’s finished.

1)has had              2) was having                3) is having                        4) had

21- Many countries …..to solve such problems nowadays.

1) are trying                  2) will try                      3) tried                          4) try

 22- Listen! The telephone……

1) ring                           2) rings                 3) are ringing                 4) is ringing

  23- They ……to the radio at present.

1) listen                    2) are listening               3) have listened                  4) is listening

 24- Listen! Someone …… upstairs.

1) walks               2) was walking              3) walked                         4) is walking

    25- “Has he ever been here before?”

        “No , he says that he …….tomorrow.”

1)would came               2) was walking              3) walked                       4) is walking

26- Be quiet or you will wake father up, he……..

1)slept                          2) sleeps                   3) is sleeping                 4) can sleep

  27- My great grand father …….. a new house nowadays.

1) builds               2) is building                  3)had built                        4) built

 28- Mehdi can’t have the newspaper now because his aunt…….it

1) reads                     2) has read                    3) is reading                  4)will read

 29- I think he …..his supper at the moment.

1) has                           2) having                       3)is having                   4) had

 30- For the time being he …..in Shiraz.

1) is studying                 2) will study      3) studied                                  4) studies

31- “Do you like Dr Irani’s new book?”    “Yes , it’s the best book he……….”.

1) is ever writing           2) has ever written          3) had ever written        4)was ever writin

  32- “Has anybody called today?”

        “The telephone has not rung…. I came”.

1) before                                   2) for                            3) since                        4) until

  33- I ……to the cinema since last month.

1)didn’t go                    2) hadn’t gone   3) haven’t gone             4) wouldn’t go

  34- Since the beginning of the term, we ……a lot of time on tenses.

1) are spending              2) have spent    3) spend                         4) will spend

  35- I ….him so angry.

1)never have seen         2)have never seen         3)am never seeing          4)never am seeing

  36- He ….those jobs since he started work five years ago.

1) was having                2) has had                     3) would have had          4) had had

  37- Since when ……….absent from class?

1) is he                  2) was he                      3) has he been               4) had he been

  38- I wonder how Ali’s trip was. I don’t know. I haven’t seen him……..

1) since he arrived         2) until he arrived    3) when he arrived   4) by the time he arrived

39- “Do you still work at the library?”     “Oh , no I …there for the last two months.”

1) don’t work                2) didn’t work      3) haven’t worked      4) won’t have worked

  40- I knew everything about the mysterious letter, but up to now I ….to anybody about it.

1) didn’t speak              2) won’t speak  3) haven’t spoken                      4) wouldn’t speak

  41- Poor mummy …….the dishes in the kitchen for an hour and there are still plenty of them unwashed.

1) washes           2) washed                     3) is washing                 4) has been washin

42- A: Please call John and tell him we can’t go to visit him today.

        B: But , he …..for us since this morning.

1) was waiting               2) is waiting          3) has been waiting        4) will been waiting

 43- Teacher : you look hot, Mary?

        Mary: I ….all the way to school to be on time.

1) am running                2) had run                     3) would run          4) have been running

 44-  “ I can’t decide on which color to buy”

         “You ….for ages, I can’t wait for ever”

1)would hesitate      2) are hesitating             3) hesitating               4) have been hesitating

    45- The patients ……in hospital since 8 o’clock.

1)were waiting              2) have been waited      3)are waiting     4)have been waiting

   46- She …for an hour, and she isn’t tired yet.

1) talks                  2) has talked                 3)have built                   4) has been talking

 47- The workers …..that bridge for over a year, but it is not finished yet.

1) are building               2) built              3) have built      4) have been building

48- The children playing volleyball over there ..since half past eight.

1) are playing                2) have been playing      3) had been playing        4) had played

 49- My friend Parviz …..on this difficult problem since 8 o’clock.

1) has been working                              2) had been working

3) is working                                         4) was working

  50- I ……. Mr. Duke because he speaks so fast.

1) never will understand                                     2) never understood

3) have never understood                                   4) has never understood


 
 
زمانهای گذشته و آینده
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٥:٥٧ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/۱/۳۱
 

   1-I opened one door as a soon as I …the bell.

1)heard                         2) am heard                  3) have heard                4) was hearing

     2-we always … to our aunt’s house on Sundays when we lived there.

1) went                         2) will go                       3) were going                4) have gone

  3-“His sudden absence surprised every one.”    “Yes , I was working in the kitchen when he…..”

1) had left         2) has left                     3) would leave               4) left

  4-She hadn’t left the city until we …her to do so.

1) will ask         2) were asking 3) has asked                  4) asked

  5-Every day last week, father …me to school in his car.

1) take              2) took              3) had taken                  4) has taken

  6- Did you talk to Mr. Tehrani yesterday?

      Yes, but I … to give him your message.

1) forgot                       2) have forgotten                       3) would forget              4)was forgotten

n                   7-“When did the rain start?”   “It started as soon as you……”

1)have telephoned                                 2) had telephoned

3) telephoned                                        4) would be telephoned

n                   8- My sister … a new car in 1364.

1) bought                      2) had bought    3) has bought    4) would have bought

n                   9- I saw him the very moment he….

1) entered         2) is entering     3) enters                       4) has entered

n                   10- As it …late I tired to work faster.

1) were                         2) has got                      3) was getting   4)gets

n                   11- The old lady fell as she …the street.

1) is crossing     2) is crossed      3) was crossed 4) was crossing

n                   12- Parviz …television when his friend arrived.

1) has watched              2) was watching            3) watched                    4) will be watching

n                   13- When did you finish your homework? I did it while you …to the radio.

1) have listened                                                 2) listened

3) have been listening                            4) were listening

n                   14- As he … to jump over the rope, he fell and hurt himself.

1) has run                     2) would run      3) would be running       4) was running

n                   15- My friend usually plays tennis, but when I last saw her she ……chess.

1) is playing                   2) has played     3) played                       4) was playing

n                   16- When I saw the gardener, he … down  a tree.

1) had been cutting                                2) will be cutting

3) was cutting                                       4) is cutting

n                   17- The students said that he … that subjects for more than twenty years.

1) had been teaching                              2) has been teaching

3)  has taught                                        4) teaches

n                   18- When we were having dinner, I suddenly remembered that I …the door.

1) didn’t lock                 2) hadn’t locked                        3) would not lock           4) haven’t locked

n                   19-By 1950 , he … in Rome for twenty years.

1)had been living           2) has lived                   3) was living      4) lived

 

n                   20- When I telephoned , he ..there for two weeks.

1) has been                   2) had been                   3) is                              4) was

n                   21- The flowers gradually appeared after….

1) I bought my suitcase                          2) the storm started

3) the snow had melted                          4) the children uprooted them

n                   22- He told me that he …there for five years.

1)had been working                               2) has worked

3) will have been working                      4) hasn’t been working

n                   23- Arash, was sitting in a corner with a book. I told him that he …in very bad light.

1) reads                        2) is reading                  3) read              4) was reading

n                   24- When we say “They intended to move into a new house” we mean that ….

1)                they must move into a new house

2)                they were going to move into a new area]

3)                they wanted to remove the house to the new area

4)                they planned to live in the same house

n                   25- We … about everything in our last meeting .

1) discuss                      2) are discussing                        3) discussing                 4) discussed

n                   26- “Ali was sorry he missed the picnic”    “Yes, he….. .”

1) regretted that he couldn’t go               2) regrets that he can’t go

3) would regret that be couldn’t go                     4) regretted that he can’t go

n                   27- The farmers decided to plan some seeds while it ……. .

1) has still rained           2) still rains                   3) was still raining          4) had still been raining

n                   28- When I …the exam papers, I found that a few student had cheated.

1) correct                                  2) would correct                        3) have corrected          4) corrected

n                   29- He ….a little trouble with his car last Friday.

1) has                           2) has already had                     3) had               4) have already had

n                   30- … as soon as the train had started?

1) Is she jumping out                              2) Did he jump out

3)                                                                     4)

n                   31- My cousin …for that company for three years when I joined it.

1) was working                                                 2) has been working

3) had worked                                       4) had been working

n                   32- He … as a writer even before he become a politician.

1) has been well known                         2) has well known

3) had been well known                         4) had well known

n                   33- I am sure I …him the day after tomorrow.

1) saw                          2) will see                     3) had seen                               4) have seen

n                   34- As soon as he comes, I ……..him to you.

1) am introducing           2) introduced     3) will introduce             4) can to introduce        

n                   35- If you don’t go , I … very angry.

1) had to be                   2) shall be                     3) need be                     4) has to be 

n                   36- This time next month we….our examination results.

1) were receiving          2) will have received      3) have received            4) had received

n                   37- By 6 o’clock tomorrow morning , he .. for about twelve hours.

1) will sleep                               2) will have been sleeping

3) will be sleeping                      4) will have slept

n                   38- I feel certain, in another 10 minutes, I ………...the test.

1) have finished             2) had finished   3) finished         4) will have finished

n                   39- This time tomorrow night we ………… a good scientific program T.V.

1) will be watching                                2) will have watched

3) would have watched              4) will watch

n                   40- By tomorrow night, our cousins………. in Tehran.

1) will be arriving           2) would be arriving       3) will have arrived   4) would have arrived

n                   41- Don’t call on him next week since he … on his new project then.

1) has been working      2) has worked               3) working                    4) will be working

n                   42- Before I move out of this country at the end of next month, I … here for twenty years.

1) have been living                                 2) shall live

3) will have been living               4) have lived

n                   43- I know I ….it the time it begins to rain.

1) will finish                                          2) will have finished

3) will have been finishing                      4) will be finishing

n                   44- “What ….at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning?” he’s asking us.

1) are you doing            2) have you done                       3) will you be doing    4) will you have done

n                   45- I hope I …it by time my mother comes back.

1) will finish      2) will have finished        3) will finishing     4) will have been finishing

n                   46- “When does Mehdi arrive tomorrow?”     “He is going …in the afternoon.”

1) arrive                        2) arrives                      3) arriving                     4) to arrive

n                   47- I don’t want to go home by bus I ….

1) have walked              2) was going to walk      3) could walk        4) am going to walk

n                   48- Take an umbrella it ….

1) has rained a lot                      2) rained a lot yesterday

3) is going to rain                       4) had rained before

n                   49- “ Your hair is dirty”    “Yes, I know . I …….”.

1) am going to wash                  2) have washed

3) was going to wash                 4) am washing

n                   50- In half an hour’s time he …here for one hour.

1) will have been waiting                        2) will have been waited

3) will be waiting                                   4) will wait

 

 


 
 
 



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