Website ValueWebsite Value Calculator Website Value
Website Value Calculator Post-reading activities - آموزش انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم

آموزش انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم

بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

Post-reading activities
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:٢٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/۱٢/٢٥



A Pre-test - Post-test Control Group design was used. The dependent variable, reading proficiency, was assessed via two instruments: the Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) (Johnson, Kress, & Pikulski, 1987), which yields scores from 0-100 on reading comprehension, and the Gray Standardized Oral Reading Test (GSORT) (Gray, 1967), which measures reading speed and accuracy, and indicates the grade level at which the student is reading. These instruments had been used previously by local researchers in the same area of Philippines and were found to be useful. Both instruments were administered twice, once two months before the treatment began and again after the treatment had been carried out. The pre-test was administered by the first author with assistance from other teachers at the school, while the post-test was administered by other teachers, in an effort to lessen experimenter bias.

        The treatment lasted six months. During that period, both the control and experimental groups received 40 minutes of regular English class daily, plus an additional 40-minute remedial reading class. The first author conducted both remedial classes, whereas two different teachers taught the regular English classes. The school had no ER program, and it is not common for teachers to have initiated their own. The regular English class followed the same syllabus for both groups, while the remedial reading class varied.

A typical reading class period - to the extent that there is a typical reading class period - at the school in which the present study was conducted begins, like all classes, with a prayer, followed by the class and teacher exchanging greetings. The teacher then asks students to open their textbooks to a given page. Next, the teacher might introduce the topic of the reading text and/or ask students to skim or scan the reading passage. The teacher then reads aloud the text, unlocking difficult vocabulary and grammar points. Next, students are asked to answer questions to check their comprehension. This involves silent reading of at least parts of the passage. An integrated skills approach is used, so that in any given lesson in the textbook (it takes several classes to cover one textbook lesson) students are listening, speaking, reading, writing, and studying grammar.

In their remedial reading class, the control group were taught the conventional way from a textbook which included lessons on vowel and consonant sounds, minimal pairs, reading and reciting poems, and reading short selections. The only silent reading the control group did - and this infrequently - was of these short selections from their textbook.

        In contrast, the experimental remedial reading group took part in an ER program. The core of the ER program consisted of students reading texts of their choice and then doing a variety of post-reading activities. The female students tended to choose fiction, whereas the males often preferred non-fiction, such as news and feature articles from magazines. Care was taken that student chose books that were at their independent reading level. Obtaining materials took a good deal of effort and time, but a barely sufficient collection was assembled from students themselves, fellow teachers, the school library, and donations of money or materials from the community (Lituanas, 1997). [One method that was not employed was for teachers (Guadart, 1994) and students (Davidson, Ogle, Ross, Tuhaka, & Ng, 1997) to write ER materials.]

In the experimental group's remedial class, students spent about 45% of the time doing silent reading (about 20 minutes per lesson), with another 45% spent on pre- and post-reading activities (mostly post-reading) which included attention to students' problem areas in reading. The remaining 10% of class time was spent on classroom management, including disciplining unruly students.

        The teacher used various techniques to encourage students to read more and to increase their reading skills, such as:

1.     Reading aloud by the teacher.

2.     Asking students to predict what a story was about using such clues as the title, cover, and illustrations.

3.     Giving brief summaries/reviews of materials she had read and enjoyed.

4.     Asking students to summarize for the entire class material they had read and enjoyed.

5.     Chatting with individual students about what they were reading or had read.

6.     Monitoring students' progress in ER and involving them in such monitoring.

        While students were reading silently, the teacher would:

1.     Read on her own (10%).

2.     Assist students to select reading material (10%).

3.     Help students, e.g., by answering questions and by sitting beside students who had difficulty recognizing words and guiding them (80%).

Ideally, the teacher would have spent a much larger percentage of the time reading on her own as a model for students. However, given the difficulty of obtaining ER materials suitable to students' interest and reading levels, it seemed more important to spend time on the two other activities.

        Post-reading activities included:

1.     Answering higher order thinking questions, as part of a game called "Book Wheels" (Jacobs, 1993).

2.     Role play.

3.     Retelling.

4.     Mock interviews in which one student portrayed a character in the story that other students would then interview.

5.     Adding new words encountered while reading to a personalized vocabulary notebook (Kweldju, 1997).

These post-reading activities provided one means of attracting the less-diligent students to ER, because they enjoyed the stories that were related by their classmates who had done the reading and follow-up tasks. Nevertheless, the participation of these few less-diligent students remained unsatisfactory.

Table 1 provides an overview of how ER was implemented with the experimental group.


Table 1  Guidelines for ER Programs and How They Were Implemented in the Current Study




1. Large selection of materials for various reading levels and interests

Materials were obtained by the students and teacher from a variety of sources

2. Time set aside for students to read during school

45% of class time was reserved for silent reading,  and pre- and post-reading was designed to encourage students to also read at home

3. Teachers who encourage students to read

The teacher read silently while student read and talked about what she read, read aloud and had students predict what would happen next, asked students to share with classmates about what they read, and students and teachers monitored student progress

4. Engaging post-reading tasks

Games, role play, retelling, mock interviews, vocabulary notebooks were used