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Website Value Calculator Word Root Quick Reference - آموزش انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم

آموزش انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم

بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

Word Root Quick Reference
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۸:٠۸ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/۱۱/٦
 


Knowing the "building blocks" of the English language - prefixes, suffixes and root words - helps you to understand a word's meaning and spelling convention.

Prefixes and word roots are listed together in one alphabetical table below. Sometimes these entries overlap with our separate

Alternative forms of a word root are listed together, comma delimited ("mater, matri"). Word roots sharing the first few letters but having different endings are listed like this: arch/i/e/o/ae.
Read as: "arch" or "archi" or "arche" or "archo" or "archae".

To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive list of word roots on the web.

Of course, there are many more root words. We decided to neglect all word roots that only appear in a very limited range of words, since it is easier to just learn these words.
If you know of a word root that is not listed, but seems to be important,

Root words are very useful in a moment of doubt.
However, 99% of all reading and writing is done quickly and effectively using the brain's internalized word archive.

Our brain can process written language at rapid speed, if it has the full range of Mental Orthographic Images (MOI) available.
People who have a large amount of words memorized can focus on the meaning of the text instead of the mechanics.

Some learn words easily in context. Others need explicit support to build their word archive - support that LearnThatWord provides through customized, unlimited coaching.
 
Start a free account or classroom trial now!

 

 

Word Root Quick Reference

Knowing the "building blocks" of the English language - prefixes, suffixes and root words - helps you to understand a word's meaning and spelling convention.

Prefixes and word roots are listed together in one alphabetical table below. Sometimes these entries overlap with our separate

Alternative forms of a word root are listed together, comma delimited ("mater, matri"). Word roots sharing the first few letters but having different endings are listed like this: arch/i/e/o/ae.
Read as: "arch" or "archi" or "arche" or "archo" or "archae".

To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive list of word roots on the web.

Of course, there are many more root words. We decided to neglect all word roots that only appear in a very limited range of words, since it is easier to just learn these words.
If you know of a word root that is not listed, but seems to be important,

Root words are very useful in a moment of doubt.
However, 99% of all reading and writing is done quickly and effectively using the brain's internalized word archive.

Our brain can process written language at rapid speed, if it has the full range of Mental Orthographic Images (MOI) available.
People who have a large amount of words memorized can focus on the meaning of the text instead of the mechanics.

Some learn words easily in context. Others need explicit support to build their word archive - support that LearnThatWord provides through customized, unlimited coaching.
 
Start a free account or classroom trial now!

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Link 

Root

Meanings

Sample Words and Definitions

 

 

 

 

 

a/n

not, without

abyss - without bottom; achromatic - without color; anhydrous - without water

 

a

on

afire - on fire; ashore - on the shore; aside - on the side

 

ab/s, a

from, away, off

abduct - carry away by force; abnormal - away from normal, not normal; absent - away, not present; aversion - the act of turning away from; abbreviate: to shorten. 

 

ac, ad 

to, toward, near

accelerate - to increase the speed of; accessible - easily entered, approached, or obtained; admittance - allowing into; 

 

acro

top, height, tip, beginning

acrobat - a "high walker"; acronym - a word formed from the first (capital) letters of a word; acrophobia - fear of height

 

act

do

activity - something that a person does; react - to do something in response; interaction - communication between two or more things 

 

aer/o

air

aerate - to let air reach something; aerial - relating to the air; aerospace - the air space

 

agr/i/o

farming

agriculture - management of the land, agribusiness - making money by utilizing land; agrarian - relating to the management of land

 

alg/o

pain

neuralgia - pain caused by a nerve; analgesic - a drug that makes one pain free; nostalgia - aching for the familiar

 

ambi, amphi

both, on both sides, around

ambidextrous - able to use both hands equally; ambiguous - having more than one meaning; ambivalence - conflicting or opposite feelings toward a person or thing

 

ambul

walk, move

amble - to walk in a slow, relaxed way; ambulant - walking or moving around; ambulance - a vehicle that moves a patient

 

ami/o

love

amiable - friendly, pleasant, lovable; amity - friendly and peaceful relations; amorous - showing romantic love

 

ana

up, back, against,
again, throughout

analysis - a close examination of something; anatomy - the structure of something as visible when cut up for analysis; anachronism - not being in the right place in time

 

andr/o

man, male

androgynous - being both male and female; android - resembling a human; misandry - hatred towards men 

 

anim

life, spirit

animal - a living organism; animate - to make alive; equanimity - of balanced spirit

 

ann/enn

year

anniversary - a date observed once a year; annual - happening once a year; millennium - 1,000 years

 

ante

before, in front

antecede - to come before something in time; antemeridian - before noon; anteroom- a small room before the main room

 

anth/o

flower

chrysanthemum and amaranth - names of flowers; anthology - a collection of treasured writings; anthozoan - half plant, half animal, like anemones and corals.

 

anthrop/o

human

anthropology - the study of mankind; anthropomorphism - giving human form to non-human things; philanthropy - the love to mankind (expressed through good deeds)

 

anti

against, opposite of

antibody - a substance that destroys micro-organisms; antiseptic - preventing infection;  antisocial - opposing social norm

 

apo, apho

away, off, separate

aphorism - a short expression of a general truth; apology - an explicit expression of regret, apostrophe - a small dash used in place of an omitted letter 

 

aqu/a

water

aquarium - a water container for fish; aquatic- relating to water; aqueduct - a pipeline for water

 

arbor

tree

arborist - someone working with trees; arbor - a shady area formed by trees; arborous - having many trees

 

arch/i

chief, most important, rule

archbishop - the highest ranking bishop; archenemy - chief or worst enemy; matriarch - a female who rules a group; monarch - a king or queen

 

arch/a/i

primitive, ancient

archaeology - the study of ancient cultures; archaic - belonging to an earlier period; archive - a collection of historical materials

 

arthr/o

joint

arthroscope - a tool to see inside a joint; arthritis - inflammation of a joint; arthropod - invertebrates with jointed legs, like spiders, crustaceans, insects

 

art

skill

artifact - object made by a person's skill; artisan - a person skilled in a craft; artist - a person who creates skillfully

 

astro,
aster

star, stars, outer space

astronaut - a person traveling to the stars; astronomer - someone who studies the stars; asterisk - a star-shaped sign used as a reference tool

 

aud/i/io

hear

audible - loud enough to be heard; audience - people who listen to a program; audiovisual - relating to sound and vision

 

auto

self, same, one

autocrat - a person who governs with absolute power; autograph - a person's own signature; automatic - moving by itself

 

avi/a

bird

aviary - a large enclosure for birds; aviatrix - a female airplane pilot; aviation - the art of designing or operating aircraft

 

bar/o

pressure, weight

baric - pertaining to pressure, esp. of the atmosphere;  milliard - metric unit, equal to 1/1000th of a bar; baryon - heavy elementary particle

 

bell/i

war

bellicose - warlike; belligerent - hostile, ready to fight; rebel - person who opposes and fights

 

bene

good, well

benefactor - person who gives money to a cause; beneficial - producing a good effect; benevolent - showing kindness or goodwill 

 

bi/n

two, twice, once in every two

biannual - happening twice a year; binoculars - optical device with two lenses; bilateral - of or involving two sides

 

bibli/o

book

bibliography - a list of books used as sources; bibliomania - an extreme love of books; bibliophile - a person who loves books

 

bio

life, living matter

biography- a life story written by another person; biology - the science of life; biosphere - Earth's surface inhabited by living things

 

blast/o

cell, primitive, immature cell

blastula - an early stage of embryonic development; fibroblast - a cell that forms connective tissue; blastoderm - the layer surrounding the inside of an egg

 

capt, cept, ceive

take, hold

intercept - to stop or interrupt; perceive - to take notice of something; captivating - taking hold of

 

cardi/o

heart

cardiac - relating to the heart; cardiogenic - resulting from heart disease; cardiologist - a heart doctor

 

carn/i

flesh, meat

carnivorous - flesh-eating; carnal - pertaining to the body or flesh; incarnate - given bodily form

 

cata

down, against
completely,  intensive,
according to

cataclysm - a flood or other disaster, catalog - a complete listing; catastrophe - turning for the worst, a substantial disaster

 

caust,
caut

to burn

cauterize - to burn with a hot instrument; caustic - capable of burning or eating away; holocaust - total devastation, especially by fire 

 

cede,
ceed,
cess

go, yield

exceed - to go beyond the limits;  recede - to go back; accessible - easily entered, approached, or obtained; 

 

celer

fast

accelerate - to increase the speed of; decelerate - to reduce the speed of

 

cent/i

hundred, hundredth

centennial- the 100th anniversary; centimeter - 1/100 of a meter; century - 100 years

 

centr/o/i

center

egocentric - self-centered; eccentric - not having a common center, not according to norm; centrifugal - moving outward from a center

 

cephal/o

head

encephalitis - inflammation of the brain; cephalic - pertaining to the head; cephalopod - marine mollusks like octopus and squid who have tentacles growing from their head

 

cerebr/o

brain 

cerebral - pertaining to the brain; cerebrate - to use the brain; cerebrospinal - pertaining to the brain and the spinal cord

 

cert

sure

ascertain- to find out something with certainty; certain - being absolutely sure; certify - to state that something is true

 

chrom/o chromat/o, chros

color, pigment

achromatic - without color; chromium - a blue-white metallic chemical element, chromatics - the study of color

 

chron/o

time

chronic - lasting for a long time; chronological - arranging events in time order, synchronize - happening at the same time

 

chrys/o

gold, yellow

chrysanthemum and helichrysum - golden/yellow flowers; chrysolite - a yellowish gem

 

cide, cise

cut, kill

homicide - murder; incisor - a sharp tooth for cutting food; insecticide - a chemical used to kill insects

 

circum,
circle

around, about

circumnavigate - to sail around; circumscribe - to draw around; circumspect - looking around

 

claim, clam

shout, speak out

clamor - to shout and make noise; exclaim - to cry out loudly and suddenly; proclamation - something announced officially in public 

 

clar

clear

clarification - an explanation; clarify - to make something clear; declare - to state something clearly

 

clud, clus

close

conclusion - the end or last part; exclusion - shutting out, rejecting; seclude - to keep away from; to isolate

 

cline

lean

inclination - a leaning toward; incline - a surface that slopes or leans; recline - to lean back and relax

 

co

with, together, joint

coauthor - writer who collaborates with another author; coeducation - educating males and females together; cohousing - planning your neighborhood in an intentional neighborly fashion

 

col

together, jointly

Collaborate - to work together; collision - smashing together; colloquial - words formed by everday interaction

 

com

together, common

commemorate - to memorize together; composition - an arrangement or putting together of parts; commune - living together while owning things in common

 

cogn/i

know

cognition - process of acquiring knowledge;  incognito - disguised so no one knows you; recognize - to discover that one knows

 

con

with, jointly

concur - to agree with someone; contemporary - of the same time period as others; convention - a gathering of people with a common interest

 

contra/o

against, opposite

contradict to argue against, Contraflow, contraception, contrary not in agreement, controversy disagreement

 

corp/o

body

corporation - a company recognized by law as a single body; corpse - a dead body; corporal - pertaining to the body

 

cosm/o

universe

cosmonaut - a Russian astronaut; cosmos - the universe; microcosm - a miniature universe

 

counter

opposite, contrary, opposing

counteract - to oppose the effects of an action; countermand - to cancel a previous order; counteroffensive - attack against an attack

 

cranio

skull

craniology - the study of skull characteristics; cranium - skull of vertebrates; cranial - pertaining to the skull

 

cred

believe

credence - belief that something is true or valid; credulous - believing things too easily, gullible; incredible - unbelievable

 

crypto

hidden, secret

cryptic - of hidden meaning; cryptography - science of secret codes; encrypt - encode into secret code

 

cumul

mass, heap

accumulate - to gather or pile up; cumulative - gradually building up 

 

cycl

circle, ring

bicycle - a vehicle with two wheels; cycle - a sequence that is repeated; cyclone - a storm with circling winds

 

de

reduce, away, down, remove

decelerate - to slow down, reduce speed; dethrone - to remove from power; debug - to remove bugs 

 

dec/a,
deka

ten

decade - 10 years; decathlon - athletic contest that includes 10 disciplines in which each participant competes; December - formerly the 10th month of the Roman calendar

 

deci

one tenth

deciliter - a tenth of a liter; decimate - reduce dramatically; decibel - one tenth of the sound volume unit bel

 

dem/o

people

democracy - government of the people; demographic - the study of people; epidemic - spreading among people in a region

 

demi

half, less than

demitasse - a small cup of coffee; demimonde - someone of little respected life style

 

dendr/o/i

tree

philodendron - a climbing plant that grows on trees; dendrochronology - dating events by studying growth rings in trees; dendriform - in the shape of a tree

 

dent, dont

tooth

dental - relating to teeth; dentist - a doctor for the teeth; dentures - a set of false teeth

 

derm/a

skin

dermatologist - a doctor for the skin; pachyderm - a class of animals with very thick skin (elephant, rhinoceros); dermatitis - inflammation of the skin

 

di/plo

two, twice

dichromatic - displaying two colors; diploma - a certificate, literally "a letter folded double"; dilemma - a situation that requires a choice between two alternatives.

 

di/s

apart, away,
not, to the opposite

digression - a departure from the main issue, subject; disappear - to move out of sight; dissect - to cut apart piece by piece.

 

dia

through, between,
apart, across

diabetes - disease characterized by excessive thirst and discharge of urine; diagnosis - understanding a condition by going through a detailed review of symptoms; dialog - conversation between two people.

 

dict

speak

contradict - to express the opposite of; prediction - a statement foretelling the future; dictate - to speak out loud for another person to write down.

 

domin

master

dominate - to be the master of; domineering - excessively controlling; predominate - to have more power than others

 

don/at

give

donation - a contribution or gift; donor - someone who gives something; pardon - to give forgiveness for an offense

 

duc/t

lead

conduct - to lead musicians in playing music; educate - to lead to knowledge; deduction - a subtraction of an amount.

 

du/o

two, twice

duplicate - make an identical copy; duet - a musical composition for two voices or instruments; duo - a pair normally thought of as being together. 

 

dur

harden, to last, lasting

durable - having the quality of lasting; duration - the length of time something lasts; enduring - able to last. 

 

dyn/a/am

power, energy, strength

dynamo - a generator of energy; dynamic - having physical energy/power; dynamite - a powerful explosive.

 

dys

abnormal, bad

dyspepsia - abnormal indigestion; dystopia - an imaginary place of total misery; dyslexia - impairment of the ability to handle words. 

 

e-

out, away

eloquent - speaking beautifully and forcefully; emissary - a representative of a country or group sent on a mission; eject - throw out forcefully.
 

 

ego

self

egoistic - self-centered; alter ego - a higher aspect of oneself; egomania - excessive preoccupation with oneself.

 

em, en

into, cover with, cause

empathy - intention to feel like another person; empower - put into power; engorge - make larger.

 

endo

within, inside

endotherm - a creature that can keep its inside temperature fairly constant; endocrine - relating to glands that secrete directly into the blood or lymph; endogamy - the custom to marry within one's clan, tribe etc.

 

enn/i, anni

years

bicentennial - of or relating to an age or period of 200 years; centennial - of or relating to an age or period of 100 years;  perennial -lasting through many years.

 

en, in

inside, inwards

envision - to picture in the mind; enclose - lock inside; inwards - towards the inside.

 

ep/i

on, upon, over,
among, at, after,
to, outside 

epidemic - the rapid spread of something negative; epilogue - a short speech delivered after a play; epicenter - the center of an earthquake.

 

equ/i

equal, equally

equidistant -  an equal distance from two points; equanimity - calm temperament, evenness of temper; equation - a statement of equality.

 

erg/o

work

ergonomics - study of the working environment; energy - the power to accomplish work; energetics - science that looks at energy and its transformation.

 

esth/aesth

feeling, sensation, beauty

esthetician - someone who beautifies; aesthetic - pertaining to a sense of beauty; kinesthesia - the sensation of bodily movement.

 

ethno

race, people

ethnic - pertaining to a defined group of people; ethnocentric - focusing on the ethnicity of people; ethnology - the science of people and races.

 

eu

good, well

euphemism - replacing an offensive word with an inoffensive one; euphonious - having a pleasant sound; euphoria - feeling of well-being. 

 

ex

from, out,

excavate - to dig out; exhale - to breathe out; extract - to pull out.

 

extra, extro

outside, beyond

extraordinary - beyond ordinary; extraterrestrial - outside the Earth; extrovert - an outgoing person. 

 

fac/t

make, do

artifact - an object made by a person; factory - a place where things are made; malefact - a person who does wrong.

 

fer

bear, bring, carry

confer - to bring an honor to someone; ferry - a boat that carries passengers; transfer - to move to another place.

 

fid

faith

confide - place trust in someone, fidelity - faithfulness; fiduciary - a trustee;

 

flect

bend

deflect - to bend course because of hitting something; inflection - a bending in the voice's tone or pitch; flexible - easily  bending.

 

flor/a,
fleur

flower

florist - someone working with flowers; floral - flowerlike; flora - the plant life of a particular time or area

 

for

completely (used to intensify
the meaning of a word)

forsaken or forfeited - completely lost; forgiven - completely given (a release of debt).

 

fore

in front of, previous, earlier

forebear - ancestor; forebode - to give an advance warning of something bad; forecast - a preview of events to be.

 

fract, frag

break

fracture - a break; fragile - easy to break; fragment or fraction - a part or element of a larger whole; 

 

fug

flee, run away, escape

fugitive - a person who is running away; refuge - a sheltered place to flee to; refugee - a person seeking protection

 

funct

perform, work

defunct - no longer working or alive; function - to work or perform a role normally; malfunction - to fail to work correctly.

 

fus

pour

confusion - being flooded with too much information that is hard to make sense of; fuse - to melt by heating; infuse - to put into.

 

gastr/o

stomach

gastric - pertaining to the stomach; gastronomy - serving the stomach by providing good food; gastritis - inflammation of the stomach.

 

gen/o/e/
genesis

birth, production,
formation, kind

genealogy - the study of the history of a family; generation - all the people born at approximately the same time; genetic -relating to heredity encoded in the genes.

 

geo

earth, soil, global

geography - study of the earth's surface; geology - study of the structure of the earth; geoponics - soil based agriculture.

 

ger

old age

geriatrics - medicine pertaining to the elderly; gerontocracy - the rule of the elders; gerontology - the science of aging.

 

giga

a billion

gigabyte - unit of computer storage space; gigahertz - unit of frequency (one billion Hz/sec); gigawatt unit of electric power (one billion watts).

 

gon

angle

decagon - a polygon with 10 angles; diagonal - a slanting line running across a space; octagon - a geometrical figure with 8 angles.

 

gram

letter, written

diagram - a simple drawing; grammar - rules of how to write words in sentences; telegram - a message sent by telegraph.

 

graph/y

writing, recording, written

Graphology - the study of handwritings; autograph - written with one's own hand; seismograph - a machine noting strength and duration of earthquakes.

 

grat

pleasing

gratify - to please someone; grateful - feeling thankful;  gratuity - a tip, token of appreciation.

 

gyn/o/e

woman, female

gynecology - the science of female reproductive health; gynephobia - fear of women; gynecoid - resembling a woman. 

 

gress, grad/e/i

to step, to go

digression - a departure from the main issue, subject, etc.; progress - movement forward or onward; gradual - step by step.

 

hect/o, hecat

hundred

 hectoliter - 100 liters; hectare - metric unit equaling 100 ares or 10,000 square meters; hectometer - 100 meters.

 

helic/o

spiral, circular

helicopter - an aircraft with horizontal rotating wing; helix - a spiral form; helicon - a circular tuba.

 

heli/o

sun

heliotropism - movement or growth in relating to the sun; heliograph - apparatus used to send message with the help of sunlight; helianthus - genus of plants including sunflowers.

 

hemi

half, partial

hemicycle - a semicircular structure; hemisphere - one half of the earth; hemistich - half a line of poetry.

 

hem/o/a

blood

hemorrhage - clotting of the blood; hemorrhoids - swelling of the blood vessels; hemoglobin - red blood particle. 

 

hepa

liver

hepatitis - inflammation of the liver; hepatoma - a tumor of the liver; hepatotoxic - toxic and damaging to the liver.

 

hept/a

seven

heptagon - a shape with seven angles and seven sides; Heptateuch - the first seven books of the Old Testament; heptameter - a line of verse consisting of seven metrical feet.

 

herbi

grass, plant

herbicide - any chemical used to kill unwanted plants, etc.; herbivorous - plant-eating; herbal - relating to plants.

 

hetero

different, other

heterogeneous - made up of unrelated parts; heteronyms - words with same spelling but different meanings; heterodox - not conforming to traditional beliefs.

 

hex/a

six

hexagon - a shape with six angles/sides; hexameter - a verse measured in six; hexapod - having six legs.

 

histo

tissue

histology - study of the microscopic structure of tissues; histochemistry - study of the chemical constitution of cells and tissues.

 

homo,
homeo

like, alike, same

homogeneous - of the same nature or kind; homonym - sounding alike; homeopath - a therapy that is based on treating "same with same"

 

hydr/o

liquid, water

hydrate - to add water to; hydrophobia - intense fear of water; hydroponics - growing plants in liquid nutrient solution; hydraulic - operated by force created by a liquid.

 

hygr/o

moisture, humidity

hygrometer - tool used to measure humidity; hygrograph - instrument for recording variations in atmospheric humidity.

 

hyper

too much, over,
excessive, beyond

hyperactive - very restless; hypercritical - too critical; hypertension - above normal pressure.

 

hyp/o

under

hypoglycemia - an abnormally low level of sugar in the blood; hypothermia - abnormally low body temperature; hypothesis - a theory that is unproven but used under the assumption that it is true.

 

iatr/o

medical care

geriatrics - medical care of the elderly; pediatrician - a doctor who treats children; podiatry - medical care for feet.

 

icon/o

image

icon - an (often religious) image, in modern usage a simplified graphic of high symbolic content; iconology - science of symbols and icons; iconoclast - someone who destroys religious images and traditional beliefs. 

 

idio

peculiar, personal, distinct

idiomatic - Peculiar to a particular language; idiosyncracy - a physical or mental characteristic typical or a particular person;  idiot - someone who is distinctly foolish or stupid.

 

il, in 

in, into

illuminate - to give light to; innovation - a new idea, method, or device; inspection - the act of examining or reviewing.

 

ig, il, im,
in, ir

not, without

illegal - not legal; impossible - not possible; inappropriate - not appropriate; irresponsible - not responsible.

 

imag

likeness

image - a likeness of someone; imaginative - able to think up new ideas or images; imagine - to form a picture or likeness in the mind.

 

infra

beneath, below

infrastructure - underlying framework of a system; infrared - below the regular light spectrum.

 

inter

between, among, jointly

international - involving two or more countries; intersection - place where roads come together; intercept - to stop or interrupt the course of.

 

intra,
intro

within, inside

intrastate - existing in one state; intravenous - inside or into a vein; introvert - shy person who keeps within him/herself.

 

ir

not

irredeemable - not redeemable; irreformable - not reformable; irrational - not rational.

 

iso

equal

isobar - a line on a map connecting points of equal barometric pressure; isometric - having equality of measure; isothermal - having equal or constant temperature.

 

ject

throw

eject - to throw someone/something out; interject - to throw a remark into a discussion; project - to cast or throw something.

 

jud

law

judgment - a decision of a court of law; judicial - having to do with judges or courts of law; judiciary - a system of courts of law.

 

junct

join

conjunction - a word that joins parts of sentences; disjunction - a disconnection; junction - a place where two things join.

 

juven

young

juvenile - youthful or childish; rejuvenate - to bring back to youthful strength or appearance. 

 

kilo

thousand

kilobyte - 1,000 bytes; kilometer - 1,000 meter; kilograms - 1,000 grams.

 

kine/t
/mat

motion, division

kinetics - study of the force of motion; psychokinesis or telekinesis - the ability to move objects with your mind; cinematography - motion picture making.

 

lab

work

collaborate - to work with a person; elaborate - to work out the details; laborious - requiring a lot of hard work.

 

lact/o

milk

lactate - to give milk, nurse; lactose - the sugar contained in milk; lactic acid.

 

later

side

bilateral - of or involving two sides; unilateral - affecting one side of something. 

 

leuk/o,
leuc/o

white, colorless

leukemia - abnormal increase of white blood cells in the blood; leukocyte - a mature white blood cell; leucine - a white, crystalline amino acid.

 

lex

word, law, reading

lexicology - the study and history of words; alexia -loss of the ability to read; illegal - not authorized by the official rules or laws.

 

liber

free

liberate - to set free; libertine - a person with a free, wild lifestyle; liberty - freedom.

 

lingu

language, tongue

linguist - one who studies languages; multilingual - able to communicate in multiple languages; linguine - long, flat "tongue-shaped" pasta.

 

lip/o

fat

liposuction - the mechanical removal of fat reserves in the tissue; lipase - enzyme that breaks down fat; lipoid - resembling fat. 

 

lite, ite,
lith/o

mineral, rock, fossil

apatite - a group of common minerals; granite - a hard, granular rock; monolith - a remarkable, unique stone.

 

loc

place

dislocate - to put something out of its usual place; location - a place;  relocate - to move to a new place.

 

log/o

word, doctrine, discourse

logic - correct reasoning; monologue - a long speech by one speaker;analogy - similarity, especially between things otherwise dissimilar.

 

loqu, locu

speak

eloquent - speaking beautifully and forcefully ; loquacious - very talkative; elocution - art of public speaking. 

 

luc

light

elucidate - to explain, to throw light on; lucid - easily understood, giving off light; translucent - allowing light through.

 

lud, lus

to play

prelude - introduction to the major performance;  illusion - misleading optical image or impression; delude - to mislead, deceive.

 

lumin

light

illuminate - to fill with light; lumen - unit measuring light.

 

lun/a/i

moon

lunar - relating to the moon; lunarscape - the surface of the moon; lunatic - insane (as if driven mad by the moon).

 

macro

large, great

macroevolution - large scale evolution; macromolecule - a large molecule; macroeconomics - study of the overall forces of economy.

 

magn/a/i

great, large

magnify - make larger; magnificent - grand; magnate - a powerful person, especially in business or industry.

 

mal/e

bad, ill, wrong

malcontent - wrong content; malaria - "bad air", infectious disease thought to originate from the "bad air" of the swamps, but caused by the bite of an infected mosquito; malicious - showing strong ill will.

 

man/i/u

hand

maneuver - to move by hand; manual - done with the hands; manuscript - a book written by hand.

 

mand

to order

command - an order or instruction; demand - a hard-to-ignore order; mandate - an official order.

 

mania

madness, insanity,
excessive desire

bibliomania - a crazy love of books; egomania - a mad love of oneself; maniac an insane person.

 

mar/i

sea

marina - a harbor for pleasure boats; maritime - relating to the sea; submarine - an undersea boat; aquamarine - blue-green in color, like sea water.

 

mater,
matr/i

mother

maternal - relating to motherhood; maternity - the state of being a mother; matriarch - a woman head of a household.

 

max

greatest

maximal - the best or greatest possible; maximize - to make as great as possible; maximum - the greatest amount.

 

medi

middle

medieval - pertaining to the Middle Ages; medium - in the middle; mediocre - only of medium (inferior) quality.

 

mega

great, large, million

megalopolis - an area with many nearby cities; megaphone - a device that projects a loud voice; megastructure - huge building or other structure.

 

melan/o

black

melancholy - a state of dark emotions; melanoma - malignant dark tumor of the skin; melodrama - a dark, pathetic drama.

 

memor/i

remember

commemorate - to honor the memory of, as by a ceremony; memorial - related to remembering a person or event; memory: an ability    to  retain knowledge or an individual's stock of retained knowledge.  

 

merge,
mers

dip, dive

immerge or immerse - to put or dip something into a liquid; submerge to dip something completely into wate.r

 

meso

middle

Mesoamerica - Middle America;  meson - elementary particle with a mass between an electron and a proton.

 

meta

change, after, beyond, between

metaphysics - study of nature and reality; metamorphosis - a complete change of form; metastasis - the transmission of disease to other parts of the body.

 

meter,
metr/y

measure

audiometer- an instrument that measures hearing acuteness; chronometer- an instrument that measures time; metric - measured.

 

micro

very small, short, minute

microbe - a very small living thing; microchip - a tiny wafer with an integrated circuit; microscope - a device to see very small things.

 

mid

middle

midriff - the area between the chest and the waist; midterm - middle of a term in school; midway - halfway between.

 

migr

move

immigrant - a person who moves to a new country to settle; migrant - person who moves from place to place; migration - the process of moving.

 

milli

onethousandth

millimeter - one thousandth of a meter; millibar - one thousandth of a bar; milliliter - one thousandth of a liter.

 

min/i

small, less

mini - something that is very small; minuscule - extremely tiny; minutiae - very small or trivial details.

 

mis/o

bad, badly, wrong, wrongly,
to hate

misbehave - to behave badly; misprint - an error in printing; misnomer - an error in naming a person or thing.

 

miss, mit

send, let go

dismiss - to send someone away; missile - a weapon sent into the air; emit - to send something out; admittance - entry.

 

mob

move

immobilize - to stop from moving; mobile - able to move freely; mobility - the quality of being able to move.

 

mon/o

one, single, alone

monochromat - having one color; monologue - a speech spoken by one person; monotheism - belief in one god.

 

mot, mov

move

motion - the act of moving; motivate - to move someone to action; promote to move someone forward; removable - able to be taken or carried away.

 

morph/o

form

metamorphosis - complete change of form; endorphins - chemical in the brain able to transform pain; amorphous - without distinct shape or form.

 

mort

death

immortal - living forever, unable to die; mortal - certain to die; mortician - an undertaker.

 

multi

many, more than one or two

multicolored - having many colors; multimedia - using a range of media; multitasking - doing many things at once.

 

mut

change

immutable - not changing; mutant - an organism that has undergone change; mutate - to undergo a change.

 

my/o

muscle

myocardium - the middle muscle of the heart; myasthenia - muscle fatigue or weakness; myosin - common protein in muscle tissue.

 

narr

tell

narrate - to tell a story; narrative - a story; narrator - a person who tells a story.

 

nat

born

innate - included since birth; natal - relating to birth; natural - gotten at birth, not afterward.

 

nav

ship

circumnavigate - to sail around a place; naval - relating to a navy or warships; navigate - to sail a ship through a place.

 

necr/o

dead, death

necrophil - loving death; necrosis - the death of tissue due to disease or injury; necrology - a list of persons who have recently died.

 

neg

no

negate - to say it didn't happen; negative - meaning "no"; renege - to go back on a promise.

 

neo

new, recent

neoclassic - a revival of classic form, neocolonialism - the indirect ("new") economical and political control of a region by a more powerful foreign power; neonatal - a newborn child, especially the first few weeks.

 

nephr/o

kidney

nephritis - inflammation of the kidneys; nephrotomy - surgical incision of a kidney; nephron - a single, excretory unit in the kidney.

 

neur/o

nerve

neuralgia - pain along a nerve; neurologist - doctor specializing in the nerves; neurotic -  mental disorder that usually does not include an impaired perception of reality.

 

nom/in

name

misnomer - an error in naming a person or thing; nominal - being something in name only but not in reality; nominate - to name for election or appointment, to designate.

 

non

no, not, without

nondescript - with no special characteristics; nonfiction - true, real, not made-up; nonsense - without sense.

 

not

mark

notable - marked as worthy of attention; notarize - to certify a signature on a legal document; annotate - to add remarks.

 

noun,
nunc

declare

announce - to declare in public; denounce - to proclaim harsh criticism; enunciate - to speak or declare something clearly.

 

nov

new

innovate - to introduce a new way; novelty - something new; novice - a person who is new at a job; renovate - to make something like new again.

 

numer

number

enumerate - to name a number of items on a list; numerology - the study of magical uses of numbers; numerous - a large number.

 

ob, op

in the way, against

object - to be against something; obscure - hard to understand; opposition - the act of resistance or action against.

 

oct/a/o

eight

octagon - a figure with 8 sides and 8 angles; octogenarian - person in his or her 80s; octopus - sea animal with 8 arms.

 

ocu

eye

binoculars - lens device for seeing distances; monocula - relating to one eye; oculist - an eye doctor.

 

omni

all

omnipotent - with all the power; omniscient - knowing all things; omnivorous eating all foods.

 

op/t/s

eye, visual condition, sight

optic - relating to the eyes; optician - a person who fits eyeglasses; autopsy - the examination of a dead body.

 

opt

best

optimal - the best, the most desirable; optimize - to make the best of; optimum - the best something could be.

 

ortho

straight

orthodontist - a dentist that straightens teeth; orthopedic - a doctor concerned with the proper alignment of the bones; orthography - the correct way of writing.

 

osteo

bone

osteoarthritis - inflammation caused by degeneration of the joints; osteopathy - therapy that uses among others manipulation of the skeleton to restore health; osteology - the study of bones.

 

out

goes beyond,
surpasses, exceeds

Outgoing - being of lively, sharing nature; outdoing - doing better than; outdoor - outside.

 

over

excessive

overconfident - more confident than is appropriate; overstock - more supplies than is desirable; overexcited - ,more excited than one should be.

 

oxy

sharp

oxymoron - combining two ideas that sharply contradict each other; oxydize - corrode a surface.

 

pale/o

ancient

paleontology - study of ancient fossils; paleography - the study of ancient forms of writing; Paleolithic - period of the Stone Age.

 

pan

all, any, everyone

panacea - a cure for all diseases or problems; panorama - an all-around view; pantheism - the worship of all gods; pandemic - affecting all.

 

para

beside, beyond, abnormal,
assistant

parasite - an organism that lives on and off another living being; parallel - alongside and always an equal distance apart; paragraph - a portion of a writtenn document that presents a distinct idea.

 

para

protection from

parachute - protection from falling; parasol - an umbrella used to protect from the sun; 

 

pater,
patr/i

father

paternal - relating to fathers; paternity - fatherhood; patriarch - a man who rules a group.

 

path

feeling, emotion

antipathy - a feeling of great dislike; apathy - a lack of feeling or interest; empathy - ability to understand another's feelings.

 

ped/i/e

foot, feet

pedal - a lever pushed by the foot; pedestrian - one who walks; pedicure - cosmetic treatment of feet and toes.

 

pel

drive, force

compel - to force someone to act; expel - to drive someone out of a place; repel - to force back.

 

pent/a

five

pentagon - shape having 5 angles and 5 sides, pentagram - a five-pointed star formerly used as a symbolic figure in magic; pentathlon - an athletic contest that includes five events.

 

pept,
peps

digestion

dyspepsia - abnormal digestion; peptic - aiding digestion; pepsin - a digestive enzyme.

 

per

through, throughout

permanent - lasting throughout all time; permeate - to spread throughout; persist - to continue for a long time; perennial - lasting through many years.

 

peri

around, enclosing

periodontal - pertaining to bone and tissue around a tooth; peripheral - lying outside of the center;  perimeter - the outer boundary of an area.

 

phag/e

to eat

esophagus - muscular tube that carries food to the stomach; anthropophagy or sarcophagy - cannibalism; xylophagous - feeding on wood.

 

phil/o

love, friend

philanthropist - one who loves humanity;  philology - the love of words; philosophy - the love of wisdom; bibliophil - loving books. 

 

phon/o
/e/y

sound

cacophony - loud, unpleasant sounds; microphone - a device that records and amplifies sound; phonetic - relating to human speech sounds.

 

phot/o

light

photogenic - caused by light; photograph - image made on light-sensitive film; photon - the smallest possible unit of light.

 

phyll/o

leaf

chlorophyll - a group of green pigments found in leaves; phyllotaxis - the arrangement of leaves on a stem; phyllite - a rock that forms sheets, similar to slate.

 

phys

nature, medicine, the body

physical - relating to the body; physician - a doctor; physique - nature and shape of one's body.

 

phyt/o/e

plant, to grow

epiphyte - a plant growing independently on the surface of another; hydrophyte - a plant that grows only in water; neophyte - a beginner, especially a person recently converted to a new belief.

 

plas/t/m

to form, development,
forming cells

protoplasm - something that is the first made or formed, also the living portion of a cell; plastic - able to be formed, especially when warm; plaster - a mixture of lime, sand and water that forms a smooth solid covering for walls. 

 

pneum/o

breathing, lung, air, spirit

pneumonia - inflammation of the lungs; pneumatic - using the force of air; dyspnea - difficulty breathing.

 

pod/e

foot

podiatrist - a doctor for the feet; podium - a small platform to stand on; tripod - a stand or frame with 3 legs.

 

poli

city

metropolis - a large city; police - people who work for the government to maintain order in a city; politics - actions of a government or political party.

 

poly

many, more than one

polychrome - with many colors; polyglot - a person fluent in many languages; polygon - shape with 3 or more straight sides.

 

pon

place, put

opponent - a person who places him/herself against an action, idea, etc.; postpone - to put off doing something.

 

pop

people

popular - appealing to a lot of people; population - all of the people who live in a particular area; populist - a supporter of the rights of people.

 

port

carry

export - to carry goods out of a place to another; portable - able to be carried; porter - a person who carries luggage.

 

pos

place, put

deposit - to place or drop something; expose to place out into the open for all to see; position - the place where someone is.

 

post

after, behind

posthumous - after someone's death; postpone - to delay something;  postscript - an addition to an already completed document.

 

pre

earlier, before, in front of

preamble - a part in front of a formal document; prepare - to get ready in advance; prediction - a statement foretelling the future.

 

pro

before, in front of,
for, forward

prognosis - a prediction of what will happen; prologue - a passage before the main part; prophet - a person who foretells the future.

 

prot/o

primitive, first, chief

prototype - the first of a kind; proton - on of the very basic parts of an atom; protocol - a first draft from which a document is prepared.

 

pseud/o

wrong,false

pseudonym - a fictitious name; pseudoscience - theories presumed without proof of a scientific nature; pseudopregnancy - a false pregnancy.

 

psych/o

mind, mental

psyche - the human spirit or soul; psychic - relating to the human mind or someone who has supernatural mental abilities; psychology - the study of the mind.

 

pugn/a,
pung 

to fight

pugnacious - having a quarrelsome or aggressive nature; repugnant - distasteful, offensive or revolting; pungent - piercing.

 

pul

urge

compulsion - a very strong urge; expulsion - to someone out; impulsive - having a spontaneous urge to do something.

 

purg

clean

purge - remove anything undesirable; purgatory - according to Roman Catholics a place where souls must clean themselves of sin; expurgate - remove objectionable passages from a publication.

 

put

think

computer - an electronic thinking device; dispute - to disagree with what another person thinks; input - contribution of one's thinking.

 

pyr/o

fire, heat

pyrotechnics - the art of making fireworks; pyrometer - a thermometer for measuring high temperature; pyretic - relating to or producing fever. 

 

quad/r/ri

four

quadrant - open space with buildings on 4 sides; quadrennium - period of 4 years; quadruped - a 4-footed animal.

 

quart

fourth

quarter - one fourth; quart - a fourth of a gallon; quartet - a musical composition or group involving 4 voices or instruments.

 

quin/t

five, fifth

quintett - a composition for 5 voices or instruments; quintessence - pure essence, based on the ancient philosophy that there was a fifth element that was present in all things; quintuple - fivefold.

 

radic, 
radix

root

eradicate - pull out at the roots; radical - fundamental, looking at things from a drastic point of view; radish - an edible root of the mustard family.

 

radio

radiation, ray

radioactive - emitting radiation; radiologist - someone diagnosing or treating via radiation. 

 

ram/i

branch

ramification - the resulting consequence of a decision; ramify - to spread or branch out; ramus - a branchlike part.

 

re

again, back, backward

rebound -to spring back again; rewind - to wind something backward; reaction: a response; recognize: to identify someone or something seen before.

 

reg

guide, rule

regent - a person who rules on behalf of a king or queen; regime - a government that rules; regulate - to apply a rule.

 

retro

backward, back

retroactive - relating to something in the past; retrogress - to go back to an earlier condition; retrospect - the remembering of past events.

 

rhin/o

nose

rhinoceros - a species of animals with a big horn on the snout; rhinoplasty - surgery of the nose; rhinovirus - viruses that are causing the common cold.

 

rhod/o

red

rhododendron - a flower with red/pink flowers; rhodium - an element which produces a red solution; rhodopsin - a purple pigment in the retina that is needed for vision.

 

rid

laugh

deride - to make fun of someone; ridicule - to make fun or mock; ridiculous - silly, causing laughter.

 

rrh/ea
/oea/ag

flow, discharge

diarrhea - abnormally excessive bowl movement; hemorrhage - heavy blood flow; catarrh - inflammation of a mucous membrane, especially the nose and throat. 

 

rub

red

ruby - deep red color and a precious stone of the same color; rubella - measles; bilirubin - reddish pigment in bile.

 

rupt

break, burst

bankrupt - unable to pay because you're "broke"; interrupt - to break into a conversation or event, to disturb; rupture - a break in something.

 

san

health

sane - mentally healthy; sanitary - relating to cleanliness and health; sanitation - maintenance of public health and cleanliness.

 

scend

climb, go

ascend - to climb upward; crescendo - a climbing up of the volume of music; descend - to go or climb down.

 

sci

know

conscience - sense of knowing right from wrong; conscious - knowing what is happening; omniscient - knowing everything.

 

scler/o

hard

arteriosclerosis - hardening of the arterial walls;  multiple sclerosis - disease which causes the tissue of the brain and spinal cord to harden; sclerometer - instrument for measuring hardness.

 

scop/e/y

see, examine, observe

microscope - a device used to see tiny things; periscope - a seeing instrument on a submarine; telescope - a device used to see over a distance.

 

scrib,
script

write, written

inscribe - to write letters or words on a surface; scribe - a person who writes out documents; describe - to represent with words or pictures.

 

se

apart

secede - to formally break away from; seclude - to keep away from; serum - a liquid isolated out of another.

 

sect

cut

dissect - to cut apart piece by piece; intersection - the place or point where two things cross each other; bisect - to cut into two equal parts.

 

self

of, for, or by itself

self-discipline - the ability to discipline yourself; self-respect - respect for yourself; selfish concerned only with your own interests.

 

semi

half, partial

semiannual - every half year; semicircle - half a circle; semiconscious  - partly conscious; semiannual - every half of a year.

 

sept/i

seven

September - this used to be the seventh month in the Roman calendar; septet - a group of seven musicians; septuagenarian - a person in his/her seventies.

 

serv

save, keep

conserve - to save or keep something safe; preserve - to save something; reservation - a place kept for a person.

 

sex

six

sextet or sextette - a composition or group of six, sextuple - sixfold; sexagenarian - person in his/her sixties.

 

sol

alone

desolate - lonely, dismal, gloomy; solitary - done alone, by yourself; solo - a performance done by one person alone.

 

sol

sun

solar - involving the sun; parasol - umbrella protecting from the sun; solarium - a room where one is exposed to sun light.

 

somn/I

sleep

insomnia - inability to fall asleep; somniloquy - talking in your sleep; somnolent - feeling sleepy.

 

son

sound

consonant - a speech sound; sonorous - producing loud, full, rich sounds; supersonic - faster than sound; unison - as one voice.  

 

soph

wise

philosopher - a wise person; sophisticated - wise about the ways of the world; sophism - a clever but misleading argument.

 

spec/t,
spic

see, look

circumspect - cautious, looking all around; retrospective - a looking back at past things; spectator - a person who sees an event.

 

sphere

ball

biosphere - the whole round surface of the earth; hemisphere - half the earth spherically shaped like a ball.

 

spir

breathe

inspire - to stimulate or animate; transpire - to give of vapor with waste product through the skin or a membrane; spirit - invisible life force.

 

sta

stand

stable - standing steady and firm; stagnant - standing still, not moving; stationary - at a standstill, fixed.

 

stell

star

constellation - a group of stars that forms a pattern; interstellar - between the stars; stellar - relating to stars.

 

struct

build

construct - to build; destruction - the act of destroying something that was built; structure - something built; infrastructure - underlying framework of a system.

 

sub

under, lower than,
inferior to

submarine - an underwater boat; submerge - to put underwater; substandard - inferior to accepted standards.

 

sum

highest

sum - the combined total of everything; summation - the total, highest amount; summit the highest point or top.

 

super

higher in quality
or quantity

Super bowl - the final annual football game; superior - above average, better in quality; supersonic - faster than the speed of sound.

 

sy/m
/n/l/s

together, with, same

symmetry -similarity in size, form or arrangement; synergy - the combined effect; synchronize - to cause to occur at the same time.

 

tact, tang

touch

contact - a state in which two things touch; tactile - relating to the sense of touch; tangible - able to be touched; intact - with nothing missing.

 

tax/o

arrangement

syntax - the systematic arrangement of words; taxonomy - the science of classification; ataxia - loss of the ability to coordinate muscle action. 

 

techno

technique, skill

technology - the practical application of knowledge; technocracy - rule of technology; technologically - characterized by technology.

 

tel/e/o

far, distant, complete

telephone - a device to talk to a distant person; telescope - a device to view distant objects; television - a device to receive pictures from afar; telecommuting - working remotely, bridging the distance via virtual devices.

 

temp/or

time

contemporary - existing at the same time; temporal - relating to time; temporary - lasting for a limited time.

 

term/ina

end, limit

determine - to find something out at the end of an investigation; terminate - to end; exterminate - to destroy or get rid of completely.

 

terr/a/i

land, earth

extraterrestrial - existing outside the earth; terrain - ground or land; territory - an area of land.

 

tetra

four

tetrapod - having 4 legs; tetrarchy - government by 4 rulers; tetrose - a monosaccharide with four carbon atoms.

 

the/o

god

monotheism - belief in one god; polytheism - worshiping more than one god; theology - the study of religion, god, etc.

 

therm/o

heat

thermal - relating to heat; thermos - an insulated jar that keeps heat in; thermostat - a device that controls heat.

 

tort

twist

contortion - a twisted shape or position; distort - to alter the shape or condition of; retort - reply in a manner that is supposed to change the effect of something previously said. 

 

tox

poison

detoxification -  the process of removing poisons; toxic - poisonous; toxicology - the study of poisons; intoxicated - influenced by drugs.

 

tract

pull, drag

attract - to pull objects nearer; distract - to drag attention away from something; tractor - a motor vehicle that pulls things.

 

trans

across,beyond, through

transcontinental - across the continent; transfer - to move from one place to another; transport - to carry something across a space.

 

tri

three, once in every three,
third

triangle - a figure with 3 sides and 3 angles; triathlon - an athletic contest with 3 events; tricycle - a 3-wheeI vehicle with pedals.

 

ultra

beyond, extreme, more than

ultrahigh - extremely high; ultramodern - more modern than anything else; ultrasonic - sound waves beyond human hearing.

 

un

not,opposite of, lacking

unabridged - not shortened; unfair - opposite of fair; unfriendly - lacking friendliness.

 

uni

one, single

unicycle - a vehicle with one wheel; unilateral - decided by only one person or nation; unique - the only one of its kind; unison - as one voice.

 

urb

city

suburb - residential area on the edge of a city; urban - relating to a city; urbanology - the study of city life.

 

vac

empty

evacuate - to empty a dangerous place; vacant - empty, not occupied; vacation - a time without work.

 

ven/t

come

circumvent - to go around or bypass restrictions; convention - a gathering or assembly of people with a common interest; intervene -   to come between.

 

ver/I

truth

veracious - truthful, honest; veracity - the truth; verify - to make sure that something is true.

 

verb

word

verbalize - to put into words; adverb - a word relating to a verb; proverb - a short saying that expresses a well-known truth. 

 

vers,
vert

turn

reverse - to turn around; introvert - being turned towards the inside; version - a variation of an original; controversy - a conversation in which positions are turned against each other.

 

vice

acting in place of,
next in rank

vice-president - the person next in rank to the president

 

vid

see

evident clearly seen

 

vince,
vic

conquer

convince - to win someone over; invincible - not able to be conquered; victory - the conquest of an enemy.

 

vis, vid

see

vision - the ability to see; envision - to picture in the mind; evident - clearly visible.

 

viv/i
vit

live, life

revival - the act of bringing back to life; vital - pertaining to live; vivacious - high-spirited and full of life.

 

voc/i

voice, call

advocate - to speak in favor of; equivocate - to use misleading language that could be interpreted two different ways; vocalize - to produce with your voice.

 

vol/i/u

wish, will

benevolent - showing good will and kindness; volition - the act of making a choice or decision, voluntary - resulting from your own free will.

 

vor,
vour

eat

carnivorous - meat-eating; voracious - desiring or eating food in great quantities; devour - to eat quickly. 

 

xen/o

foreign

xenophobic - afraid of foreigners; xenogenesis - the creation of offspring that is completely different from either parent; xenophile - attracted to foreigners.

 

xer/o/I

dry

xerophyte - a plant that grows in dry climate; xerography - a dry photocopying process; xeric - requiring small amounts of moisture.

 

zo/o

animal life

zoology - study of animals; zooid - resembling an animal; zooplankton - minute floating aquatic animals.

 

zyg/o

pair

zygote - a cell formed by the union of two gametes and the organism developing from that; zygomorphic - pertaining to organisms that can be divided into symmetrical halves along one axis only.