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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

EFL Learners' Types of Oral Errors ( part 3 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٢٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/۳/٢٦
 

 

In His Exalted Name

EFL Learners' Types of Oral Errors

and

 Teachers' Preferences For Correction

 

By:

Morteza Ahmady Gohari

Winter 1387

 Part  3

 

 

Methodology

Participants

Two groups of participants were involved in this study. The first group included 165 English learners of Simin English language institute in Kerman. The learners were chosen from two different learners` proficiency (100 intermediate and 65 advanced). Rational behind the selection of two groups was to investigate the types of errors EFL learners made and the way they were corrected in different levels of proficiency. They were chosen based on the level of their knowledge and their books defined and classified by the author of the books for level of proficiency. In order to have more homogeneous subjects, the researcher tried to choose only one kind of book which is called "New Interchange, third edition).

     The following features characterized subjects of the study:

First, The learners who were from two groups of proficiency (100 intermediate learners and 65 advanced learners)

1. With regard to nationality and language background, no difference existed between the subjects: all were Iranians and their mother tongue was Persian.

2. They were males and females.

3. The subjects` range of age was between 15 to 30

4. None of the subjects had lived in any English speaking country.

 Second, the other group had 55 teachers from different institutes. Some teachers had some experience of teaching different levels of proficiency and some had only one level, regarding the fact that they had dealt with more learners and consequently more errors and more methods of error correction they applied during their teaching career.

     The following features characterized the selected teachers of the study:

1. All of them had experience 10 of years teaching English.

2. Their range of age was not considered.

3. They all had the same nationality and language background; they were Iranians and their mother tongue was Persian.

4. Teachers were female and male.

5. They all had B.A degree or above in English (literature or teaching).

 

Instruments

The instruments of the study were two sets of questionnaires, adapted from two different error correction questionnaires (see appendix), which were used  by Beech (1995), Pladejo (1993), and Rastami (1997) for the purpose of asking learners` preferences for error correction and the teachers` opinion on error correction. The contents of the questionnaires were not exactly the same (teachers` questionnaire had 14 questions but learners` questionnaires had 7 questions) which ask both the learners and teachers` attitude with regard to 'how', 'when', 'which', and 'who' of error correction.

The instruments for the study were as follows:           

 

Questionnaires

         a. Teachers`

         b. Learners`

a. Teachers` questionnaire: The questionnaire comprising 18 questions was administrated in English, distributed to 55 EFL teachers (see appendix).

     It consisted of questions focusing on the following main points:

1- What types of errors are committed by EFL students (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and content) at different proficiency levels (intermediate or advanced)?            

2- Who corrects the errors (teacher, self or peer) at different proficiency levels (intermediate or advanced)?

3- Which errors are preferred to be corrected by teachers (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and content) at different proficiency levels (intermediate or advanced)? 

4- What language is used by teachers to correct errors (L1, L2 or mixed) at different proficiency levels (intermediate or advanced)?

 5- When are the errors corrected (immediately, delayed, postponed or ignored) at different proficiency levels (intermediate or advanced)?

6- Which method of correction (immediately, delayed, postponed, self-correction and peer correction) is mostly used at different proficiency levels (intermediate or advanced)?

7- In communication, how often do EFL learners refer to their mother tongue (i.e. first translate to Farsi) and then to English to answer?

8- Which method of correction is mostly used in your class?

(Immediate, Delayed, Postponed, Peer correction,) Self-correction)        

9- In which level does the error correction mostly occur (elementary level, intermediate level or advanced level)?

10- Regarding learners` oral production, which of the following grammatical errors do you most often correct) Misuse of prepositions, Misuse of articles, Sub-verb agreement, Wrong verb tense and others)? 

11- According to your experience, what is the main source of errors committed by the Iranian EFL learners?

 )Interlingual errors, Intralingual errors, Incomplete application of rules, Ignorance of rule restriction or others)

12- In your opinion, in what area of language, do Iranian EFL learners most need help (Communication, Grammar, Pronunciation, Vocabulary, and Content)?

13- How often do you ignore errors due to fluency (Always, often, sometimes, or rarely)?

b. Learners` questionnaire: The questionnaire comprising 7 questions

 Which was designed into two sets with the same questions? The first seven question questionnaire for the intermediate learners and the second set question questionnaire was for the advanced learners to be answered according to the learners' preferences for error correction. The questionnaires had been administrated to the participants in two instructions and clarification in English and Persian to avoid misunderstanding and to make sure that nothing was left vague, so that they could answer deliberately.

      The questionnaires were distributed to 165 EFL learners (100 intermediate and 65 advanced) (see appendix).      

      It consisted of questions focusing on the following main points:            

1- What types of errors are committed in your classes (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and content)?

2-Who corrects learners` errors in your classes (teacher, peer, self)?

3- Which errors are corrected by teachers in your classes (pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and content)?

4- What language is used to correct errors in your classes (L1, L2, and mixed)?

5- When are the errors corrected in your classes (immediate, delayed, postponed, and ignored)? 

6- Which method of correction is mostly used in your classes (immediate, delayed, postponed, peer correction and self-correction)?

7- In communication, how often do you refer to your mother tongue (i.e. first translate to Farsi) and then to English to answer? (Always, often, sometimes and rarely)  

 

Interview

        a. Teachers

        b. Learners

a. Learners` Interview of 10 EFL teachers in some English Institutes in Kerman and each teacher's interview took 40 to 60 minutes.

The main questions were based on the following questions:

1- What types of errors are committed by EFL students (grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary and content) at different proficiency levels?            

2- Who corrects the errors (teacher, self or peer) at different proficiency levels?

3- What types of errors are preferred to be corrected by teachers (grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary and content) at different proficiency levels? 

4- What language is used by to correct errors (L1, L2 or mixed) at different proficiency levels?

 5- When are the errors corrected (immediately, delayed, postponed and ignored) at different proficiency levels?

6- Which method of correction (immediately, delayed, postponed, self-correction and peer correction) is mostly used at different proficiency levels?

7- In communication, how often do EFL learners refer to their mother tongue (i.e. first translate to Farsi) and then to English to answer?

b. Teachers` Interview of 10 EFL learners from some English Institute in Kerman and each learner's interview took 30 to 45 minutes. The students, interviews   were mainly based on the students` questionnaire and so they were with the teachers` ones.

The main questions were based on the following questions:

1- What types of errors are committed in your classes (pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and content)?

2-Who corrects learners` errors in your classes (teacher, peer and self)?

3- Which errors are corrected by teachers in your classes (pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and content)?

4- What language is used to correct errors in your classes (L1, L2, and mixed)?

5- When the errors are corrected in your classes (immediate by teacher, delayed, postponed, and ignored)?

6- Which method of correction is mostly used in your classes (immediate, delayed, postponed, peer correction and self-correction)?  

7- In communication, how often do you refer to your mother tongue) i.e. first translate to Farsi) and then to English to answer (always, often, sometimes, rarely)?

        Interviews enabled the investigator to collect data which is difficult to collect through the medium of questionnaires and classroom observation. Because interviews allowed direct interaction, they complemented questionnaires and classroom observations, serving as means for further investigation of points which might not have been covered.

     To carry out and to analyze the interviews was quite time consuming, to conduct them properly with the informant, certain awareness was required by the interviewer.

     Besides, interviews not only depend on the quality of the questions asked, but on the awareness of, and control over the interaction involved.

So, the informants might come up with different points and ideas which were not foreseen by the investigators whilst developing and validating the questionnaire.

     Interviews also allowed the investigator to elaborate on points which may be ambiguous in the questionnaires.

     The EFL teachers were asked to express their opinions about types of error committed by EFL learners.

There was a combination of different answers.

Regarding the area of language which is most problematic for Iranian EFL learners, they mentioned that the variety of responses:

Nine responded the problematic areas of English as below:

1- Communication

2- Prepositions

3- Pronunciation

4- Listening comprehension

5- Word order

6- Articles

7- Pronouns

8- Verbs

9- Tense

     As the interviews were relatively opened and all of them were taped and transcribed, producing of 60 pages, then they were analyzed question by question. Although the aim of the analysis was to answer all the research questions, there was more emphasis on the following key aspects:                                                                                                   

1- How language teachers care for error correction in oral context and       prediction power for teachers.

2- What types of error they consider to be corrected 

3- What correction techniques they use 

4- The time they find to be appropriate for error correction                        (immediate, delayed and postponed) and the ones (teacher, peer and        self) who should correct errors.                       

     It also aimed at finding about the learner's attitude toward error correction and the aspects of language (grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary and content) they preferred to be corrected at and when and with whom they preferred to be corrected. Regarding these findings, this study aimed at finding an answer to the question that whether error correction helped learners to develop their interlingual or not? If it helped then, why did errors recur even after correction and feedback had been provided? Finally, it tended to investigate a logical and theoretical upon which second language teacher could provide the learners with repair and recast feedback.

                                                                                     

Classroom Observation

The classroom observation section of the study involved observing and tape recording of the study involving and tape recording six EFL classes in Kerman Institute, 25 to 30 students per group.

Each class was an hour and a half hour in duration.

The classes were selected for two levels of proficiency three classes were in intermediate level and three classes were in advanced level. The criteria for the level of the classes were promenaded by the teacher and the books from the institute.                                                                    

     Those classes were selected in which the students had to interact more. The researcher taped 12 hours of classroom interaction and took up 30 hours to transcribe them accurately.  

                                                                   

Data Collection and Analysis Procedure:

The data for the presents study were collected through the administration of the two instruments among the participants during two semesters; summer and autumn to accumulate the required number of data. The subjects` responses to the questions were analyzed according the following hypotheses. The first is; if there is a significant difference between mean of teachers` responses and the learners` responses. The second one is if there is a relation or dependence among certain questions. The third one is the relationship between the learner's responses and teachers` responses for intermediate and advanced learners. Chi-square test was used to test these three hypotheses.

 

Findings

Participants` attitude on question 1

Intermediate learners` attitude

1- What types of errors are committed in learners` intermediate classes?

Table 4.1.1 Errors occurring according to intermediate learners` attitude

Content   

Grammar  

Vocabulary   

Pronunciation 

 

2.85

2.43

2.51

2.21

Mean

4

2

3

1

Rank

 

Advanced Learners` attitude

1- What types of errors are committed in your class?

Table 4.1.2 Errors occurring according to advanced learners` attitude

Content   

Grammar  

Vocabulary   

Pronunciation 

 

2.87

2.80

2.24

2.06

Mean

4

3

2

1

Rank

 

Intermediate Teachers` attitude           

1- What are the types of errors committed by EFL intermediate learners?

Table 4.1.3 Types of errors occurring in intermediate learners` classes according to teachers` attitude

 

Content   

Grammar  

Vocabulary   

Pronunciation 

 

3.54

2.49

2.49

1.47

Mean

4

2

3

1

Rank

 

Advanced Teachers` attitude

2- What are the types of errors committed by EFL advanced learners?

Table 4.1.4 Types of errors occurring in advanced learners` classes according to teachers` attitude

Content   

Grammar  

Vocabulary   

Pronunciation 

 

3.01

2.60

1.85

2.52

Mean

4

3

1

2

Rank

 

Participants` attitude on question 2

Intermediate learners` attitude

2-Who corrects learners` errors in your class?

Table 4.2.1 the person who corrects your errors according to intermediate learners` attitude

Self

Peer

Teacher

 

2.44

2.28

1.28

Mean

3

2

1

Rank

 

Advanced Learners` attitude

2-Who corrects learners` errors in your class?

Table 4.2.2 the person who corrects your errors according to advanced learners` attitude  

Self

Peer

Teacher

 

2.41

2.41

1.16

Mean

3

2

1

Rank

 

Intermediate Teachers` attitude

3-Who corrects learners` errors in your intermediate classes?

Table 4.2.3 the person who corrects errors in intermediate classes according to teachers` attitude

Self

Peer

Teacher

 

2.38

1.58

2.03

Mean

3

1

2

Rank

 

Advanced Teachers` attitude

4-Who corrects learners` errors in your advanced classes?

Table 4.2.4 the person who corrects the errors in advanced learners` according to teachers` attitude

Self

Peer

Teacher

 

1.96

1.43

2.60

Mean

2

1

3

Rank

 

Participants` attitude on question 3

Intermediate Learners` attitude

3- Which errors are corrected by teachers in your class?

Table 4.3.1 the types of errors which are corrected according to intermediate learners` attitude

Content

Grammar  

Vocabulary   

Pronunciation 

 

3.18

1.98

2.71

2.13

Mean

4

1

3

2

Rank

 

Advanced Learners` attitude

3- Which errors are corrected by teachers in your class?

Table 4.3.2 the types of errors which are corrected according to advanced learners` attitude

Content   

Grammar  

Vocabulary   

Pronunciation 

 

3.23

2.50

2.41

1.84

Mean

4

3

2

1

Rank

 

Intermediate Teachers` attitude

5- Which errors are corrected by teachers in intermediate classes?

Table 4.3.3 the types of errors which are corrected in intermediate learners` classes according to teachers` attitude

Content   

Grammar  

Vocabulary   

Pronunciation 

 

3.63

2.63

2.32

1.40

Mean

4

3

2

1

Rank

 

Advanced Teachers` attitude

6- Which errors are corrected by teachers in advanced classes?

Table 4.3.4 the types of errors which are corrected in advanced learners` classes according to teachers` attitude

Content    

Grammar  

Vocabulary   

Pronunciation 

 

2.94

2.61

2.01

2.41

Mean

4

3

1

2

Rank

 

Participants` attitude on question 4

Intermediate Learners` attitude

4- What language is used to correct errors in your class?

Table 4.4.1 the language which is used to correct errors according to intermediate learners` attitude

Mixed

L2

L1

 

1.91

    1.60

2.48

Mean

2

1

3

Rank

 

Advanced Learners` attitude

4- What language is used to correct errors in your class?

Table 4.4.2 the language which is used to correct errors according to advanced learners` attitude

Mixed

L2

L1

 

2.01

1.43

2.47

Mean

2

1

3

Rank

 

Intermediate Teachers` attitude

7- What language is used to correct errors in your intermediate classes?

Table 4.4.3 the language which is used to correct errors in intermediate learners` classes according to teachers` attitude

Mixed

L2

L1

 

2.07

1.60

2.14

Mean

2

1

3

Rank

 

Advanced Teachers` attitude

8- What language is used to correct errors in your advanced classes?

Table 4.4.4 the language which is used to correct errors in advanced learners` classes according to teachers` attitude

Mixed

L2

L1

 

2.09

1.05

2.85

Mean

2

1

3

Rank

 

Participants` attitude on question 5

Intermediate Learners` attitude

5- When are the errors corrected in your classes?

Table 4.5.1 the timing of correcting errors according to intermediate learners` attitude

 

Ignored

Postponed

Delayed

Immediate

 

3.82

2.94

1.63

1.53

Mean

4

3

2

1

Rank

 

Advanced Learners` attitude

5- When are the errors corrected in your classes?

Table 4.5.2 the timing of correcting errors according to advanced  learners` attitude                                         

Ignored

Postponed

Delayed

Immediate

 

3.80

3.06

1.93

1.20

Mean

4

3

2

1

Rank

 

Intermediate Teachers` attitude

9- When are the errors corrected in your intermediate classes?

Table 4.5.3 the timing of correcting errors in intermediate learners` classes according to teachers` attitude

Ignored

Postponed

Delayed

Immediate

 

3.76

2.52

1.29

2.41

Mean

4

3

1

2

Rank

 

Advanced Teachers` attitude

10- When are the errors corrected in your advanced classes?

Table 4.5.4 the timing of correcting errors in advanced learners` classes according to teachers` attitude

 

Ignored

Postponed

Delayed

Immediate

 

3.38

2.87

1.49

2.20

Mean

4

3

1

2

Rank

 

Participants` attitude on question 6

Intermediate Learners` attitude

6- Which method of correction is mostly used in your class?

Table 4.6.1 the method of correcting errors according to intermediate learners` attitude

Self-correction

Peer-correction

Postponed

Delayed

Immediate

 

4.32

3.43

3.49

2.13

1.58

Mean

3

4

5

2

1

Rank

 

Advanced Learners` attitude

6- Which method of correction is mostly used in your class?                  

Table 4.6.2 the mean, frequency and method of correcting errors     according to advanced learners` attitude

 

Self-correction

Peer-correction

Postponed

Delayed

Immediate

 

4.29

3.49

3.64

2.30

1.23

Mean

3

4

5

2

1

Rank

  

Intermediate Teachers` attitude

11- Which method of correction is mostly used in your intermediate classes?

Table 4.6.3 the method of correction which should be mostly used in the classes according to teachers` attitude

 

Self-correction

Peer-correction

Postponed

Delayed

Immediate

 

3.38

3.49

3.03

1.65

3.43

Mean

3

5

2

1

4

Rank

 

Advanced Teachers` attitude

12- Which method of correction is mostly used in your advanced classes?

Table 4.6.4 the method of correction which should be mostly used in the classes according to teachers` attitude

 

Self-correction

Peer-correction

Postponed

Delayed

Immediate

 

3.40

3.47

3.05

1.60

3.47

Mean

3

5

2

1

4

Rank

Results of Chi-square Test and percentage of Question 7 intermediate and advanced learners

  Crosstabs

Question 7- What is the relationship between learners` proficiency and types of errors which are committed by EFL learners?

Cross Tabulation for learner  proficiency and types of errors

 

 

 

Types of Error

Total

 

 

 

Pronunciation

Vocabulary

Grammar

Content

Proficiency

Intermediate Learners

 

Count

36

18

31

15

100

Expected Count

36.4

26.7

23.6

13.3

100.0

% within prof1

36.0%

18.0%

31.0%

15.0%

100.0%

% within error1

60.0%

40.9%

79.5%

68.2%

60.6%

% of Total

21.8%

10.9%

18.8%

9.1%

60.6%

Advanced Learners

Count

24

26

8

7

65

Expected Count

23.6

17.3

15.4

8.7

65.0

% within prof1

36.9%

40.0%

12.3%

10.8%

100.0%

% within error1

40.0%

59.1%

20.5%

31.8%

39.4%

% of Total

14.5%

15.8%

4.8%

4.2%

39.4%

Total

Count

60

44

39

22

165

Expected Count

60.0

44.0

39.0

22.0

165.0

% within prof1

36.4%

26.7%

23.6%

13.3%

100.0%

% within error1

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

% of Total

36.4%

26.7%

23.6%

13.3%

100.0%

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

Value

Df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

13.511a

3

.004

Likelihood Ratio

13.861

3

.003

Linear-by-Linear Association

2.771

1

.096

N of Valid Cases

165

 

 

a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 8.67.

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Results of Chi-square Test and percentage of Question 7 intermediate and advanced teachers

    Crosstabs

 

Question 7- What is the relationship between learners` proficiency and types of errors which are committed by EFL learners?

Cross tabulation for teachers proficiency and types of errors

 

 

 

Types of error

Total

 

 

 

Pronunciation

Vocabulary

Grammar

Content

Proficiency

Intermediate

Teachers

 

Count

40

4

10

1

55

Expected Count

28.5

14.5

8.5

3.5

55.0

% within prof1

72.7%

7.3%

18.2%

1.8%

100.0%

% within error1

70.2%

13.8%

58.8%

14.3%

50.0%

% of Total

36.4%

3.6%

9.1%

.9%

50.0%

Advanced Teachers

Count

17

25

7

6

55

Expected Count

28.5

14.5

8.5

3.5

55.0

% within prof1

30.9%

45.5%

12.7%

10.9%

100.0%

% within error1

29.8%

86.2%

41.2%

85.7%

50.0%

% of Total

15.5%

22.7%

6.4%

5.5%

50.0%

Total

Count

57

29

17

7

110

Expected Count

57.0

29.0

17.0

7.0

110.0

% within prof1

51.8%

26.4%

15.5%

6.4%

100.0%

% within error1

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

% of Total

51.8%

26.4%

15.5%

6.4%

100.0%

 

Chi-Square Tests

 

 

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

28.588a

3

.000

Likelihood Ratio

30.979

3

.000

Linear-by-Linear Association

9.304

1

.002

N of Valid Cases

110

 

 

a. 2 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.50.