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Welcome

To

Our class

2

Teaching Model

I. Specific objectives

II. Activities

A. pre-instruction or motivation stage

(directions & activities)

B. While-Instruction activities

1. Recognition ( directions and activities )

2. Manipulation (directions and activities )

3. Production (directions and activities )

C. Post-instruction or Reinforcement stage

(directions and activities )

 


Welcome

To

Our class

2

Teaching Model

I. Specific objectives

II. Activities

A. pre-instruction or motivation stage

(directions & activities)

B. While-Instruction activities

1. Recognition ( directions and activities )

2. Manipulation (directions and activities )

3. Production (directions and activities )

C. Post-instruction or Reinforcement stage

(directions and activities )

I. Specific objective :Grammar

Modification of adjectives

A. Pre-Instruction activities

Pre- assessment activity

Analysis of students have learned

What the adjective , adverb and

noun are and what the place of

each of them is.

Materials

blackboard, painting

Enough

B. While – Instruction activities

Objective 1 (structure 1)

Teacher : Close your books , look at

the board and listen to me carefully.

The teacher draws a girl ,then she

writes and readsa:

This is Mary. Mary is 8 years old.

3

This is Mary. Mary is 8 years old.

Can Mary go to school

yes, she can go to school.

Can she read a book

yes, she can read a book.

Can she write a letter

yes, she can write a letter.

Is she old enough to go to school

yes, she is old enough to go to school.

Is she old enough to read a book

yes, she is old enough to read a book.

Is she old enough to write a letter

yes, she is old enough to write a letter.

Activity b(1)

Manipulation of transformation drill

The teacher asks the students repeat the

following sentences 1,2 and 3.

1. She is old enough to go to school.

2. She is old enough to read a book.

3. She is old enough to write a letter.

Activity c(1)

Production of transformation drill

The teacher draws a little boy on the board,

then he/she writes and reads

This is John. John is 5 years old.

Can John go to school

No, he can't go to school.

No, he can't go to school.

No, he isn't old enough to go to school.

Is he old enough to read a book

4

No, he isn't old enough to read a book.

Is he old enough to write a letter

No, he isn't old enough to write a letter.

Objective 2 (Structure 2)

Activity a(2)

recognition of transformation drill

Teacher : John is very young. He can't go to school.

Activity b(2)

Manipulation and production of transformation drill

John is too young to go to school.

John is too young to read a book.

John is too young to write a letter.

***

As the teacher is writing and

reading the above sentences

on the board, the students

repeat them in chorus.

The teacher draws an old woman on

the board and writes and reads:

Teacher: Mary and John have a grandmother.

The grandmother is very old.

Is she too old to go to school

Student: yes, she is too old to go to school.

Teacher: The grandmother was very sick last week.

She couldn't eat any thing.

Student: The grandmother was too sick to eat any thing.

The teacher asks the students

to combine two above sentences

and make one meaningful sentence.

Objective 3 (structure 3)

so

Activity a(3)

recognition of transformation drill

5

Teacher:

The grandmother was so sick

that she couldn't eat any thing.

Activity b(3):

Manipulation and production of transformation drill

The teacher asks students

to combine two above

sentences and make one

meaningful sentence.

Teacher: The grandmother was very sick. She couldn't walk.

Student: The grandmother was so sick that she couldn't walk.

The teacher asks students

to combine two above

sentences first with

too and second with so.

Teacher: Mary and John made her some soup.

The soup was very hot. She couldn't eat it.

Student: The soup was too hot to eat.

The soup was so hot that she couldn't eat it.

Objective 4 (structure 4)

such

Activity a(4)

recognition of transformation drill

The teacher asks students

to combine two above

sentences first with

too and second with so.

Teacher: Mary and John made her some soup.

The soup was very hot. She couldn't eat it.

Student: The soup was too hot to eat.

6

The soup was so hot that she couldn't eat it.

Activity b(4)

Manipulation and production of transformation drill

Teacher

she is a lovely woman. Every one is worried for her.

The teacher asks students

to combine two above

sentences and make one

meaningful sentence with such.

Student: she is such a lovely woman that every one

is worried for her.

Objective 5 (structure 5)

enough

Activity a(5)

recognition of transformation drill

Teacher: The grandmother was very sick.

They didn't have money.

They couldn’t take her to hospital.

They didn't have enough money to take her to hospital.

Activity b(5):

Manipulation and production of transformation drill

Teacher

She didn't have money. She couldn't see the doctor.

The teacher asks students

to combine two above

sentences and make one

meaningful sentence with such.

Student: She didn't have enough money to see the doctor.

***

In this part the teacher asks students

to review the sentences with enough, too,

so, and such structures about Mary, John

and the grandmother which have already been written on the board, and then asks them to make a formula

for each structure.

***

Example: she is old enough to go to school.

adjective + enough + infinitive

Example: John is too young to go to school.

7

too + adjective + infinitive

Example: The soup was so hot that she couldn't eat it.

so + adjective/adverb

Example: It was such hot soup that she couldn't eat it.

such + (adjective + noun)

Example: They didn't have enough money to take her to hospital.

enough + noun + infinitive

C. Post-Instruction

or Reinforcement stage (directions and activities)

Activity C (1)

The teacher asks the students to open their books "page 40"

and look at the blue box of presentation. The teacher asks clever

students to read the examples loudly and say the meaning of so,

such, enough, and too in given sentences.

By doing this, he establishes a fundamental competence of this

grammatical element and its rules in the mind of the learners. A

short explanation in Farsi is also permissible if the teacher founds

it necessary for the class.

Activity C(2)

The teacher asks the students to read directions of

Exercises on page 40 & 41 one by one and give them

enough time to do them in pairs , compare and discuss

their answers.

Then the teacher check their answers and allow for further

questions and comments.

A brilliant lesson

1

Lesson Plan

of

Pre-University English

Book One

Lesson Three

By: Homeira Abdor-rahimee Afshar

Qazvin Province

Fajr High school- Qazvin 2nd district

Winter 1387

Acknowledgement

This paper is a lesson plan of lesson three in Pre-university book 1.

The first part is a table of activities and time allocation of each activity, the purpose of each part and also the

task of teacher and the students and their interaction.

The second part is step by step activities in details, done in the classroom, along with the flash cards, the

handout and true/false questions, also the passage given as an assignment, and a CD containing the whole

lesson plan along with some of the words of this lesson in power point.

Time: 8-9:20 Subject: English Language Class: secondary 2 English (mixed ability level)

Language Focus: Reading Topic: Global Warming, Global Concern

Objectives:

To teach students how to skim for the main idea of the passage or paragraph and scan

for the specific idea of the passage or a certain paragraph

Prior knowledge: Students have learned how to locate information by reading and finding the main sentence

of each paragraph

Materials:

Reading materials-article about global warming, blackboard and chalk, flash cards or pictures and a

computer to show the slides of vocabulary on CD in power point setting.

St

ep

Ti

me

Tasks(teacher) Tasks(pupils

)

interaction purpose

1 3-5 Opening: introduction to the topic (global

warming)T activates schema for global

warming .

T shows them a picture of a globe melting

like an ice cream. Or if possible a piece of

film.

asks Ss to help him/her write as many

words as they can about global

warming.

Listen T↔Ss Arouse interest

2

3-5 Distributing a printed report about global

warming and greenhouse effect. T asks Ss

to read it quickly and answer the T/F

questions that follow it within 3 minutes.

T goes over to the answers and shows how

he/she found the answers based on key

words in an article.

3 3-5 T tells Ss that they just practiced

skimming to get the gist of a passage.

Ss read the

handout

Ss answer

the

questions.

Ss checks

their answers

T↔Ss

Ss↔T

T↔Ss

Focus attention of Ss on the

concept of skimming for the

general gist with authentic

material.

Getting Ss read a passage

quickly to get an overall

meaning.

4 3-5 T tells Ss about the importance of

skimming and how it can help them to

locate the required information quickly.

Ss listen T↔Ss To develop Ss’

metacognitive awareness

5 3-5 Familiarizing Ss with the topic: global Ss listen T↔Ss To make Ss interested in the

2

Step Time Tasks(teacher) Tasks(pupils) interaction purpose

6

(pre-reading)

3-7 T asks some

questions

(questions are

attached)

Ss answer

questions

individually or

in groups

T↔Ss To motivate

and make

Ss ready for

the passage

7

(vocabulary)

5-10 a) lead in

T writes some

words of the

passage which

seem difficult for

Ss and asks

them to look at

the words and

repeat them

after him/her

T provides a

context which

the words are

used.(the

sentences are

attached)

b)convey the

meaning

T conveys the

meaning of the

words through

definitions,

synonyms or

antonyms ,

explaining what

they mean or

through pictures

or slides in

power point

setting.

Ss repeat the

new words

which the T

points to,

,chorally or

individually and

try aurally and

orally learn the

meaning of the

words.

Ss listen

(or watch)

Ss do it as the

teacher has

recommended.

They just move

on words

without taking

too much time.

T↔Ss

T↔Ss

Ss↔T

To remove

anxiety of not

knowing the

meaning of

some new

words.

To practice

what they have

already learned

(skimming).

8

Reading

10-15 T puts Ss in

groups of 3 or 4

and asks them

to read each

paragraph in a

limited portion

of time (at first

in 3 minutes

then reduced to

1 minute) after

finishing each

paragraph s/he

asks them to

find the gist of

each paragraph

and sometimes

a suitable topic

for each

paragraph..

9 T puts Ss in Groups read Ss↔T To be able to

warming and related subject greenhouse

effect. T writes the word: Greenhouse

effects and asks Ss whether they

understand the meaning of written word, if

not s/he would talk about what it means.

subject.

3

Post reading

10

Evaluation

10-15

5-7

group 3 or four

assigning them

to read the

whole text.

T asks Ss to

make question in

group about the

passage and ask

other groups to

answer. Or T

gives them a

somatic

mapping to

complete.

the whole text,

this is an

intensive

reading, paying

more attention

to details.

Then they’ll

answer the

questions on

page 26.

Ss make

questions or

complete the

semantic

mapping.

Ss↔T

read and

comprehend

the passage

using the word

definition

teacher

provided.

To check the

Ss’

understanding

of the passage

and how they

are able to

locate the

specific idea.

Lesson Plan

Pre-university Book One- Lesson Three

Goals & Strategies

Goal: understanding a passage and finding main and specific idea of the passage using skimming and

scanning.

1. Objectives

a. Terminal objectives:

_Ss successfully understand how to control global warming and ways to reduce the greenhouse effects

_Ss will be able to guess the meaning of unknown words using the context

b. Enabling Objectives

•Ss will read, understand how to find the general idea of a passage or a paragraph

•Ss will read and understand a passage about global warming in this lesson and similar passages

•Ss will learn to fix main point of a certain paragraph or the passage

•Ss will be able to produce correct sentences using the vocabulary learned in this lesson

3. Materials and Equipment

pictures, flash cards, some magnets or tape to put the flash cards or pictures on the board, board, chalk, a

computer to show the slides on CD or pictures provided.

4. Procedures

a. an opening statement or activity as a warm –up

b. a set of activities and techniques in which T considers appropriate proportions of time for:

i. whole _class work

ii. small _group work

iii. teacher talk [ there should be a balance between T talk and Ss talk]

iv. students talk

5. Evaluation

To see whether the objectives have been accomplished or not T can go through this step by playing some

games, or giving them a semantic mapping to complete.

4

Warm up

I enter the class and greet warmly, then start the class with some questions about the Ss activities on

previous day, or some questions that are somehow related to the unit going to be taught so that , arouse their

interests.

e.g. How are you today? Is anybody absent today?

I check to see who is absent, if there is any , I’d ask if other Ss know the reason of her absence, or if there

was an absent last cession and today she is present, I’ll ask about her problem and wish her to be present in

the rest of sessions.

1. 1. As the subject of the lesson is about global warming, I show them the picture on page 22 of their book

or a picture I've taken from Internet (picture NO.1) and ask them to tell me what the picture is trying to

convey. Ss may say it shows that the earth is getting warmer, if so, I'll ask them what causes the earth to get

warmer. They may talk about something like cutting the trees, using fossil fuels, building factories and

power stations, etc. I'll put theses words on the board. (This is done to be sure about the students’ prior

knowledge of the topic being taught.)

2. I distribute a handout about global warming. (The handout is attached.)

3. I ask them to skim the hand out and answer the true/false questions within 3 minutes.

When the time is over, I ask some Ss to read their answer if it was wrong I’ll provide them the correct

answer.

4. I tell them the importance of skimming and how they can use it to save time in other situations like in

doing reading comprehension part in exams.

Teaching Reading

Pre-reading activities

To familiarize the Ss with the topic and activating schema, I tell them we are going to talk about of the

greenhouse effects and write the phrase “Greenhouse Effects” on the board and ask them whether they know

the meaning of the written phrase, if not I’d tell them about some of the greenhouse effects. Here all the Ss

understand the meaning.

1. Then I’ll ask some question as follows:

1. What is a greenhouse?

2. How is it in a greenhouse?

3. Why is it hot in a greenhouse?

4. What causes the earth to be like a greenhouse?

5. Can we do anything to reduce the effects of greenhouse gases? Give me some examples.

(Ss will answer these questions individually or in groups.)

2. A. (some of the words have been taught the previous session or I ask the Ss to use the context to guess the

meaning of unknown words.) I’ll write some words of the passage on the board or put the flash cards and

pictures of the words on the board and ask them to look at the words and repeat after me first in choirs then

individually. (if possible I'll take them to the computer site of school and teach them some of the new words

using the slides I've made.) The words are:

concern, damage, environment, extinction, fell, recycle, scientist, temperature, trash

B. Lead- in

I provide a context where the words are used. e.g.:

concern The report expressed concern about the bad effects of TV

on children .

damage He had an accident, but he didn't do any damage to his car.

environment The children need a happy home environment.

extinction Some animals are in danger of extinction.

fell Felling the trees may cause more air pollution.

recycle Old newspapers can be recycled.

scientist Dr. Hesabi is a great scientist.

temperature On a very hot day the temperature reaches 35° c.

trash There was lots of trash in the river.

5

radiate The heat radiated from the stove made the kitchen warm.

C. convey the meaning

I’ll tell them the meaning of words through definition, synonyms or antonyms, showing pictures, or

explaining what they mean.

concern a feeling of worry about sth spe. One that is shared by many

people, worry

damage physical harm caused to sth which makes it less attractive,

useful or valuable

environment the air, water, or land in which living things live

extinction when all the animals and plants of a particular type die

fell to cut a tree

recycle change old materials to use them again

scientist a person who studies one or more of the NATURAL

SCIENCES e.g. physics, chemistry, and biology

temperature how hot or cold sth is

trash things that you don't want any more, rubbish

radiate send out heat or light

While reading activities

1. I’ll put the Ss in groups of 3 or four and ask them to read each paragraph in a limited time, e.g. first

in 3 min. then in 1 min.

2. When the time is over I ask “What was the main point in this paragraph e.g. paragraph 5?” or “what

can be a suitable heading for this paragraph, e.g. Paragraph 1?”

Then point to each group, and ask them to tell the answer. They go through each paragraph until the end

of the reading passage.

Again in group 3 or four, I assign them to read the whole text.

Post_reading activities

1. I ask Ss read the T/F questions on page 26 and answer them in groups in a limited time.

2. I ask Ss to read their answer. Ss should be able to say what they think, why they think so, and prove

it by locating where they found the answer.(WWP approach)

Ss are given some time to make one or two questions in groups, then each group will read their questions and

other groups will answer.

Or I may give them a semantic mapping to complete. It may be something like this:

Why is global

warming happening?

6

This step is done to see how much Ss have learned from the passage, in fact, as an evaluation of my work in

the class.

If there is enough time, I show the slides about the semantic mapping.

The last step would be giving an extra passage related to the subject the Ss read and answer its questions as

an assignment for the next session.

&

The Earth is wrapped in a blanket of air called the 'atmosphere', which is made up of several layers of gases.

The sun is much hotter than the Earth and it gives off rays of heat (radiation) that travel through the

atmosphere and reach the Earth. The rays of the sun warm the Earth, and heat from the Earth then travels

back into the atmosphere. The gases in the atmosphere stop some of the heat from escaping into space. These

gases are called greenhouse gases and the natural process between the sun, the atmosphere and the Earth is

called the 'Greenhouse Effect', because it works the same way as a greenhouse. The windows of a

greenhouse play the same role as the gases in the atmosphere, keeping some of the heat inside the

greenhouse.

THE ENHANCED GREENHOUSE EFFECT

Possible effects of

climate change

7

Some of the activities of man also produce greenhouse gases. These gases keep increasing in the atmosphere.

The balance of the greenhouse gases changes and this has effects on the whole of the planet.

Burning fossil fuels - coal, oil and natural gas - releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Cutting down

and burning trees also produces a lot of carbon dioxide.

A group of greenhouse gases called the chlorofluorocarbons, - which are usually called CFCs, because the

other word is much too long! - have been used in aerosols, such as hairspray cans, fridges and in making

foam plastics. They are found in small amounts in the atmosphere. They are dangerous greenhouse gases

because small amounts can trap large amounts of heat.

Because there are more and more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, more heat is trapped which makes the

Earth warmer. This is known as GLOBAL WARMING.

A lot of scientists agree that man's activities are making the natural greenhouse effect stronger. If we carry on

polluting the atmosphere with greenhouse gases, it will have very dangerous effects on the Earth.

Sea Levels

Higher temperatures will make the water of the seas and oceans expand. Ice melting in the Antarctic and

Greenland will flow into the sea.

All over the world, sea levels may rise, perhaps by as much as 20 to 40 cm, by the beginning of the next

century.

Higher sea levels will threaten the low-lying coastal areas of the world, such as the Netherlands and

Bangladesh. Throughout the world, millions of people and areas of land will be at danger from flooding.

Many people will have to leave their homes and large areas of farmland will be ruined because of floods. In

Britain, East Anglia and the Thames estuary will be at risk from the rising sea.

True/False

1. Small amount of CFCs can trap large amount of heat._____

8

2. Rise of sea levels has no dangerous effects.______

3. Some gases in the atmosphere don't let heat enter the space.____

4. Man has no role in producing greenhouse gases._____

5. Felling tress and burning them produces a lot of carbon dioxide.____

Bibliography

1. Brown. H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by principals. (an interactive approach to language

pedagogy).Addison Wesley Longman. Inc.

2. Celce_ Murcia, Marianne. ,& McIntosh, Loice.2003. Teaching English as a second or foreign language..

Newbury House Publishers. Inc.

3. Chastain, Kenneth. Developing second language skills(theory and practice).1998. Harcourt Brace

Jovanovich. Inc.

4. Tavakoli, M. & Memari,M. 2oo4. A Reference Book on English College Preparatory Book 1. Kerdgar

Publication.

5. www.clean-air-kids-org.Uk

Reading Comprehension

Read the passage carefully.

You don’t have to be a diplomat or a rocket scientist to do something about global warming. There are

simple steps each of us can take that will go a long way toward reducing our use of energy_ and for this

reason, sending out of the green house gas, such as carbon dioxide, that helps produce global warming. Here

are a few things that each of us can do:

Reduce, reuse, recycle. Buy products that are reusable, recyclable. By recycling all of your home’s waste

newsprint, cardboard, glass, and metal, you can reduce sending out of carbon dioxide by 850 pounds

annually.

Think about giving your car a day off. By leaving your car at home two days a week, you can reduce

emission o f carbon dioxide by 1,590 pounds per year.

Use solar energy. Install a solar thermal system in your home to help provide you hot water and reduce

emission o f carbon dioxide by about 720 pounds annually.

Plant trees. Join other people in planting trees in your yard, along roadways, and in parks. Trees remove 50

pounds of carbon from the atmosphere in a year during photosynthesis.

Educate others. Let friends and family know about these practical, energy _saving steps they can take to

save money while protecting the environment.

A few simple actions on your part but they can make a big difference. By taking these measures, you could

cut your annual greenhouse gas emission by more than 10,000 pounds annually, almost as much as if you

didn’t drive your car for a year. Why not do you part to help slow global warming and make our planet a

better place for our children and us? You’ll be surprised at how much money you can save at the same time.

Choose the best answer.

1.According to the passage ,which one doesn’t reduce carbon dioxide?

a. planting trees b. driving your own car

c. using solar energy d. educating others about global warming

2. According to the passage, which one reduces more carbon dioxide?

a. using public transportation b. using solar energy

c. recycling waste materials d. planting trees

3. The words Reduce, reuse, recycle are ways to:

a. decrease emission of carbon dioxide b. add the greenhouse effect

c. add carbon dioxide to the air d. using solar energy

4. The best title for this passage would be:

a. Greenhouse gases b. How to be a diplomat?

9

c. How to save the environment ? d. How to save your energy?

10

11