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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

400 Must-Have Words for the TOEFL (3 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 

 

LESSON  2

Disaster

Target Words

1. anticipate 6. flood

2. catastrophic 7. impact

3. collide 8. persevere

4. eruption 9. plunge

5. famine 10. unleash

Definitions and Samples

1. anticipate v. To expect; to sense something before it happens

By placing sensors in earthquake-prone areas, scientists can anticipate

some tremors in time to warn the public.

Parts of speech anticipation n, anticipatory adj

2. catastrophic adj. Extremely harmful; causing financial or physical

ruin

The architect died in a catastrophic elevator accident.

Parts of speech catastrophe n, catastrophically adv

3. collide v. To come together with great or violent force

As usual, their holiday was ruined when their in-laws’ views on politics

collided with their own.

Parts of speech collision n

8 Nature

4. eruption n. A sudden, often violent, outburst

The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 caused 57 deaths and

immeasurable change to the face of the mountain.

Usage tips Eruption is often followed by an of phrase.

Parts of speech erupt v

5. famine n. Severe hunger; a drastic food shortage

The potato famine in Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century caused

large numbers of Irish people to emigrate to America.

6. flood n. An overflowing of water; an excessive amount

The constant rain and poor drainage system caused a flood in town.

The political party sent out a flood of letters criticizing their

opponents.

Parts of speech flood v

7. impact n. A strong influence

The speech about the importance of education made an impact

on me.

Usage tips Impact is usually followed by on or of.

Parts of speech impact v

8. persevere v. To keep going, despite obstacles or discouragement; to

maintain a purpose

The hikers persevered despite the bad weather and the icy trail.

Parts of speech persist v, persistent adj

9. plunge v. To go down suddenly; to decrease by a great amount in a

short time

He jumped off the diving board and plunged into the pool.

The value of the company’s stock plunged after its chief executive

was arrested.

Disaster

Usage tips Plunge is often followed by an into phrase.

Parts of speech plunge n

10. unleash v. To release a thing or an emotion

When they saw the strange man on their property, they unleashed

their dogs.

He is from such an unemotional family, he will never learn to unleash

his feelings.

TOEFL Prep I Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning

to the opposite of each word in the left-hand column. Write the letter

in the blank.

1. persevere (a) to pass by without hitting

2. anticipate (b) to give up

3. famine (c) to not see something coming

4. collide (d) harmless

5. catastrophic (e) excess of food

TOEFL Prep II Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

1. Residents of Hawaii must accept the possibility of a volcanic (eruption /

perseverance).

2. Years after the accident, she was finally able to (anticipate / unleash)

her feelings of anger.

3. Houses along the river often face (famine / flooding) during the rainy

season.

4. Many people think it is cruel to (collide / plunge) live lobsters into boiling

water.

5. A well-written essay should make some kind of (catastrophe / impact)

on its readers.

 

TOEFL Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you

have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

Nature challenges humans in many ways, through disease, weather, and

famine. For those living along the coast, one unusual phenomenon capable

of catastrophic destruction is the tsunami (pronounced “tsoo-NAH-mee”).

A tsunami is a series of waves generated in a body of water by an

impulsive disturbance. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions,

explosions, and even the impact of meteorites can generate tsunamis.

Starting at sea, a tsunami slowly approaches land, growing in height and

losing energy through bottom friction and turbulence. Still, just like any

other water waves, tsunamis unleash tremendous energy as they plunge

onto the shore.They have great erosion potential, stripping beaches of

sand, undermining trees, and flooding hundreds of meters inland.They

can easily crush cars, homes, vegetation, and anything they collide with.

To minimize the devastation of a tsunami, scientists are constantly trying

to anticipate them more accurately and more quickly. Because

many factors come together to produce a life-threatening

tsunami, foreseeing them is not easy. Despite this, researchers

in meteorology persevere in studying and predicting tsunami

behavior.

1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage?

a. Tsunamis could become a new source of usable energy in the next

hundred years.

b. Tsunamis do more damage to the land than flooding.

c. Tsunamis can have an especially catastrophic impact on coastal

communities.

d. Scientists can predict and track tsunamis with a fair degree of accuracy,

reducing their potential impact.

2. In the first sentence, why does the author mention weather?

a. because tsunamis are caused by bad weather

b. because tsunamis are more destructive than weather phenomena

c. as an example of a destructive natural force

d. as an introduction to the topic of coastal storms