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آموزش انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم

بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

Domains of learning
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:۱٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/٥/۱٦

Benjamin Bloom has suggested three domains of learning:

  • Cognitive – To recall, calculate, discuss, analyze, problem solve, etc.
  • Psychomotor – To dance, swim, ski, dive, drive a car, ride a bike, etc.
  • Affective – To like something or someone, love, appreciate, fear, hate, worship, etc.

These domains are not mutually exclusive. For example, in learning to play chess, the person will have to learn the rules of the game (cognitive domain); but he also has to learn how to set up the chess pieces on the chessboard and also how to properly hold and move a chess piece (psychomotor). Furthermore, later in the game the person may even learn to love the game itself, value its applications in life, and appreciate its history (affective domain).[15]

Transfer of learning



The transfer of learning can be defined as extending what has been learned in one context to new contexts. Determining if and to what extent a person can transfer their learned knowledge can be a strong indication of the quality of the learning experience itself. Effective memorization of information does not equal a meaningful learning experience, because the knowledge acquired might not be understood. The ability to understand and apply learnings, implies a deeper knowledge gained. The context of the original learning, time given to learn, motivation of learner, active participation, and progress monitoring of learning are all important factors that effect the degree to which learning is transferrable. Experts have found that learner-responsible learning is an effective way to educate learners.[16] As a result, educators should focus on increasing the role of individual learners in education.[17] New research within cognitive science has helped unfold the multidisciplinary nature of learning. Anthropology, linguistics, philosophy, psychology and neuroscience all play a role in learning. More importantly, these factors play a role in the level of understanding one person develops versus another person.[18]

Active learning

Active learning occurs when a person takes control of their learning experience. Since understanding information is the key aspect of learning, it is important for learners to recognize what they understand and what they do not. By doing so, they can monitor their own mastery of subjects. Active learning encourages learners to have an internal dialogue in which they are verbalizing their understandings. This and other meta-cognitive strategies can be taught to a child over time. Studies within metacognition have proven the value in active learning, claiming that the learning is usually at a stronger level as a result.[19] In addition, learners have more incentive to learn when they have control over not only how they learn but also what they learn.[20]