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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

Present Simple
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٧:٤۸ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/۳٠
 

 

By Kenneth Beare, About.com Guide

See More About:

Beginning to intermediate level English learners can use this quick overview of the present simple tense to learn uses and examples of the present tense to speak about routines, facts, and opinions. Examples are provided for each use of the present simple, as well as the structure for positive, negative and questions. To practice the present simple read aboutTim's Day. You can also test your understanding with this present simple quiz.

Present Simple

Listed below are uses with examples, and the structure of the present simple tense.

Permanent or long-lasting situations

Where do you work?
The store opens at 9 o'clock.
She lives in New York.

Regular habits and daily routines

I usually get up at 7 o'clock.
She doesn't often go to the cinema.
When do they usually have lunch?

Facts

The Earth revolves around the Sun.
What does 'strange' mean?
Water doesn't boil at 20 degrees.

Feelings

I love walking around late at night during the summer.
She hates flying!
What do you like? I don't want to live in Texas.

Opinions and states of mind

He doesn't agree with you.
I think he is a wonderful student.
What do you consider your best accomplishment?

Timetables and schedules

The plane leaves at 4 p.m.
When do courses begin this semester?
The train doesn't arrive until 10.35.

Common present time expressions include:

usually, always, often, sometimes, on Saturdays, at weekends (on weekends US English), rarely, on occasion, never, seldom

Structure

Positive

In the positive form add an 's' to the base form of the 3rd person singular. If the verb ends in -y preceded by a consonant, change the -y to -ies.

I, You, We, They -> eat lunch at noon.

He, She, It -> works well in any situation.

Negative

Conjugate the helping verb 'do' not (don't and doesn't) the base form of the verb to make negatives.

I, You, We, They -> don't enjoy opera.

He, She, It -> doesn't belong to the club.

Questions

Conjugate the helping verb 'do' (do or does) the base form of the verb in question forms.

Do -> I, you, we, they -> work in this town?

Does -> he, she, it -> live in this city?


 
 
نمونه سوالات کنکوری از زمان های گذشته و آینده
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٧:٤٦ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/۳٠
 

 

زمانهای گذشته و آینده

     1-I opened one door as a soon as I …the bell.

1)heard                         2) am heard                  3) have heard                4) was hearing

     2-we always … to our aunt’s house on Sundays when we lived there.

1) went                         2) will go                       3) were going                4) have gone

  3-“His sudden absence surprised every one.”    “Yes , I was working in the kitchen when he…..”

1) had left         2) has left                     3) would leave               4) left

  4-She hadn’t left the city until we …her to do so.

1) will ask         2) were asking 3) has asked                  4) asked

  5-Every day last week, father …me to school in his car.

1) take              2) took              3) had taken                  4) has taken

 


 
 
زمان گذشته استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٧:٤٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/۳٠
 

 

 ساختار

جملات پرسشی:

eating?

playing?

talking?

I,  he, she, it

was

wasn’t

you, we, they

were

weren’t

جملات مثبت و منفی:

walking

playing

fishing

was

wasn’t

I,  he, she, it

were

weren’t

you, we, they

 کاربرد

از زمان گذشته استمراری بیشتر برای بیان کارهایی استفاده می‌شود که در گذشته اتفاق افتاده و مدتی ادامه داشته‌اند ولی حدود زمانی آنها به طور دقیق مشخص یا مهم نیست.

در اغلب موارد گذشته استمراری همراه با گذشته ساده بکار می‌رود. در چنین حالتی، گذشته استمراری بر کارها و فعالیتهای طولانی‌تر (در پس‌زمینه) دلالت می‌کند، در حالی که گذشته ساده بر کارها و فعالیتهایی دلالت می‌کند که در میانه کارهای طولانی‌تر واقع شده‌اند.


بطور کلی «گذشته استمراری» در موارد زیر بکار می‌رود:

۱- برای بیان کاری که قبل از زمان خاصی در گذشته آغاز شده و احتمالاً پس از آن نیز ادامه داشته است:

  • ‘What were you doing at 6.00?’  ‘I was havingbreakfast.’
    (.ساعت ۶ چکار می‌کردید؟ داشتم صبحانه می‌خوردم)

 ۲- برای بیان کار یا فعالیتی در گذشته که به وسیله چیزی قطع شده باشد:

  • The phone rang when I was watching TV.
    (.وقتی داشتم تلویزیون تماشا می‌کردم، تلفن زنگ زد)
  • While I was driving home, my car broke down.
    (.هنگامیکه داشتم به خانه بر می‌گشتم، ماشینم خراب شد)

 ۳- برای بیان کار یا فعالیتی به پایان نرسیده در زمان گذشته (در مقایسه با گذشته ساده که کارهای کامل شده را بیان می‌کند):

  • was reading a book during the flight. (I didn’t finish it)



 
 
زمان گذشته ساده
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٧:٤٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/۳٠
 

 

 ساختار

(last week)

(yesterday)

worked

I, we, you, he, she, …

played

heard

 

منفی

work…

play…

hear…

didn’t

did not

I, we, you, he, she, …

پرسشی

work…?

play…?

hear…?

I, we, you, he, she, …

Did

 کاربرد

گذشته ساده در موارد زیر کاربرد دارد:

۱- برای بیان کاری که در گذشته و زمان مشخصی به پایان رسیده است:

  • We met last week.
  • He left yesterday.

 ۲- برای بیان کارهایی که پشت سرهم در یک ماجرا یا داستان می‌آیند:

  • walked into my room and sat down. Suddenly Iheard a noise coming from outside. I got up andwent towards the window…

 ۳- برای بیان عادت یا شرایطی در گذشته:

  • When he was a child, they lived in a cottage in the jungle.
  • Every day he walked in the jungle to
  • نکاتی در مورد هجی (verb + ed)
  • نکاتی در مورد هجی (verb + ed)
  • 1- هنگامیکه فعلی به e ختم می‌شود، فقط d اضافه می‌کنیم:
  • loved, hated, used
  • 2- افعال یک هجایی (یک بخشی) که به ترتیب شامل یک حرف صدادار و یک حرف بی‌صدا می‌باشند، حرف بی‌صدای آخر تکرار می‌شود:
  • stopped, planned, robbed
  • ولی اگر دو حرف صدادار وجود داشته باشد، حرف بی‌صدای آخر تکرار نمی‌شود:
  • looked, cooked, seated
  • اگر حرف بی‌صدای آخر y یا w باشد نیز تکرار نمی‌شود:
  • played, rowed, showed

 
 
زمان گذشته کامل استمراری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٤:٥٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/٢٩
 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

 

طرز ساختن:

فعل با ing

+been

+had

+فاعل

 

موارد استعمال:

هر گاه دو کار در زمان گذشته انجام گرفته و یکی از کارها مقدم بر دیگری باشد و در عین حال مدتی نیز ادامه داشته باشد آن را به صورت ماضی بعید استمراری بیان می کند:

He had been living in Tehran for 10 years before he died.

 

 

زمان گذشته کامل (ماضی بعید)Past Perfect Tense

طرز ساختن:

اسم مفعول (قسمت سوم فعل)

+had

+فاعل

 

موارد استعمال:

1- بیان کاری که در گذشته قبل از گذشته دیگر انجام گرفته است:

When we got to the station, the train had left.

 

2- بیان کاری که قبل از زمانی در گذشته انجام گرفته است:

They had finished the work before noon.

 

تبصره_ گاهی فعل زمان گذشته (مورد اول) و یا قید زمان گذشته(مورد دوم) از جمله حذف می شود ولی شنونده از مضمون سخن بدان پی می برد:

I had seen him (before I left the school).

 

3- بعد از حرف ربط قیدی مانندunless , if و سایر ادوات شرط برای بیان فرض گذشته به کار می رود:

If he had come earlier, he would have seen the doctor.

 

 

زمان گذشته استمراری (ماضی استمراری)

Past Continuous Tense

طرز ساختن:

فعل با ing +

was

+ فاعل

were

 

موارد استعمال:

1- کاری که در گذشته ادامه داشته و همزمان با آن کار دیگری صورت گیرد:

We were reading newspaper when the telephone rang.

 

2- کاری که در گذشته معین مدتی ادامه داشته است:

He was swimming at 3 o'clock yesterday.

 

3- کارهایی که همزمان با هم در گذشته مدتی ادامه داشته است:

When we were playing chess, my father was watching television.

 

4- کارهایی که در طول زمان معین در گذشته ادامه داشته است:

All last month we were visiting round Europe.

 

 

زمان گذشته ساده یا ماضی مطلقSimple Past tense

طرز ساختن:

زمان گذشته فعل (قسمت دوم)

+فاعل

 

موارد استعمال:

1- کارهایی که در گدشته معینی انجام گرفته و در این مورد قیدهایی نظیرago, last night, yesterday و نظایر آنها با جمله همراه است:

I finished my work two hours ago.

 

2- کارهایی که در گذشته به صورت عادت و تکرار انجام گرفته و اغلب با یکی از قیدهای تکرار همراه است:

When I was in London, I often went to the opera.

 

تبصره_ ممکن است به جای قید و زمان گذشته فعل از ترکیب(مصدر+used to ) استفاده کرد.این عمل غالباً برای کارهایی است که در گذشته عادت بوده ولی اکنون متروک است:

I used to play football when I was 16 years old.

 

3- بعد از حرف ربطunless , if و سایر ادوات شرط برای بیان شرط حال(فرض حال)،زمان گذشته به کار می رود:

If I saw him, I should tell him the matter.


 
 
Subjunctive (I suggest you do)
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٤:٤٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/٢٩
 

 

You can use the subjunctive after these verbs:

 

Propose            recommend       insist     demand

 

• I suggest (that) you take a vacation.

 

• They insisted (that) we have dinner with them.

 

• I insisted (that) he have dinner with me.

 

• He demanded (that) she apologize to him.

 

You can use the subjunctive for the present, past, or future:

 

I insist you come with us.

They insist I go with them.

 

Other structures are possible after insist and suggest:

 

• They insisted on my having dinner with them.

 

• She suggested that he buy some new clothes. (not suggested him to buy)

 

• What do you suggest I do? (not suggest me to do)

 

Should is sometimes used instead of the subjunctive.

 

• She suggested that he should buy some new clothes.

• The doctor recommended that I should rest for a few days.


 
 
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٤:٤۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/٢٩
 

TIME

CAUSE + EFFECT

OPPOSITION

CONDITION

after

because

although

if

before

since

though

unless

when

now that

even though

only if

while

as

whereas

whether or not

since

in order that

while

even if

until

so

 

in case (that)

 

Subordinating conjunctions, (subordinators) are most important in creating subordinating clauses. These adverbs that act like conjunctions are placed at the front of the clause. The adverbial clause can come either before or after the main clause. Subordinators are usually a single word, but there are also a number of multi-word subordinators that function like a single subordinating conjunction. They can be classified according to their use in regard to time, cause and effect, opposition, or condition. Remember, put a comma at the end of the adverbial phrase when it precedes the main clause


 
 
تست های زبان عمومی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٩:۳۸ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/٢۸
 

 

1. The police think the telephone call may hold a -------- to the identity of the killer.

a. fiction

b. clue

c. level

d. step

 

                                                                                  

2.  A: “Are you worried?”  B: “Only --------.”

a. slightly

b. actually

c. gradually

d. simply

 

                                                                    

3. Modern farming methods can have a negative -------- on the environment.

a. comfort

b. doubt

c. effect  

d. fame

 

4. We all have to learn to -------- stress.

a. obtain

c. attend

c. lessen

d. vary

 

5. Some students failed to -------- the meaning of unfamiliar words.

a. pose

b. hold

c. poke 

d. grasp

 

6. He decided to get married. First he had -------- with her parents.

a. defined

b. consulted

c. confused

d. recognized

 

7. The moment I saw her, I -------- something was wrong.

a. forced

b. realized

c. bordered

d. directed

 

8. He couldn’t get his high hopes. In fact, they were not --------.

a. predictable

b. realizable

c. accurate

d. contextual

 

9. Alice has a strong -------- to her father.

a. reference

b. trace

c. likeness

d. assumption

 

10. I had some pain in my back. The doctor -------- me to a specialist.

a. demanded

b. saved

c. checked

d. referred

 

11. The teacher is fair. He treats all the students --------.

a. variously

b. supposedly

c. strangely

d. alike

 

12. He was coughing a lot. The doctor told him to -------- smoking.

a. give up

b. find out

c. cross out

d. up root

 

13. I could not watch TV last night because it was not working --------.

a. separately

b. properly

c. constantly

d. gradually

 

14. We finally reached a -------- about what to do the other week.

a. confusion

b. realization

c. decision

d. definition

 

15. The word “love” is used in different -------- by different people.

a. errors

b. mistakes

c. positions

d. senses

 

16.  A: "Are you ready?"   B:  “No, not --------.”     

a. all right

b. special

c. as soon

d. yet

 

17. You feel like giving up, but you -------- reading.

a. want continue

b. want to continue to

c. want to continue

d. want continue to

 

18. Our car is old. We are considering -------- a new one.

a. to buy

b. buying

c. to be bought

d. being bought

 

19. He invited me to a party. I told him I could not promise -------- on time.

a. to be

b. being

c. to being

d. having been

 

20. The word "--------" is not an intensifier?

a. extremely

b. quite

c. terribly

d. hardly

 

21. I'd like an ice-cream.  "Are you having --------, too?"     

a. ones

b. one

c. two

d. many

 

22. This car -------- that one; this one is much better.

a. is the same as

b. is alike

c. is different from

d. is similar to

 

23. The children -------- had an accident lost their lives.

a. whom

b. who

c. whom they

d. where they

 

24. It takes at least three hours -------- the homework.

a. do

b. to do

c. doing

d. to doing

 

25. He works a lot, -------- he achieves little.

a. in other words

b. on the other hand

c. moreover

d. on the one hand

 

26. Water is necessary for life. -------- nothing can live without water.

a. In other words

b. However

c. Nonetheless

d. Nevertheless

 

27. When you are in doubt about spelling of a word, you’d better -------- a dictionary.

a. to refer to

b. referring to

c. to referring

d. refer to

 

28. He is very strong and confident. In fact, he is a man --------.

a. decisive

b. deciding

c. of decision

d. decidedly

 

29. Which is not an example of a compound word?

a. policeman

b. guardhouse

c. handgun

d. dictionary

 

30. Which pair of words is not an example of homophone?

a. write / right

b. fair / fare

c. son / sun

d. leave / live


 
 
May (have) and might (have)
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٩:۳٦ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/٢۸
 

 

May (have) and might (have)

 

 

Study this example situation:

 

You are looking for Jack. Nobody knows for sure where he is, but

you get some suggestions:

He may bein his office. (= perhaps he is in his office)

He might be having lunch. (= perhaps he is having lunch)

Ask Ann.She might know.

 

We use may or might to say that something is possible. You can say:

 

He may be in his office. or He might be in his office.

 

 

The negative is may not and might not:

 

• Jack might not be in his office. (= perhaps he isn’t in his office)

• I’m not sure whether I can lend you any money. I may not have enough.

(= perhaps I don’t have enough)

 

 

To say what was possible in the past, we use may have (done) and might have (done):

 

A: I wonder why Ann didn’t answer the doorbell.

B: Well, I suppose she may have been asleep. (= perhaps she was asleep)

 

A: Why didn’t he say hello when he passed us on the street?

B: He might have been daydreaming. (= perhaps he was daydreaming)

 

A: I can’t find my hag anywhere.

B: You might have left it in the store. (= perhaps you left it)

 

A: I wonder why Jill didn’t come to the meeting.

B: She might not have known about it. (= perhaps she didn’t know)

 

You can use could instead of may or might. But with couldthe possibility is smaller:

 

• “Where’s Jack?” “I’m not sure. He could be in his office, I suppose, but he’s not usually there at this time.”


 
 
A Quick Review of the Tenses (1)
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٩:۳٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/٢۸
 

 

Present continues (I am doing)

 

We use the present continues when we talk about something that is happening at the time of speaking, around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking, a period around the present such as: today, this week, and we use the present continues when we talk about changingsituations. Now read these examples and if you would like, you can give us your own examples:

 

1)      Please don’t make so much noise. I am studying.

2)      “Where’s Peggy?”  She’s taking a bath.

3)      Maria is studying English at a language school.

4)      Is your English getting better?

5)      The population of the world is rising very fast.

 

Simple present (I do)

 

We use the simple present to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about the present. We use to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general. It is not important whether the action is happening at the time of speaking. We use do/does to make questions and negative sentences. We use the simple present when we say how often we do things.

Note that we say “where do you come from?” (= where are you from?)

Now read these examples and if you would like, you can give us your own examples:

 

1)      The earth goes around the sun.

2)      Nurses take care of patients in hospitals.

3)      Excuse me, do you speak English?

4)      “Would you like a cigarette?” “No, thanks. I don’t smoke.”

5)      What does this word mean? (Not what means this word?)

6)      I get up at 6:30 every morning.

7)      How often do you go to go to the dentists?

8)      Where do you come from? (Not where are you coming from?)

9)      He comes from Japan. (Not he is coming from Japan.)

 

 

Present tenses (I am doing/ I do) with a future meaning

 

Whenyou are talking about what you have already arranged to do, use the present continuous (I am doing). Do not use the simple present (I do). It is also possible to use going to (do).Do not use will to talk about what you have already arranged to do.

 

1)      What are you doing tomorrow evening? (Not what do you do?)

2)      I am going to the theater.

3)      Are you playing tennis tomorrow?

4)      What are you going to do tomorrow evening?

5)      Alex is getting married next month.( not Alex will get married.)

 

We use the simple present when we are talking about timetables, schedules, etc. (for example, public transportation, movies):

 

1)      What time does the move begin?

2)      The football match starts at 2:00.

3)      Tomorrow is Wednesday.


 
 
Present perfect continues (I have been doing)
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٩:۳٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/٢۸
 

 

Is it raining?

No, it isn’t, but the ground is wet

It has been raining.

This is the Present perfect continues.

I/we/they/you have (=I’ve, etc.) been doing.

He/she/it has (=he’s, etc.) been doing.

زمانی از ماضی نقلی استفاده میکنیم که رویدادی در گذشته سروع شود و اخیرا به پایان رسیده باشد.مثال:

You’re out of breath. Have you been running?

Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?

I’ve been talking to Tom about your problem, and he thinks…

...


 
 
Making Preparations To Travel
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٠۱ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/٧/٢٥
 

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736. I didn’t realize the time had passed so quickly.

737. I’ve got a lot of things to do before I can leave.

738. For one thing, I‘ve got to drop by the bank to get some money.

739. It’ll take almost all my savings to buy the ticket.

740. Oh, I just remembered something. I have to apply for a passport.

741. I almost forgot to have the phone disconnected.

742. It’s a good thing you reminded me to take my heavy coat.

743. I never would have thought of it if you hadn’t mentioned it.

744. I’ll see you off at the airport.

745. They’re calling your flight now. You barely have time to make it.

746. You’d better run or you’re going to be left behind.

747. Don’t forget to call to let us know you arrived safely.

748. I’m sure I’ve forgotten something, but it’s too late now.

749. Do you have anything to declare for customs?

750. You don’t have to pay any duty on personal belongings.