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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

Types of Reading Disability
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱٤
 

 

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman

 

Researchers have identified three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct: (1) phonological deficit, (2) processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, and (3) comprehension deficit.

 

Researchers have made considerable progress in understanding all types of reading disabilities (Fletcher et al., 2007). For purposes of research, "reading impaired" children may be all those who score below the 30th percentile in basic reading skill. Among all of those poor readers, about 70-80 percent have trouble with accurate and fluent word recognition that originates with weaknesses in phonological processing, often in combination with fluency and comprehension problems. These students have obvious trouble learning sound-symbol correspondence, sounding out words, and spelling. The term dyslexic is most often applied to this group.

Another 10-15 percent of poor readers appear to be accurate but too slow in word recognition and text reading. They have specific weaknesses with speed of word recognition and automatic recall of word spellings, although they do relatively well on tests of phoneme awareness and other phonological skills. They have trouble developing automatic recognition of words by sight and tend to spell phonetically but not accurately. This subgroup is thought to have relative strengths in phonological processing, but the nature of their relative weakness is still debated by reading scientists (Fletcher et al, 2007; Katzir et al., 2006; Wolf & Bowers, 1999). Some argue that the problem is primarily one of timing or processing speed, and others propose that there is a specific deficit within the orthographic processor that affects the storage and recall of exact letter sequences. This processing speed/orthographic subgroup generally has milder difficulties with reading than students with phonological processing deficits.

Yet another 10-15 percent of poor readers appear to decode words better than they can comprehend the meanings of passages. These poor readers are distinguished from dyslexic poor readers because they can read words accurately and quickly and they can spell. Their problems are caused by disorders of social reasoning, abstract verbal reasoning, or language comprehension.

Subtypes of Reading Disability

Researchers currently propose that there are three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct:

  1. Phonological deficit, implicating a core problem in the phonological processing system of oral language.
  2. Processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, affecting speed and accuracy of printed word recognition (also called naming speed problem or fluency problem).
  3. Comprehension deficit, often coinciding with the first two types of problems, but specifically found in children with social-linguistic disabilities (e.g., autism spectrum), vocabulary weaknesses, generalized language learning disorders, and learning difficulties that affect abstract reasoning and logical thinking.

If a student has a prominent and specific weakness in eitherphonological or rapid print (naming-speed) processing, they are said to have a single deficit in word recognition. If they have a combination of phonological and naming-speed deficits, they are said to have a double deficit (Wolf & Bowers, 1999). Double-deficit children are more common than single-deficit and are also the most challenging to remediate. Related and coexisting problems in children with reading disabilities often include:

  • faulty pencil grip and letter formation;
  • attention problems;
  • anxiety;
  • task avoidance;
  • weak impulse control;
  • distractibility;
  • problems with comprehension of spoken language; and
  • confusion of mathematical signs and computation processes.

About 30 percent of all children with dyslexia also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD


 
 
How to Speak English (3
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱٤
 

 

Tips:

1.      Be patient with yourself. It takes a while to learn how to speak English well. Remember to give yourself time and treat yourself well.

2.      Do everything everyday, but only do ten to fifteen minutes of the more boring tasks. If you want to improve listening skills, just listen to the radio fifteen minutes rather than an hour. Do ten minutes of grammar exercises. Never do too much English. It's better to do just a little bit every day rather than a lot only twice a week.

Make mistakes, make more mistakes and continue to make mistakes. The only way you will learn is by making mistakes, feel free to make them and make them often.

  1. Learn how to speak English about the things you like doing. If you enjoy speaking about the topic, it will be much easier for you to learn how to speak English well in a shorter amount of time.

What You Need

  1. Patience
  2. Time
  3. Willingness to make mistakes
  4. Friends who can speak English with you
  5. Books or internet resources in English

 
 
Improve English Quickly
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱٤
 

 

Ask yourself weekly: What do I want to learn this week?

Asking yourself this question every week will help you stop and think for a moment about what is most important to you. It is easy to focus only on the current unit, grammar exercise, etc. If you take a moment to stop and set a goal for yourself every week, you will notice the progress you are making and, in turn, become more inspired by how quickly you are learning English! You will be surprised at how this feeling of success will motivate you to learn even more English


 
 
Quotations of Martin Luther King, Jr
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٤۸ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱٤
 

 

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is famous for his courageous leadership in the fight to end racial segregation in mid 20thcentury America. He advocated civil disobedience, a nonviolent approach to defying the legal system that upheld segregation.

Dr. King is also remembered for his powerful sermons and speeches. This worksheet features a few examples of his words. The main source of these quotations isbrainyquote.com.

Match the quote by Martin Luther King, Jr. with the comment or interpretation below. The first one has been matched for you.

The words of Martin Luther King, Jr.:

 

1. “Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.”

 

2. “I have decided to stick with love. Hate is too great a burden to bear.”

 

3. “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. ”

 

4. “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”

 

5. “Life's most urgent question is: what are you doing for others?”

 

6. “Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity.”

 

7. “Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.”

***************

A. People should behave in a way that makes life better for their fellow humans.

 

B. This was clearly Dr. King's belief as he dedicated his life to speaking out against injustice.

 

C. In this analogy, darkness is to hate as light is to love.

 

D. Hating others hurts the hater.

 

E. Believing that one is right is no excuse for being in the wrong.

 

F. If you agree with this quote, you cannot feel completely safe when others are treated unfairly.

 

G. Behavior, not skin color, tells us what we should think of a person.

Quotations

See if you can answer the following questions about the meanings of quotations.

 

1. “A teacher is someone who talks in our sleep.”    Alfred E. Neuman

The point of this quote is that _______.

A. students dream about going to school
B. students don't pay attention in school
C. homework is relaxing
D. teachers shouldn't disturb students' naps

2. “A person who won't read has no advantage over one who can't read.”    Mark Twain

Twain is saying that _______.

A. reading isn't necessary
B. reading ability is nothing if it isn't used
C. he is a great author
D. you should learn how to read

3. “Too bad SpongeBob isn't here to enjoy SpongeBob not being here.”    Squidward

Squidward actually means that _______.

A. he misses SpongeBob
B. he likes SpongeBob's visits
C. he enjoys SpongBob's absense
D. he enjoys television

4. “Continuous effort - not strength or intelligence - is the key to unlocking our potential.”    Winston Churchill

Churchill really meant this because he was not a _______.

A. smoker
B. leader
C. farmer
D. quitter


5. “An ounce of practice is worth more than tons of preaching.”    Mohandas Gandhi

Which statement or quote is similar to the above quote?

A. The pen is mightier than the sword.”   Edward Bulwer-Lytton
B. Actions speak louder than words.
C. Practice makes perfect.
D. “Courtesy is as much a mark of a gentleman as courage.”   Theodore Roosevelt

 

Quotations

See if you can answer the following questions about the meanings of quotations.

 

1. “Acting is all about honesty. If you can fake that, you've got it made.”    George Burns

Burns was  _______.

A. saying that he is honest
B. angry about what  actors do
C. a fake
D. making a joke

2. “If passion drives you, let reason hold the reins.”    Benjamin Franklin

This means that _______.

A. you should think before you act
B. avoid fast horses
C. do whatever you feel like doing
D. let someone else drive

3. “You must do the things you think you cannot do.”    Eleanor Roosevelt

This means that  _______.

A. we should fool ourselves
B. we are confused
C. we can't do all that much
D. we're capable of doing more than we realize

4. “Government's first duty is to protect the people, not run their lives.”    Ronald Reagan

Reagan wanted to _______.

A. have government solve all our problems
B. limit the power of government
C. shrink the military
D. eliminate all governments


5. “You aren't learning anything when you're talking.”    Lyndon B. Johnson

This means that it's important to _______.

A. talk louder
B. teach
C. help others.
D. listen to others

Sports Quotes

Complete each quote by writing the appropriate sport in the blank. Each sport below is only used once . Look for clues in the quotes to help you choose correctly.



baseball    basketball    football    golf    hockey    skiing    soccer    tennis

 

1. “____________________ is a good walk spoiled.”    Mark Twain

 

2. “I let my racket do the talking. That's what I am all about, really. I just go out and win 
____________________ matches.”    Pete Sampras

 

3. “Sure, luck means a lot in ____________________. Not having a good quarterback is bad luck.”    Don Shula

 

4. “If God had wanted man to play ____________________, he wouldn't have given us arms.”    Mike Ditka


5. “It was a fun ride. I've enjoyed my time on the ice and I've enjoyed more and more people getting interested in the game of ____________________.”    Ron Francis


6. “____________________ combines outdoor fun with knocking down trees with your face.”    Dave Barry


7. “Little League ____________________ is a very good thing because it keeps the parents off the streets.”    Yogi Berra


8. “If all I'm remembered for is being a good ____________________ player, then I've done a bad job with the rest of my life.”    Isiah Thomas



 
 
How to Improve your English via the Internet
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٤٧ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱٤
 

 

By Kenneth Beare

Here are some tips to improving English both in how your learn and via the internet.

1.     Remember that learning a language is a gradual process - it does not happen overnight.

2.     Define your learning objectives early: What do you want to learn and why? - Take this quiz to find outwhat kind of English learner you are.

3.     Make learning a habit. Try to learn something every day. It is much better to study (or read, or listen to English news, etc.) 10 minutes each day than to study for 2 hours once a week. - Take the English tip of the day newlsetter to help you.

4.     Choose your materials well. You will need reading, grammar, writing, speaking and listening materials - Beginners can use this starting English guide, intermediate to advanced learners can use thiscontinue learning English guide.

5.     Vary your learning routine. It is best to do different things each day to help keep the various relationships between each area active. In other words, don't just study grammar.

6.     Find friends to study and speak with. Learning English together can be very encouraging. - Soziety can help you find friends to speak English over the inernet.

7.     Choose listening and reading materials that relate to what you are interested in. Being interested in the subject will make learning more enjoyable - thus more effective.

8.     Relate grammar to practical usage. Grammar by itself does not help you USE the language. You should practice what you are learning by employing it actively.

9.     Move your mouth! Understanding something doesn't mean the muscles of your mouth can produce the sounds. Practice speaking what you are learning aloud. It may seem strange, but it is very effective.

10.                        Be patient with yourself. Remember learning is a process - speaking a language well takes time. It is not a computer that is either on or off!

11.                        Communicate! There is nothing like communicating in English and being successful. Grammar exercises are good - having your friend on the other side of the world understand your email is fantastic!

12.                        Use the Internet. The Internet is the most exciting, unlimited English resource that anyone could imagine and it is right at your finger tips.

13.                        Be patient with yourself.

14.                        Practice, practice, practice


 
 
گوشه ی دیگر از زیبایی های فصل بهار
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٤٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱٤
 


 
 
طرح درس زبان اول نظری درس سوم
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۸:٢٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱۳
 

 

Teacher's Name: Fateme Rahimi

Date of Presentation: 5th of Azar

Estimated Time of Presentation: 90 minutes

Book (1), Lesson "3"

• Teaching Points:

A: Lexical Items:

New words: angry – any body- as … as- be afraid of – boil- boiling – by- clean- coat Englishman – few –

find – five – foot – forget – great – high school – if – later – leave – London – might – move – number – out

of reach – out side – page – pan – pocket – return – servant – size – sleepy – solve – story – telephone

number- than – therefore – time – tomato – until – whatever – where – who – wise – would

B: Reading Comprehension:

(A STORY ABOUT NEWTON)

C: Grammar:

Comparison with (as + adj + as) and ( - er than …)

D: Language Functions:

(Asking about Some one's Family)

E: Pronunciation Practice:

Sound ( / ∧ /)

• Greeting: ( 1 minute)

The teacher enters the classroom and greets the students. She looks at them one by one in order to make an

eye contact with all of them and to show that all of the students are important for her.

For instance she greets so:


 
 
این طرح درس برای یک کلاس معمولی با جمعیت 30 تا35 نفر کاربرد دارد)
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۸:٢۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱۳
 

 

In the Name of the Almighty

Lesson Plan

Lesson 2

Teacher:

Farnaz Atghia-ee

Level of Students :

Pre-university

Number of Students:12

Khorasan-Mashhad

Ahmad Abad Deprived Region

Winter 87

In the Name of the Almighty

Pre-university

Lesson Plan 1 Lesson 2 Time: 90 min.

Kimiya Pre-university Number of Students: 12

female

Reading

Goals: Enabling the students to read and understand the first five paragraphs.

Material: pictures, whiteboard, text book, CD, dictionary, notebook

This reading is divided into two parts.

Title: How to Give a Good Speech

Steps Activities Time

Setting

- Greeting

- Roll-call 5 min.

Review

- Review of the previous lesson

* Giving a Quiz

1- How can exercise be useful for the body? Give five reasons.

2- 'Aerobic exercise is repetitive.' What does this sentence mean according to paragraph 3?

3- How can exercise make you feel happy?

4- Based on paragraph 4, give an example of easy activities, and one for hard activities that need

strong muscles.

5- Find a word in paragraph 7 that means "to annoy or cause problems for someone."

􀂾Any questions from the previous lesson?

15 min.

2 Pre-reading

Books closed

- Elicit students’ ideas about the pictures, animation, … .

􀂾Look at here. What do you see in this picture?

􀂾Yes, that’s right.

- Use the pre-reading questions for a discussion on “Giving a speech.”

􀂾Is it difficult to stand in front of many people and speak to them?

􀂾Does it make you nervous?

􀂾Why do so many people feel anxious in this situation?

-Ask students to brainstorm on “How to give a good speech”.

-Write students’ ideas on the board.

􀂾So, there are many factors influencing giving a good speech.

10 min.

Reading

Books open

- Students listen to the tape to get the gist of idea.

* It helps the students not only to get the gist of idea but also to hear the correct pronunciation

which can prevent fossilization.

- Students read the first paragraph individually. (Silent reading)

* When they find a word they don’t know, they underline it with a straight line. If they think they

know the meaning but are not sure, they underline it with a squiggly line.

- Students sit in small groups and ask each other the meaning of the words they don’t know or

aren’t sure of.

- Help students with any remaining words they don’t know.

* Use the whiteboard, pictures, computer, … .

- Ask one of the students to read the first paragraph aloud.

- Ask the class some detailed comprehension questions.

􀂾Can fear and embarrassment be controlled in public speaking?

􀂾Public speaking is a ……….. .

􀂾How can we learn it?

􀂾How can we make our presentation interesting?

- Repeat the same steps for the following four paragraphs.

* Correction :

Although in different occasions different forms of corrections are needed, totally we can accept this

order: 1. self correction 2. peer correction 3. teacher correction

50 min.

Post-reading

- Ask and repeat the meaning and pronunciation of the new words.

- Ask students a question to discuss in class.

􀂾In what jobs is giving a good speech more important?

7 min.

Homework

- Ask the students to read the new vocabularies and write a sentence for each of them on a piece of

paper – using their dictionaries.

- Ask the students to read the paragraphs carefully and write ten questions and give answers.

3 min.

How to give a good speech


 
 
طرح درس درس دوم زبان پیش دانشگاهی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۸:٢٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱۳
 

 

Pre-university

Lesson Plan 2 Lesson 2 Time: 90 min.

Kimiya Pre-university Number of Students: 12

female

Reading

Goals: Enabling the students to read and understand the other five paragraphs.

Material: pictures, whiteboard, text book, CD, dictionary, notebook

Title: How to Give a Good Speech

Steps Activities Time

Setting

- Greeting

- Roll-call 5 min.

Review

- Review of the previous session

* Check homework: Collect their homework to be checked.

* Ask questions

A- Tell me if doing each of these things is good or not good while giving a speech.

1- Leaning against the wall,

2- Looking at your notes again and again,

3- Looking at your audience,

4- Having a smile on the face,

5- Standing firmly with no movement.

B- Based on Paragraph 3, what are three characteristics of the movements during a speech?

􀂾 Any questions from the previous session?

10 min.

Pre-reading

Books closed

- Allow the students to talk about their own experiences or of others.

* Encourage the students to share ideas and experiences.

* Don’t interrupt the students in order to correct them.

10 min.

Reading

Books open

- Students listen to the tape to get the gist of idea.

* It helps the students not only to get the gist of idea but also to hear the correct pronunciation

which can prevent fossilization.

- Students read the paragraph individually. (Silent reading)

* When they find a word they don’t know, they underline it with a straight line. If they think they

know the meaning but are not sure, they underline it with a squiggly line.

- Students sit in small groups and ask each other the meaning of the words they don’t know or

aren’t sure of.

- Help students with any remaining words they don’t know.

* Use the whiteboard, pictures, computer, … .

- Ask one of the students to read the passage aloud.

- Ask the class some detailed comprehension questions.

- Repeat the same steps for other paragraphs.

* Correction :

Although in different occasions, different forms of corrections are needed, totally we can accept

this order: 1. self correction 2. peer correction 3. teacher correction

47 min.

4 Post-reading

- Give different relevant topic entities to different groups of students and ask them to speak

topically.

* Encourage students to share ideas and experiences.

- Ask the students to do exercise 3 on page 16 while they are in their own groups.

* Use one of the common modes of teaching and learning.

e.g. CROSS-OVER GROUPS:

A form of group activity in which the class is divided into groups which have a discussion. After

some time, one or more members of each group move over and join one of the other groups. So

two students from Group A might join Group B, two form group B might join Group C, and so on,

and the discussion continues. In this way, ideas from the different groups are shared without the

need for a FEEDBACK SESSION.

* Go around the class and give help as needed.

15 min.

Homework

- Ask the students to study new vocabularies and write a sentence for each of them using their

dictionaries.

- Ask the students to read the text again and prepare a summary to present next session.

3 min.



 
 
طرح درس سوم پیش دانشگاهی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۸:۱٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۳/۱۳
 

 

Pre-university

Lesson Plan 3 Lesson 2 Time: 90min.

Kimiya Pre-university Number of students: 12

female

Material: Whiteboard, text book, dictionary, notebook,

extra prepared exercises, the prepared table

Reading Skill

Steps Activities Time

Setting

Greeting

Roll-call

5 min.

Review

Review of the previous session.

* Check homework and ask the students to pre sent their summaries.

* Ask questions

1- Is it good to make pauses when you are giving a speech?

2- Name four of the communication power tools.

3- How can you involve your audience?

4- In paragraph 9, find a way how we can reduce our nervousness.

􀂾Any questions from the previous session?

15 min.

- Ask the students to sit in their groups to do exercises one and two of part A on page 15.

- For doing part B the teacher should give the students some explanation.

􀂾Imperatives are often used for giving advice. For instance, "Involve your audience by

asking them some questions" is used to recommend or offer a piece of advice.

-Groups of students have a brief discussion to do the first exercise of part B on page 16 using

BUZZ GROUPS.

- Ask the students to do the second exercise of part B on page 17 as their homework.

25 min.

Reading Skills Word formation

Goal: A way of guessing meaning of some unfamiliar words in passage by

adding derivational affix.

Warm up

- Give some relevant examples.

- Speak topically about word formation which is the creation of new words. There are several

ways of doing this, e.g. the addition of an affix in DERIVATION.

- Ask the students to give some more examples.

5 min.

6 Instruction

- Ask the students to sit in their own groups and use not only their text books but also their

dictionaries to complete the given table.

- Go around the class and give help as needed.

- Ask the students to find such examples through the reading.

20 min.

Checking Students’ Comprehension

-Give the students some multiple choice tests to do.

e.g.

1. I asked him not to ……. me in his family arguments.

a. add b. involve c. distract

2. The man could not hide his …….. at his children’s rudeness.

a. expression b. projection c. embarrassment

3. Mary was not ……… that her son was having difficulties at school.

a. confident b. firm c. aware

4. We enjoyed every minute of spending our weekend with John, because he has a wonderful sense

of ………. .

a. contact b. humor c. gesture

-Check the answers and explain any probable problems.

15 min.

Assigning

homework

- Ask the students to copy the word formation table and fill it with other words from the passage

using their dictionaries.

- Ask the students to do the related book exercises on page 18.

- Remember that you should do the second exercise of part B on page 17. 5 min.

Word Parts of speech Formed from Meaning

awareness noun …. (adj) …

emotionless … emotion (n.) …

… noun embarrass (v.) …

involvement noun … (v.) …

… adjective humor (n.) …