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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

طرح درس سوم پیش دانشگاهی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٤:۳۸ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٧
 

 

Pre-university

Lesson Plan 3 Lesson 2 Time: 90min.

Kimiya Pre-university Number of students: 12

female

Material: Whiteboard, text book, dictionary, notebook,

extra prepared exercises, the prepared table

Reading Skill

Steps Activities Time

Setting

Greeting

Roll-call

5 min.

Review

Review of the previous session.

* Check homework and ask the students to pre sent their summaries.

* Ask questions

1- Is it good to make pauses when you are giving a speech?

2- Name four of the communication power tools.

3- How can you involve your audience?

4- In paragraph 9, find a way how we can reduce our nervousness.

􀂾Any questions from the previous session?

15 min.

- Ask the students to sit in their groups to do exercises one and two of part A on page 15.

- For doing part B the teacher should give the students some explanation.

􀂾Imperatives are often used for giving advice. For instance, "Involve your audience by

asking them some questions" is used to recommend or offer a piece of advice.

-Groups of students have a brief discussion to do the first exercise of part B on page 16 using

BUZZ GROUPS.

- Ask the students to do the second exercise of part B on page 17 as their homework.

25 min.

Reading Skills Word formation

Goal: A way of guessing meaning of some unfamiliar words in passage by

adding derivational affix.

Warm up

- Give some relevant examples.

- Speak topically about word formation which is the creation of new words. There are several

ways of doing this, e.g. the addition of an affix in DERIVATION.

- Ask the students to give some more examples.

5 min.

6 Instruction

- Ask the students to sit in their own groups and use not only their text books but also their

dictionaries to complete the given table.

- Go around the class and give help as needed.

- Ask the students to find such examples through the reading.

20 min.

Checking Students’ Comprehension

-Give the students some multiple choice tests to do.

e.g.

1. I asked him not to ……. me in his family arguments.

a. add b. involve c. distract

2. The man could not hide his …….. at his children’s rudeness.

a. expression b. projection c. embarrassment

3. Mary was not ……… that her son was having difficulties at school.

a. confident b. firm c. aware

4. We enjoyed every minute of spending our weekend with John, because he has a wonderful sense

of ………. .

a. contact b. humor c. gesture

-Check the answers and explain any probable problems.

15 min.

Assigning

homework

- Ask the students to copy the word formation table and fill it with other words from the passage

using their dictionaries.

- Ask the students to do the related book exercises on page 18.

- Remember that you should do the second exercise of part B on page 17. 5 min.

Word Parts of speech Formed from Meaning

awareness noun …. (adj) …

emotionless … emotion (n.) …

… noun embarrass (v.) …

involvement noun … (v.) …

… adjective humor (n.) …




 
 
طرح درس درس دوم زبان پیش دانشگاهی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٤:۳٦ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٧
 

 

Pre-university

Lesson Plan 4 Lesson 2 Time: 90min. Kimiya Preuniversity

Number of students: 12

female

Material: Whiteboard, text book, CD, cards, dictionary, notebook,

extra prepared exercises

Focus on Grammar

Steps Activities Time

Setting

Greeting

Roll-call

5 min.

Review

Review of the previous session.

* Check homework

* Ask questions

A- Sentence Function:

1- Suppose that your friend keeps her voice with the same speed during her speech.

What will you advice her to do to improve her speech?

If your friend was too serious while giving a speech, how would you advice her.

B- Word Formation:

1- Can you tell me which of the followings an adjective is?

a. emotion b. confident c. silence d. variety

2- Give two examples of adjective ending with ' –less '

􀂾 Any questions from the previous session?

15 min.

Focus on Grammar (1) Expressing manner

Learning Objective: Practice by + gerund to describe how to do things.

Pre-view

- Write some incomplete sentences on the board.

* You can improve your accent by ………… (listening to language CDs.)

* ……………………

- Focus students’ attention to the conversation.

- Ask students to complete the sentences by listening to the conversation.

6 min.

View

- Complete the sentences and point out the by + gerundstructure in each sentence.

- Write some useful phrases on the board.

- Give students time to think about.

- Then students discuss their ideas in small groups.

- Set a time limit of about five minutes. Go around the class and give help as needed. Encourage

students to use by + gerund.

- A monitor of each group completes one of the incomplete sentences on the board.

- Ask the students to open their books and look at the focus box.

- Students read or repeat the sentences.

- Point out the by + gerund structure in each sentence.

- Ask a question to elicit students’ suggestions.

􀂾 What kind of verb form do you use after by? What does it mean?

- Give a short explanation about the usage of by + gerundstructure.

12 min.

8 Post-view

- Ask the students to sit in their own groups and do the related exercises in the book.

- Use one of the useful techniques e.g. Cross-over Groups or Pyramid Group.

* In this way ideas from the different groups are shared without the need for a FEEDBACK

SESSION.

- Go around the class and give help as needed.

- Give the students some extra exercises to do.

10 min.

Home

Work

- Ask the students to write ten sentences on a piece of paper using their reading or outside readings.

3 min.

Focus on Grammar (2) Let

Make + object + bare infinitive

Help

Goal: the students get familiar with the words: Let, Make, and Help so that they can use

them correctly in sentences.

Pre-view

* The teacher has chosen some sentences through the reading and has divided them into some parts

which are written separately on some cards.

- Give the relevant cards to each group and ask the students to make correct sentences.

- Ask the students to do the job in their own groups.

* It causes a kind of challenge.

- The students think and try to do their best during the given time.

6 min.

view

- Ask the students to open their books and look at the focus box.

- Students read or repeat the sentences and get the gist of idea.

* Then they go back to their own sentence(s) and check them again.

- A monitor of each group goes to the board and writes their own sentence(s).

- Give an explanation about the grammatical point in a relative short time.

15 min.

Post-view

- Ask the students to do related exercises in their books.

- Use one of the common modes.

- Go around the class and give help as needed.

- Give some other related exercises to do.

15 min.

Homework

- Ask the students to write ten sentences according to the given point on a piece of paper.

- Ask the students to get ready for a test from this lesson next session.

3 min.


 
 
Day and Month of the Calendar
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٤:۳٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٧
 

روز و ماه تقویم

91. What day is today?

92. Today is Monday.

93. What day was yesterday?

94. Yesterday was Sunday.

95. What day is tomorrow?

96. What month is this?

97. This is January.

98. Last month was December, wasn’t it?

99. Yes, it was.

100. What month is next month?

101. I was in the hospital for several weeks.

102. Where were you on Tuesday?

103. You were here in February, weren’t you?

104. No, I wasn’t.

105. Your friend was here a week ago, wasn’t he?


 
 
Introductions and Courtesies
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٤:۳٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٧
 

معرفی و آداب و معاشرت

76. What’s your name?

77. My name is Jones.

78. What’s your first name?

79. My first name is Bill.

80. How do you spell your last name?

81. Jones. J. O. N. E. S.

82. What’s your friend’s name?

83. His name is John Smith.

84. John and I are old Friends.

85. Are you John’s brother?

86. No, I’m not.

87. This is Mr. Jones.

88. How do you do?

89. Mrs. Jones, this is Mr. John Smith.

90. Very pleased to meet you.


 
 
Part II - Language Learning Strategies ).
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢۳
 

 

      1)         Some people say that you cannot make a conscious effort to learn a foreign language.  They hate to study grammar and say you must simply allow the language to sink in gradually. 

 

Others argue that language learning is a conscious and systematic process.   It is necessary to study hard, practise, and constantly ask for explanations and rules.

 

            Which idea do you believe in?    

 

2)         Some people think that to learn a new language you must completely forget your native language.  Others say you cannot and should not.  To what extent do you find that comparing your native language with the foreign language helps you to learn a new language?

 

a.   To what extent do you find translations useful?

 

b.      Would you prefer to use a bilingual or monolingual dictionary?

 

3)         Do you feel that you can actually learn to think in the foreign language?  

 

a.   If yes, how do you think you might achieve that?

 

b.   How important do you think it is?

 

 
 
 
Freeway Chase Ends at Newsstand
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۳٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢۳
 

 

 A 24-year-old Los Angeles man was taken to a hospital and then to county jail after leading police on a one-hour freeway chase in a

stolen SUV. The chase ended in downtown Los Angeles in front of the Spring Hotel. Most of the chase was uneventful, except for an  empty bottle of whiskey that the driver threw at one police  vehicle.

When the driver got into downtown, things started to happen. He  ran over a fire hydrant. The water spewed out of the hydrant, causing a geyser that ruined all the books in several carts that a vendor had put outside to attract customers into his bookstore The driver hurriedly turned west onto Grand Avenue and managed to bang into three parked cars on one side of that street and two cars on the other side The driver also tried to run over a police officer, who was standing in the crosswalk ordering him to halt.

Turning north, the driver caused a bus to slam on its brakes to avoid a collision. The bus was empty, and the bus driver was  uninjured. However, two police cars that were pursuing the SUV from different directions were not so lucky. One of them ran into the front of the bus, and the other into the back. Because the drivers had braked early enough, the damage to their cars was minor. Both officers resumed the chase.

They only went two blocks north to find that the SUV had come to a full stop because it had plowed into a newspaper stand. The driver, who was not wearing a seat belt, was slumped behind the  steering wheel. The proprietor of the newsstand was yelling at the  driver and shaking a magazine at him. The police called for the ambulance. They charged the driver with failure to yield to a police officer and driving under the influence.

 


 
 
The Grasshopper
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۳٧ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢۳
 

 

Aesop

A grasshopper spent the summer hopping about in the sun and singing to his heart's content. One day, an ant went hurrying by, looking very hot and weary.

"Why are you working on such a lovely day?" said the grasshopper.

"I'm collecting food for the winter," said the ant, "and I suggest you do the same." And off she went, helping the other ants to carry food to their store. The grasshopper carried on hopping and singing. When winter came the ground was covered with snow. The grasshopper had no food and was hungry. So he went to the ants and asked for food.

"What did you do all summer when we were working to collect our food?" said one of the ants.

"I was busy hopping and singing," said the grasshopper.

"Well," said the ant, "if you hop and sing all summer, and do no work, then you must starve in the winter."




 
 
Facebook Celebrates 5th Bithday
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۳٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢۳
 

Facebook, the world’s biggest social networking site, iscelebrating its fifth birthday. In a blog post, the site’sfounder, Mark Zuckerberg, states that Facebook will continue to work as hard as it has in the last five years in order to stay the web’s number one communication site.

The company started in a dorm room in 2004. Today it has 150 million active users, more than the 130 million of rival MySpace.

Facebook is different from other social networking sites because you can communicate with people you really know andtrust. Before, most people didn’t want to share their real identities online. Facebook has given people a safe and trusted environment for people to interact online. It has changed the way people view the world. A friend from any country is only a few clicks away.

It was back in February 2004 when Zuckerberg started “The facebook” from a Harvard student’s room. The aim was to help students get in touch with each other over the Internet. Within 24 hours over a thousand students had signed up and soon after that the network spread out to other universities.

By 2005 a research study showed that about 85% of the students in the network had a Facebook account. Anothersurvey showed that Facebook was almost as important as an iPod.

At the end of 2005 Facebook came to the U.K. and up to today the site has been translated into 35 languages.

Five years after its start Facebook has escaped the universities and colleges. More than half of its users are not at college anymore and the fastest growing group are the 30 to 40 year olds. Every day 15 million users update their profiles to tell their friends and the world what’s happening to them. They alsoshare photos, upload videos, chat, make friends, join groups – and simply have fun

 

Mark Zuckerberg - Facebook founder

Words

  • aim = something you want to do
  • blog = a webpage that has information on a certain subject; the newest articles are at the top
  • celebrate =to do something nice and have fun at a special event
  • dorm room = a room where students sleep
  • environment = the world around us
  • founder = a person who started something
  • interact = to talk to each other and work together
  • research study = if you look at a topic in a serious way and try to find out more about it
  • share =to use together
  • sign up = to join , become a member
  • social network = Internet platform where people can become a member and find friends all over the world
  • spread out =here: to move to
  • state = say
  • survey = questions that you ask people in order to find out what they think about something
  • translate = to write something in a different language
  • trust =to believe that someone is good to you and won't do anything bad
  • update = to add new information about something

.


 
 
A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF CONJUNCTIONS
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:۱٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٢
 

 

A BRIEF EXPLANATION OF CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. There are three types of conjunctions:coordinatingconjunctions, correlativeconjunctions, and subordinatingconjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: e.g. subject+subject, verb phrase+verb phrase, sentence+sentence. When a coordinating conjunction is used to join elements, the element becomes a compound element. Correlative conjunctions also connect sentence elements of the same kind: however, unlike coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. Subordinating conjunctions, the largest class of conjunctions, connect subordinate clauses to a main clause. These conjunctions are adverbs used as conjunctions.

The following tables show examples of the various types of conjunctions and some sample sentences using the conjunctions. Since coordinating conjunctions and correlative conjunctions are closed sets of words, all are included in the list. Subordinating conjunctions are a larger class of words; therefore, only a few of the more common ones are included in this list.

 

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

F

A

N

B

O

Y

S

for

and

nor

but

or

yet

so

 

An easy way to remember these six conjunctions is to think of the word FANBOYS. Each of the letters in this somewhat unlikely word is the first letter of one of the coordinating conjunctions. Remember, when using a conjunction to join two sentences, use a comma before the conjunction.

 

EXAMPLES AND SENTENCES

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

 

 

CONJUNCTION

WHAT IS LINKED

SAMPLE SENTENCES

and

noun phrase+noun phrase

We have tickets for the symphony and the opera.

but

sentence+sentence

The orchestra rehearses on Tuesday, butthe chorus rehearses on Wednesday.

or

verb+verb

Have you seen or heard the opera by Scott Joplin?

 

 


 
 
English language words
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:۱٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٢
 

 

Parts of speech

Nouns       e.g. chair, information, happiness

Verbs       e.g. choose, tell, and complain

Adjectives     e.g. happy, tall, dangerous

Adverbs       e.g. slowly, carefully, often

 Prepositions     e.g. in, at, on

 Pronouns       e.g. me, you, him, we, it, she

Articles      e.g. definite article (the); indefinite article (a/an)  

 

Special! Terms

 

Uncountable noun: (U) a noun which has no plural form and cannot be used with the indefinite article, e.g. information.

Plural noun: (p1) a noun which only has a plural form and cannot be used with the indefinite article, e.g. trousers.

Infinitive: the base form of a verb, e.g. (to) work, (to) stop, (to) be.

Phrasal verb: a verb + adverb and/or preposition, e.g. turn on (verb + adverb), look after (verb + preposition), give up (verb + adverb), and put up with (verb + adverb + Preposition)

Idiom: a group of words with a meaning that is different from the individual words, e.g. never mind, hang on, a short cut, keep an eye on something.

Transitive verb: a verb which needs a direct object, e.g. Police caught the man (‘the man’ the direct object of the verb ‘caught’).

Intransitive verb: a verb which does not need a direct object, e.g. the books arrived on time. (There is no direct object after arrive.)

  

Word building 

In the word uncomfortable, un- is a prefix, comfort is a root, and -able is a suffix. Other common prefixes include: re-, in-, and dis-; common suffixes include: -ity, -ment, and -ivt Many words also have synonyms, which are words with the same meaning. For example; ‘big’ is a synonym of ‘large’. The opposite is small’.  

Pronunciation

Dictionaries show the Pronunciation of a word using phonetic symbols. Each word contains one or more syllables: ‘book’ has one syllable; ‘before’ has two syllable (be-fore); ‘cinema’ has three syllables (ci-ne-ma); ‘education’ has four syllables (e-du-ca. tion); and so on. 

For pronunciation, it is important to know which syllable has the main stress. On ‘before’ is the second syllable (be ‘fore) on ‘cinema’ it is the first (‘cinema); and on ‘education’ it is third (edu’cation). 

Note: Dictionaries mark stress in different ways: in bold (return); or a ‘before the main syllable (re’turn). Make sure you understand how your dictionary shows it.

  

Punctuation

Full stop.          Comma,           brackets ( )       hyphen -          question mark ?



 
 
Prefixes
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:۱٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٢
 

 

Prefixes (at the beginning of words) can help you to understand what a new word means. Here are some common prefixes.

prefix

meaning

example

Ex( + noun)

Was but not now

Ex-wife, ex-president

Half(+ noun or adjective)

5% of something

Half-price , half-hour

In ,im(+adjective)

not

Informal,impossible

Non(+adjective or noun)

not

Non-smoking

pre

before

Pre-school

Re( +verb)

again

Redo, rewrite

Un(+adjective)

not

Unhappy, unsafe

 

 

An ex-wife is a wife who is now divorced.

 

President Gorbachev is an ex-President of Russia.

 

half-hour journey is a journey of 30 minutes.

 

Something that cost 10$ yesterday and cost 5$ today is half-price.

 

Informal clothes are clothes like jeans and trainers. Formal clothes are things like a suite.

 

If something is impossible, you can’t do it. It is impossible to read with your eyes closed.

 

non-smoking room is a room where people may not smoke.

 

Pre-school children are children who are still too young to go to school.

 

To redo something is to do it a second time and torewrite something is to write it a second time.

 

Unhappy means sad, the opposite of happy.

 

Unsafe means dangerous, the opposite of safe.

 


 
 
یادگیری ابدی هزاران لغت زبان انگلیسی در کمتر از چند ماه
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:۱٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٢
 

 

همانطور که می دانید یکی از مهم ترین جوانب یادگیری یک زبان خارجی (زبان انگلیسی)، افزایش دایره لغات آن زبان می باشد. شما که در صدد یادگیری زبان انگلیسی هستید بدون دانستن لغات ضروری، اختصاصی و عمومی نه قادر به درک متون انگلیسی و مطالعه آنها، و نه مکالمه و شنیدن و فهمیدن زبان خواهید بود. در این مقاله سعی می شود راهکاریمناسب جهت یادگیری و بخاطرسپاری انبوهی از لغات زبان انگلیسی، عربی (یا هر زبان خارجی دیگر) به شما آموزش داده شود تا در کمترین زمان بیشترین لغات را تا ابد بخاطر بسپارید. این روش ها بسیار عملی بوده و بر روی بسیاریافراد نتایج خیره کننده ای داشته است.

این مقاله شامل۲بخش یادگیری و بیادسپاری لغات می باشد. بسیاری از ما روزانه لغات زیادی را دیده و حتی می توانیمبراحتی برای چند دقیقه بخاطر بسپاریم، آیا تا بحال فکر کرده اید اگر کلیه لغاتی که با آنها مواجه می شوید و بطور کوتاه مدت یاد می گیرید، وارد حافظه بلند مدت شما شده بود، تابحال چند لغت بخاطر داشتید؟

یادگیری اولیه لغات:

اولین قدم برای افزایش دایره لغات مشاهده آنها و یادگیری اولیه آن است. به مطالعه متون مختلف عمومی و تخصصیبپردازید. داستان، خبر، مقاله و .. . این روزها با گسترش اینترنت این منابع در دسترس همگی هست و بهترین مطالب و منابع برای یادگیری و تقویت زبان اینترنت می باشد. لغات آشنا به همراه معنی آنها یادداشت کنید. در ابتدای کار از لغات مهم و ضروی شروع کنید و هر روز لیستی از لغات جدید داشتهباشید. لیست مناسبی از لغات مربوط به کتاب ۵۰۰لغت کاملا ضروری (۵۰۴ Essential Words) می باشد که می توانید فلش کارت آن رااز این قسمت دانلود کنید.

حال به مهم ترین بخش کار یعنی یادگیری این لغات می پردازیم:

ابتدا هر لغت را یک بار به همراه معنی بخوانید و شکل آنها را دیده و بخاطر بسپارید. لغت را در ذهن خود تصویر سازی کنید، به عنوان مثال برای حفظ کردن کلمه Book (کتاب) تصویر یک کتاب را به همراه شکل کلمه Book در ذهن خود مجسم کنید. این کار هم از لحاظ لغت-معنی و هم املای کلمه بسیار مفید خواهد بود. به همین ترتیب تمامی لغات را بطور سطحی بخاطر بسپارید و آنها را واردحافظه کوتاه مدت خود بکنید. از فراموش کردن آنها نگران نباشید، در این مرحله هدف فقط بخاطر سپاری اولیه لغات است، در مرحله بعد خواهید آموخت چگونه یک لغت را تا ابد بیاد داشته باشید.

بخاطرسپاری ابدی لغات:

همه ما در دوران تحصیل خود لغات بسیاری را می آموزیم، ولی پس از مدتی دوری از آنها همگی فراموشی شده و بکل از دایره لغات ما پاک می شوند. چاره چیست؟

سباستین لایتنر روشی را به نام روش لایتنر ابداع کرده است که به یادگیری بدون فراموشی معروف است. در این روش مطالب سخت که زیاد از ذهن شما می روند، بیشتر برای شما مرور می شوند، و مطالب آسان وقت شما را بیهوده تلف نمی کنند. مرور اصولی با روش لایتنر تنها در عرض کمتر از چند ماه و با روزی کمتر از نیم ساعت زمان مفید، دایره لغات شما را به هزاران لغت افزایش خواهد داد، البته دیگر خیالتان از فراموش نشدن لغات نیز راحت خواهد بود.

برای استفاده از روش لایتنر و تمرین و تکرار و مرور اصولی لغات زبان انگلیسی، پیشنهاد ما به شمانرم افزار لایتنر ماندگاراست.

درواقع نرم افزار لایتنر ماندگار عمل مشابهجعبه لایتنر را انجام می دهد. در این نرم افزار لغات آماده شده پس از یادگیری اولیه را وارد نرم افزار می کنید، تمام سوالات ابتدا به خانه اول (از ۱۵خانه) می روند. همچنین می توانید از فلش کارت های آماده و بسیار مفید بخش دانلود رایگان فلش کارت وبسایتاستفاده کنید. کافیست شما هر روز (و یا هر وقت علاقه داشتید) وارد نرم افزار شده و لغات فعال که مشخص شده (تشخیص فعال بودن لغات، جابجائی لغات به خانه های مناسب، و .. همگی بطور اتوماتیک بر عهده نرم افزار می باشد) پاسخ دهید و تنها پس از مدتی کوتاه تاثیر معجزه آسای آن را در یادگیری خود و مهم تر از یادگیری، ماندگاری آن مشاهده کنید و دایره لغات خود را با لذت یادگیری به طرز خیره کننده ای افزایش دهید.

روش این نرم افزار بر پایه تمرین و مرور اصولی در بازه های زمانی مشخص می باشد که خودبخود مطالب سخت تر، بیشتر برای شما مرور می شود تا هنگامی که بطور کامل ملکه ذهن شما شده و به حافظه بلندمدتتان منتقل گردد و در این روش مطالب آسان، بیهوده وقت شما را برای تکرار نمی گیرند.

علاوه بر این می توانید با ثبت نام دروبسایت Hi2En.com از سیستم آنلاین لایتنر برای یادگیری لغات (Online Leitner Box) و بسیاری امکانات دیگر بهره مند شوید.

توصیه های دیگر:

* تا می توانید مطالب انگلیسی بخوانید، اخبار، مقالات و ..، بهترین منبع برای اینکاراینترنتمی باشد. بهترین روش برای مرور لغات، خواندن می باشد.


 
 
Common Word Roots
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٠۸ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٢
 

 

root, as its name suggests, is a word or word part from which other words grow, usually through the addition ofprefixes and suffixes. The root of the word vocabulary, for example, is voc, a Latin root meaning "word" or "name." This root also appears in the words advocacy, convocation, evocative, vocal, and vociferous.

Understanding the meanings of the common word roots can help us deduce the meanings of new words that we encounter. But be careful: root words can have more than one meaning and various shades of meaning. In addition, words that look similar may derive from different roots. So when you meet up with a new word, be sure to rely on a dictionary to check its definition.

The table below defines and illustrates 30 of the most common Greek and Latin roots. The letter in parentheses indicates whether the root word is Greek (G) or Latin (L).

Word Roots

ROOT

MEANING

EXAMPLES

-ast(er)-(G)

star

asteroid, astronomy

-audi- (L)

hear

audible, audience

-auto- (G)

self

automatic, autopsy

-bene- (L)

good

benefit, benign

-bio- (G)

life

biography, biology

-chrono- (G)

time

chronic, synchronize

-dict- (L)

say

dictate, diction

-duc- (L)

lead, make

deduce, produce

-gen- (L)

give birth

gene, generate

-geo- (G)

earth

geography, geology

-graph- (G)

write

autograph, graph

-jur-, -jus- (L)

law

jury, justice

-log-, -logue- (L)

thought

logic, obloquy

-luc- (L)

light

lucid, translucent

-man(u)- (L)

hand

manual, manure

-mand-, -mend- (L)

order

demand, recommend

-mis-, -mit- (L)

send

missile, transmission

-omni- (L)

all

omnivorous

-path- (G)

feel

empathy, pathetic

-phil- (G)

love

philosophy, bibliophile

-phon- (G)

sound

phonics, telephone

-photo- (G)

light

photograph, photon

-port- (L)

carry

export, portable

-qui(t)- (L)

quiet, rest

acquit, tranquil

-scrib-, -script- (L)

write

ascribe, script

-sens-, -sent- (L)

feel

resent, sensitive

-tele- (G)

far off

telecast, telephone

-terr- (L)

earth

terrain, territory

-vac- (L)

empty

evacuate, vacate

-vid-, -vis- (L)

see

visible, video

 


 
 
Common Prefixes in English
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٠٦ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٥/۱/٢٢
 

 

prefix is a letter or a group of letters attached to the beginning of a word that partly indicates its meaning. For example, the word prefix itself begins with a prefix--pre-, which generally means "before."

Understanding the meanings of the common prefixes can help us deduce the meanings of new words that we encounter. But be careful: some prefixes (such as in-) have more than one meaning (in this example, "not" and "into").

The table below defines and illustrates 35 common prefixes.

Common Prefixes

Prefix

Meaning

Example

a-, an-

without

amoral

ante-

before

antecedent

anti-

against

anticlimax

auto-

self

autopilot

circum-

around

circumvent

co-

with

copilot

com-, con-

with

companion, contact

contra-

against

contradict

de-

off, away from

devalue

dis-

not

disappear

en-

put into

enclose

ex-

out of, former

extract, ex-president

extra-

beyond, more than

extracurricular

hetero-

different

heterosexual

homo-

same

homonym

hyper-

over, more

hyperactive

il-, im-, in-, ir-

not, without

illegal, immoral, inconsiderate, irresponsible

in-

into

insert

inter-

between

intersect

intra-

between

intravenous

macro-

large

macroeconomics

micro-

small

microscope

mono-

one

monocle

non-

not, without

nonentity

omni-

all, every

omniscient

post-

after

postmortem

pre-, pro-

before, forward

precede, project

sub-

under

submarine

syn-

same time

synchronize

trans-

across

transmit

tri-

three

tricycle

un-

not

unfinished

uni-

one

unicorn