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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

English speaking Countries 2
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢۸ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٤/٢/٢٧
 

Canada - Fact Sheet

 

Official name:

Canada

Capital:

Ottawa

Size:

9,970,610 km²

Population:

29.1 million

Borders:

Arctic Ocean (north), Atlantic Ocean (east), USA (south), USA (Alaska), Pacific Ocean (west)

Currency:

Canadian Dollar

Official languages:

English, French

Nationality / People:

A person of Canadian nationality is a Canadian.

Local time:

Ottawa: 18:28 EST (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)
Vancouver: 15:28 PST (Tuesday, 31st December 2013)

Other interesting facts:

Canada is the second largest country in the world (after Russia). Almost 10 percent (755,180 km²) of Canada's total area are inland water.

on sights, history, culture and people from English speaking countries.

Fact Sheet

 

 

 


 
 
English speaking Countries
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢٧ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٤/٢/٢٧
 

 

Countries

United Kingdom

United States of America

Ireland

Canada

Australia

New Zealand

South Africa

India

Malta

Bahamas

Trinidad and Tobago

Belize

Guyana

Jamaica


 
 
The Education System in the USA
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٤/٢/٢٧
 

Introduction

In the USA, children start school when they are five or six years old. Depending on the state, schooling is compulsory until the age of 16 or 18. Children younger than five can go to a nursery school or preschool.

At the age of five or six, the children attend elementary school (also known as grade school or grammar school), which last six years. The fist year at elementary school is called kindergarten.

After elementary school, students attend middle school (also known as junior high school) for three years. Then they continue at high school. In some states, students have to stay in school until they are 18 years old. In other states they may leave school at 16 or 17 with parental permission.

Age

School

< 5

nursery school / preschool

5-11

elementary school

11-14

middle school / junior high school

14-18

high school / senior high school

When students in the USA say what year they are in, they usually use ordinal numbers, e. g. ‘tenth grade’. (In the UK students would use cardinal numbers, e. g. ‘year ten’.)

Classes

At elementary school pupils primarily learn how to read, write and count. There are about 20 to 30 pupils in one class.

At junior and senior high school, mandatory subjects are English, maths, biology, chemistry, physics, physical education and history. Schools also offer optional courses from which the students can choose, e. g. art, modern languages, computers. Physical education is a very important subject in the United States – many students participate in sports programs.

Gifted and talented students can take advanced courses in their schools or attend additional courses at community colleges in the afternoons or during the holidays. Often such courses are later acknowledged by universities, and can facilitate early graduation.

Grading Scale

In the USA (as in other English speaking countries) letter grades are used in reports.

  • A > 90 % (excellent)
  • B > 80 % (very good)
  • C > 70 % (improvement needed)
  • D > 60 % (close fail)
  • E > 50 % (fail)
  • F < 50 % (fail)

In general, only grades A to C are a 'pass' – a plus (+) or minus (-) might be added (e. g. A-, B+).

Different Kinds of Schools

Most students in the USA are enrolled in public schools. These are financed through taxes, so parents do not have to pay for their children's education. About 10 % of US students attend private schools, where parents have to pay a yearly fee.

Another option is homeschooling: approximately 1-2 % of parents in the USA educate their children at home. Some reasons for homeschooling are religious views, special needs (e. g. handicapped children), or problems in traditional schools (bullying, drugs etc.). However, there is also opposition to homeschooling claiming that the students have difficulties socializing with others, that homeschooling (often carried out by the parents) is of a poor academic quality and that (especially concerning religion) extremist views might be encouraged.

School Uniforms

It is not common for students in the USA to wear school uniforms, but many schools have dress codes telling students what kind of clothing is or is not allowed in school. Some schools (especially private schools) have started to require their students to wear school uniforms in order to improve school discipline and avoid 'fashion cliques'.



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Introduction

In this text you will find general information on the education system in the UK. As there are separate education systems in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the actual ages etc. might vary a little.

School in the UK is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen. Children younger than five can go to a toddler group (accompanied by a parent), playgroup or nursery school.

Compulsory schooling begins at the age of five. Pupils first attend primary school, which lasts for six years. Often primary school in the UK is divided into infant school (the first two years) and junior school (the following 4 years).

After primary school, students go to secondary school until they are sixteen (practical emphasis) or 18 (secondary school with 6th form - academic emphasis).

The school year consists of three terms. Students have about 12-13 weeks of holiday per school year.

Age

School

< 5

nursery school

 

5-11

primary school

oder

5-7

infant school

7-11

junior school

 

11-18

secondary school with 6th form

oder

11-16

secondary school

16-18

6th form college

When students in the UK say what year they are in, they usually use cardinal numbers, e. g. ‘year ten’. (In the USA, students would use ordinal numbers, e. g. ‘tenth grade’.)

Classes

At primary school, classes run Monday to Friday from about 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. There are usually between 25 and 35 pupils in one class. They primarily learn how to read, write and count. They also learn something about their country and about religion and they begin to study their first foreign language.

At secondary school, classes also run Monday to Friday, but are usually from about 8.45 to 3.30. Typical mandatory subjects are English, maths, natural sciences (biology, physics, chemistry), modern languages (French, German, Spanish), religion, citizenship, physical education, information and communication technology, geography and history. Apart from these, schools also offer optional courses from which their students can choose. At the age of sixteen, students usually sit several exams and decide whether they want to leave school or continue in a 6th form college.

Gifted and talented students can choose to enter for examinations early (one year or several terms) and then take additional courses in these or other subjects.

Grading Scale

In the UK (as in other English speaking countries) letter grades are used in reports.

  • A > 80% (excellent)
  • B > 70% (very good)
  • C > 60% (improvement needed)
  • D > 50% (close fail)
  • E > 40% (fail)
  • F < 40% (fail)

In general, only grades A to C are a 'pass'. Still, in the UK no student has to repeat a year – weak students can take extra lessons at school.

Different Kinds of Schools

Most students in the UK are enrolled in state funded schools. These are financed through taxes, so parents do not have to pay for their children's education. But there are also numerous private schools, also known as independent schools, where education is not free of charge.

Students can choose to attend a co-educational school or a single sex school.

School Uniforms

It is common for students in the UK to wear school uniforms. They consist of:

  • blazer or sweater with school logo
  • shirt and tie or polo shirt / t-shirt
  • dark trousers or dark skirt
  • black shoes

At some schools, students are required to wear a shirt and a tie, other schools only require a t-shirt or sweater. The colour of the uniform also depends on the school – blazer, sweater, trousers and skirt are usually blue, grey, green or brown.

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:39



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Exercises on much and many

The words much and many mean a lot of.

  • If a noun is in singular, we use much

Example:

much money

  • If a noun is in plural, we use many

Example:

many friends

Use of much / many

In everyday English, we normally use much / many only in questions and negative clauses.

Example:

How much money have you got?

Carla does not have many friends.

In positive clauses with so, as or too, we also use much / many.

Example:

Carla has so many friends.

She has as many friends as Sue.

Kevin has too much money.

In all other positive clauses, however, we prefer expressions like a lot of / lots of.

Example:

Carla has a lot of / lots of friends.

Kevin has a lot of / lots of money.

In formal texts, however, much / many are also common in positive clauses. This you will notice for example when you read English news.

Countable / Uncountable Nouns

In connection with much / many people often speak of countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number (that's why they are called 'countable nouns'). Countable nouns take many.

Example:

100 friends – many friends

Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number (that's why they are called 'uncountable nouns'). Uncountable nouns take much.

Example:

100 money – much money

Note: Of course you can count money – but then you would name the currency and say that you have got 5 euro (but not „5 money“).



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It's a difference if you use a little / a few or little / few. Without the article, the words have a limiting or negative meaning.

  • a little = some
    little = hardly any

Example:

I need a little money. - I need some money.

I need little money. - I need hardly any money.

  • a few = some
    few = hardly any

Example:

A few friends visited me. - Some friends visited me.

Few friends visited me. - Hardly any friends visited me.

Without the article, little / few sound rather formal. That's why we don't use them very often in everyday English. A negative sentence with much / many is more common here.

Example:

I need little money. = I do not need much money.

Few friends visited me. = Not many friends visited me


 
 
The Education System in the UK
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٤/٢/٢٧
 

Introduction

In this text you will find general information on the education system in the UK. As there are separate education systems in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the actual ages etc. might vary a little.

School in the UK is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen. Children younger than five can go to a toddler group (accompanied by a parent), playgroup or nursery school.

Compulsory schooling begins at the age of five. Pupils first attend primary school, which lasts for six years. Often primary school in the UK is divided into infant school (the first two years) and junior school (the following 4 years).

After primary school, students go to secondary school until they are sixteen (practical emphasis) or 18 (secondary school with 6th form - academic emphasis).

The school year consists of three terms. Students have about 12-13 weeks of holiday per school year.

Age

School

< 5

nursery school

 

5-11

primary school

oder

5-7

infant school

7-11

junior school

 

11-18

secondary school with 6th form

oder

11-16

secondary school

16-18

6th form college

When students in the UK say what year they are in, they usually use cardinal numbers, e. g. ‘year ten’. (In the USA, students would use ordinal numbers, e. g. ‘tenth grade’.)

Classes

At primary school, classes run Monday to Friday from about 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. There are usually between 25 and 35 pupils in one class. They primarily learn how to read, write and count. They also learn something about their country and about religion and they begin to study their first foreign language.

At secondary school, classes also run Monday to Friday, but are usually from about 8.45 to 3.30. Typical mandatory subjects are English, maths, natural sciences (biology, physics, chemistry), modern languages (French, German, Spanish), religion, citizenship, physical education, information and communication technology, geography and history. Apart from these, schools also offer optional courses from which their students can choose. At the age of sixteen, students usually sit several exams and decide whether they want to leave school or continue in a 6th form college.

Gifted and talented students can choose to enter for examinations early (one year or several terms) and then take additional courses in these or other subjects.

Grading Scale

In the UK (as in other English speaking countries) letter grades are used in reports.

  • A > 80% (excellent)
  • B > 70% (very good)
  • C > 60% (improvement needed)
  • D > 50% (close fail)
  • E > 40% (fail)
  • F < 40% (fail)

In general, only grades A to C are a 'pass'. Still, in the UK no student has to repeat a year – weak students can take extra lessons at school.

Different Kinds of Schools

Most students in the UK are enrolled in state funded schools. These are financed through taxes, so parents do not have to pay for their children's education. But there are also numerous private schools, also known as independent schools, where education is not free of charge.

Students can choose to attend a co-educational school or a single sex school.

School Uniforms

It is common for students in the UK to wear school uniforms. They consist of:

  • blazer or sweater with school logo
  • shirt and tie or polo shirt / t-shirt
  • dark trousers or dark skirt
  • black shoes

At some schools, students are required to wear a shirt and a tie, other schools only require a t-shirt or sweater. The colour of the uniform also depends on the school – blazer, sweater, trousers and skirt are usually blue, grey, green or brown.

Changed: 10th Dec 2010 19:39


 
 
Much / many
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢۱ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٤/٢/٢٧
 

Exercises on much and many

The words much and many mean a lot of.

  • If a noun is in singular, we use much

Example:

much money

  • If a noun is in plural, we use many

Example:

many friends

Use of much / many

In everyday English, we normally use much / many only in questions and negative clauses.

Example:

How much money have you got?

Carla does not have many friends.

In positive clauses with so, as or too, we also use much / many.

Example:

Carla has so many friends.

She has as many friends as Sue.

Kevin has too much money.

In all other positive clauses, however, we prefer expressions like a lot of / lots of.

Example:

Carla has a lot of / lots of friends.

Kevin has a lot of / lots of money.

In formal texts, however, much / many are also common in positive clauses. This you will notice for example when you read English news.

Countable / Uncountable Nouns

In connection with much / many people often speak of countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number (that's why they are called 'countable nouns'). Countable nouns take many.

Example:

100 friends – many friends

Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number (that's why they are called 'uncountable nouns'). Uncountable nouns take much.

Example:

100 money – much money

Note: Of course you can count money – but then you would name the currency and say that you have got 5 euro (but not „5 money“).


 
 
A Little / A Few
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۱٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٤/٢/٢٧
 

Exercises on A Little and A Few

The expressions a little and a few mean some.

  • If a noun is in singular, we use a little

Example:

a little money

  • If a noun is in plural, we use a few

Example:

a few friends

Countable / Uncountable Nouns

In connection with a little / a few people often speak of countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number (that's why they are called 'countable nouns'). Countable nouns take a few.

Example:

4 friends – a few friends

Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number (that's why they are called 'uncountable nouns'). Uncountable nouns take a little.

Example:

3 money – a little money

Note: Of course you can count money – but then you would name the currency and say that you have got 3 euro (but not „3 money“).


 
 
Some & Any
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۱٦ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٤/٢/٢٧
 

The words some and any are used for countable and uncountable nouns. In general, we could say that some means a few / a little and any means none in negative clauses or a few / a little in questions.

Positive Clauses

In positive clauses, we usually use some.

Example:

I have bought some bread.

I have bought some apples.

Negative Clauses

In negative clauses, we use any. Note, however, that any alone is not a negative - it must be not ... any

Example:

I have not bought any bread.

I have not bought any apples.

Questions

In questions, we usually use any.

Example:

Have you bought any bread?

Have you bought any apples?

Compound Words with some & any

Some & any can also be part of compound words such as:

  • something / anything
  • someone / anyone
  • somewhere / anywhere

Note that some & any have to be used with a noun while compound words with some & any can stand on their own.

Example:

I have bought some bread.

I have bought something.

However, some and any need not stand directly before the noun. Sometimes, the noun appears somewhere before some or any and is not repeated. So if you are not sure whether to use some or something for example, check if there is a noun in the sentence that you can place after some.

Example:

I do not have to buy bread. Rachel has already bought some [bread].

Exceptions

Positive Clauses with Any

We usually use some in positive clauses. But after never, without, hardly, we use any.

Example:

We never go anywhere.

She did her homework without any help.

There’s hardly anyone here.

Also in if clauses, we usually use any.

Example:

If there is anything to do, just call me.

Questions with Some

We usually use any in questions. But if we expect or want the other to answer ‚yes‘, we use some.

Example:

Have you got any brothers and sisters?

→ some people have brothers or sisters, others don't - we cannot expect the answer to be ‚yes‘

Would you like some biscuits?

→ we offer something and want to encourage the other to say ‚ja‘


 
 
Exercise on »since« and »for«
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۱٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٤/٢/٢٧
 

since - if the starting point is given (two o'clock, last Friday, 1998)
- for - if the period of time is given (twenty minutes, two days, one year)

Decide whether to use »since« or »for«.

  1. I have been waiting ……….. 4 o'clock.
  2. Sue has only been waiting…………. 20 minutes.
  3. Tim and Tina have been learning English……….. six years.
  4. Fred and Frida have been learning French ………….1998.
  5. Joe and Josephine have been going out together ……….. Valentine's Day.
  6. I haven't been on holiday ………..  last July.
  7. Mary has been saving her money ………..  many years.
  8. I haven't eaten anything …………..  breakfast.
  9. You have been watching TV   …………….  hours.
  10. We have been living here   …………….  2 months.

 
 
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