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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

کلید های توسعه
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٠٥ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 

 

بخش دهم

کلید های توسعه

هویت و مرجع

 

فرق شما با سایر مردم جهان چیست؟ یکی از عوامل مهم که شما را از دیگران متمایز می کند، تجارب شماست. هرعملی که زمانی انجام داده اید، نه تنها در حافظه آگاه، بلکه در نظام عصبیتان ثبت شده است. هر چه که تاکنون دیده، شنیده، لمس کرده، چشیده و یا بوئیده اید، در بایگانی عظیمی که مغز نامیده می شود انباشته شده است.

این خاطرات آگاه یا ناآگاه را مرجع می نامیم. برای اطمینان از درستی یا نادرستی هر عقیده ای به این تجارب تکیه می کنیم، حتی اگر آن عقیده بسیار مهم باشد( مثلاٌ اعتقاد به اینکه چه کسی هستیم و چه کارهایی از ما ساخته است).

چه تجاربی در شکل دادن به زندگی شما مؤثر تر بوده است؟ در یکی از سمینارهای من، پیش از ورود به جلسه،پرسشنامه ای به شرکت کنندگان داده می شود.در این پرسشنامه از شرکت کنندگان خواسته شده است که پنج تجربه را که به عقیده خوشان بیشترین اثر را بر زندگیشان گذاشته است ذکر کنند. جالب اینجاست که بسیاری از اشخاص تجارب ( یا مرجعهای) همانندی دارند، اما نحوه تعبیر و تفسیرشان از آن واقعه به کلی با دیگری متفاوت است.

دو نفر در جوانی پدرشان را از دست می دهند. یکی شان بر اثراین واقعه از ایجاد هرگونه رابطه صمیمانه با دیگران خودداری می کند، در حالی که دیگری فردی بسیار اجتماعی و خونگرم می شود.

پس آنچه که زندگی ما را شکل می دهد نه فقط خود مرجعها، بلکه تعبیر و تفسیری است که از آنها می کنیم.

بزرگترین طراح زندگی شما، خودتان هستید، خواه به این موضوع، توجه کرده و خواه نکرده باشید. تجارب خود را مانند پارچه بزرگی در نظر آورید که می توانید آن را مطابق هر الگویی که دوست دارید ، ببرید و بدوزید، و هر روز که می گذرد، نخی به تارو پود این پارچه افزوده می شود...


 

 


 
 
پندار متفکرین
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٠٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 


ما ندرتاً دربارۀ آنچه که داریم فکر می کنیم ، درحالیکه پیوسته در اندیشۀ چیزهایی هستیم که نداریم . شوپنهاور


خدا به زمان احتیاج ندارد و هرگز دیر نمی کند . اسکاول شین


اگر جانت در خطر بود بجای پنهان شدن بکوش همگان را از گرفتاری خویش آگاه سازی . اُرد بزرگ


اگر شاه به تو مهربان باشد دلیر و گستاخ مشو ، از آنکه طبع شاه چون آتش است و دل شیر از آن می هراسد . بزرگمهر


آرزومند آن مباش که چیزی غیر از آنچه هستی باشی، بکوش که کمال آنچه هستی باشی . دی سلز


زندگی چیست ؟ یک مزبلۀ کثیف ، یک قتلگاه فجیع ، یک دارالمجانین بزرگ که تا کنون تحت هیچ قانون منظمی اداره نشده است . ویر


هیچ گاه در برابر فرزند ، همسرتان را بازخواست نکنید . اُرد بزرگ


زیبایی ناپایدار و فضیلت جاودانه است . گوته


مراقب باشید چیزهایی را که دوست دارید بدست‌آورید وگرنه ناچار خواهید بود چیزهایی را که بدست آورده‌اید دوست داشته‌باشید. جرج برنارد شاو


دنیا را نگه‌دارید. می‌خواهم پیاده شوم. آنتونی نیولی


زن زشت در دنیا وجود ندارد فقط برخی از زنان هستند که نمی‌توانند خود را زیبا جلوه دهند. برنارد شاو


من از عشق بدم می آید ، برای اینکه یک بار عاشق شدم و مادرم را فراموش کردم . مارک تواین


اگر بخواهی بر عالم فرمانروا باشی باید عقل بر تو حاکم باشد . سه نه ک


اگر دست تقدیر و سرنوشت را فراموش کنیم  پس از پیشرفت نیز افسرده و رنجور خواهیم شد . اُرد بزرگ


صدیق ترین ،بی توقع ترین،مفیدترین و دائمی ترین رفیق برای هر کسی کتاب است. مارک تواین


 کمی عقل سلیم، اندکی اغماض و قدری خوش خلقی داشته باشید، آن وقت خواهید دید در این دنیا چقدر آسوده و خوشبخت اید. سامرست موام


آدمی می تواند بارها و بارها به شیوه های گوناگون قهرمان شود . اُرد بزرگ


وقتی جوانتر بودم همه چیز را به خاطر می‌آوردم، حالا می‌خواست اتفاق افتاده باشد یا نه! . مارک تواین


مردها را شجاعت به جلو می‌راند و زنها را حسادت. برنارد شاو


اگر سزاوار است آن است که دوست با جزر زندگی ات آشنا شود ، بگذار تا با مد آن نیز آشنا گردد ، زیرا چه امیدی است به دوستی که می خواهی در کنارش باشی ، تنها برای ساعات و یا قلمرو مشخصی ؟ . جبران خلیل جبران


یک اراده خم نشونده ، بر همه چیز، حتی بر زمان قالب می آید. شاتو بریان


گاهی تنها راه درمان روانهای پریشان ، فراموشی است.  اُرد بزرگ


شاید مانند کودکی باشیم که در کنار دریا با سنگ ریزه ها و صدفهای زیبا بازی می کند اما غافل ار آنیم که دریایی بس  بزرگ و اقیانوسی بی کران در مقابل دیدگانمان وجود دارد که در اعماق آن اسرار عظیم و شگفت انگیز نهفته است . نیوتن


دوستی برای خود برگزین که به گاه سختی و درماندگی مددکارت باشد. بزرگمهر


من بین دیوانگی و مست فرقی نمی بینم جزاینکه دیوانگی مدت طولانیتری دارد . سه نه ک 


گاه لازم است که انسان دیدگان خود راببندد ، زیرا اغلب خود را به نابینایی زدن نیز نوعی خوشبختی است . نیوتون


 
 
لیست لغات گرامری زبان انگلیسی 4
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٠٢ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 

 

eradication

(n.) the act of annihilating, destroying, or erasing

Some have theorized that the eradication of the dinosaurs was due to a

radical change in climate.

errant

(adj.) roving in search of adventure

The young man set out across country on an errant expedition.

erratic

(adj.) unpredictable; irregular

His erratic behavior was attributed to the shocking news he had

received.

The kitten's erratic behavior was attributed to the owner's cruel method

of disciplining his pet.

erroneous

(adj.) untrue; inaccurate; not correct

The reporter's erroneous story was corrected by a new article that

stated the truth.

erudite

(adj.) having a wide knowledge acquired through reading

The woman was so erudite, she could recite points on most any subject.

eschew

(v.) to shun; to avoid

Eschew the traffic and you may arrive on time.

esoteric

(adj.) understood by only a chosen few; confidential

The esoteric language was only known by the select group.

We have had a number of esoteric conversations.

estimable

(adj.) deserving respect

The estimable hero was given a parade.

ethereal

(adj.) very light; airy; heavenly; not earthly

The ethereal quality of the music had a hypnotic effect.

The dancer wore an ethereal outfit which made her look like an angel.

ethnic

(adj.) pertaining to races or peoples and their origin classification, or

characteristics

Ethnic foods from five continents were set up on the table.

eulogy

(n.) words of praise, especially for the dead

The eulogy was a remembrance of the good things the man accomplished

in his lifetime.

euphemism

(n.) the use of a word or phrase in place of one that is distasteful

The announcer used a euphemism when he wanted to complain.

euphony

(n.) pleasant combination of sounds

The gently singing birds created a beautiful euphony.

The euphony created by the orchestra was due to years of practice.

evanescent

(adj.) vanishing quickly; dissipating like a vapor

The evanescent mirage could only be seen at a certain angle.

evasion

(n.) the avoiding of a duty

The company was charged with tax evasion, as they did not pay all that

they owed.

evoke

(v.) to call forth; provoke

Seeing her only daughter get married evoked tears of happiness from the

mother.

Announcement of the results evoked a cheer from the crowd.

exculpate

(v.) to free from guilt

The therapy session will exculpate the man from his guilty feelings.

execute

(v.) to put to death; kill; to carry out; fulfill

The evil, murderous man was executed for killing several innocent

children.

I expected him to execute my orders immediately.

exemplary

(adj.) serving as an example; outstanding

The honor student's exemplary behavior made him a role model to the

younger children.

Employees of the month are chosen for their exemplary service to the

firm.

exhaustive

(adj.) thorough; complete

It took an exhaustive effort, using many construction workers, to

complete the new home by the deadline.

exhume

(v.) to unearth; to reveal

The scientists exhumed the body from the grave to test the body's DNA.

The next episode will exhume the real betrayer.

exigent

(adj.) a situation calling for immediate attention; needing more than is

reasonable

The exigent request for more assistance was answered quickly.

The bank seemed to feel that another extension on their loan payment

was too exigent a request to honor.

exonerate

(v.) to declare or prove blameless

Hopefully, the judge will exonerate you of any wrongdoing.

exorbitant

(adj.) going beyond what is reasonable; excessive

Paying hundreds of dollars for the dress is an exorbitant amount.

exotic

(adj.) unusual; striking; foreign

Many people asked the name of her exotic perfume.

The menu of authentic Turkish cuisine seemed exotic to them,

considering they were only accustomed to American food.

expedient

(adj.) convenient in obtaining a result; guided by self-interest

The mayor chose the more expedient path rather than the more correct

one.

There is no expedient method a teenager will not resort to in order to

get the keys to a car of their own.

expedite

(v.) to hasten the action of

We can expedite the bank transaction if we tell them it is an emergency.

explicit

(adj.) specific; definite

The explicit recipe gave directions for making a very complicated

dessert.

exposition

(n.) setting forth facts

The exposition by the witness substantiated the story given by the

prisoner.

expunge

(v.) to blot out; to delete

Bleach may be used to expunge the stain.

extant

(adj.) existing; refers especially to books or documents

Some of my ancestor's letters remain extant.

extemporize

(v.) to improvise; to make it up as you go along

It was necessary for the musician to extemporize when his music fell off

the stand.

extol

(v.) to give great praise

The father will extol the success of his son to everyone he meets.

extraneous

(adj.) irrelevant; not related; not essential

During the long, boring lecture, most people agreed that much of the

information was extraneous.

extricable

(adj.) capable of being disentangled

The knots were complicated, but extricable.

exultation

(n.) the act of rejoicing

Exultation was evident by the partying and revelry.

facetious

(adj.) joking in an awkward or improper manner

His facetious sarcasm was inappropriate during his first staff meeting.

facilitate

(v.) make easier; simplify

The new ramp by the door's entrance facilitated access to the building

for those in wheelchairs.

facsimile

(n.) copy; reproduction; replica

The facsimile of the elaborate painting was indistinguishable from the

original.

faction

(n.) a number of people in an organization working for a common cause

against the main body

A faction of the student body supported the president's view.

fallacious

(adj.) misleading

A used car salesman provided fallacious information that caused the

naive man to purchase the old, broken car.

fallible

(adj.) liable to be mistaken or erroneous

By not differentiating themselves from the popular band, the group was

especially fallible.

fanatic

(n.) enthusiast; extremist

The terrorist group was comprised of fanatics who wanted to destroy

those who disagreed with them.

fastidious

(adj.) difficult to please; dainty

The fastidious girl would not accept any offers as suitable.

The woman was extremely fastidious, as evident in her occasional

fainting spells.

fathom

(v.; n.) to understand; a nautical unit of depth

It was difficult to fathom the reason for closing the institution.

The submarine cruised at 17 fathoms below the surface.

fatuous

(adj.) lacking in seriousness; vain and silly

The fatuous prank was meant to add comedy to the situation.

His fatuous personality demands that he stop in front of every mirror.

fealty

(n.) loyalty

The baron was given land in exchange for his fealty to the king.

feasible

(adj.) reasonable; practical

Increased exercise is a feasible means of weight loss.

fecund

(adj.) productive

The construction crew had a fecund day and were able to leave early.

feign

(v.) pretend

It is not uncommon for a child to feign illness in order to stay home from

school.

feint

(v.; n.) to pretend to throw a punch, as in boxing; a fake show intended to

deceive

The fighter feinted a left hook just before he went for the knockout.

ferment

(v.) to excite or agitate

The rally cry was meant to ferment and confuse the opponent.

ferret

(v.; n.) to force out of hiding; to search for; a small, weasel-like mammal

The police will ferret the fugitive out of his hiding place.

I spent the morning ferreting for my keys

I have a pet ferret.

fervent

(adj.) passionate; intense

They have a fervent relationship that keeps them together every minute

of every day.

fervid

(adj.) intensely hot; fervent; impassioned

Her fervid skin alerted the doctor to her fever.

The fervid sermon of the preacher swayed his congregation.

fervor

(n.) passion; intensity of feeling

The crowd was full of fervor as the candidate entered the hall.

fester

(v.) to become more and more virulent and fixed

His anger festered until no one could change his mind.

fetid

(adj.) having a smell of decay

The fetid smell led us to believe something was decaying in the

basement.

fetish

(n.) anything to which one gives excessive devotion

The clay figure of a fertility goddess was a fetish from an ancient

civilization.

fetter

(n.) a chain to bind the feet

A fetter kept the dog chained to the fence.

fickle

(adj.) changeable; unpredictable

He is quite fickle; just because he wants something today does not mean

he will want it tomorrow.

Because the man was fickle he could not be trusted to make a competent

decision.

fidelity

(n.) faithfulness; honesty

His fidelity was proven when he turned in the lost money.

figment

(n.) something made up in the mind

The unicorn on the hill was a figment of his imagination.

finesse

(n.) the ability to handle situations with skill and diplomacy

The executor with the most finesse was chosen to meet with the

diplomats.

finite

(adj.) measurable; limited; not everlasting

It was discovered decades ago that the universe is not finite; it has

unknown limits which cannot be measured.

The finite amount of stored food will soon run out.

fissure

(n.) a cleft or crack

The earthquake caused a fissure which split the cliff face.

flaccid

(adj.) lacking firmness

The old dog's flaccid tail refused to wag.

flag

(v.) to become weak; to send a message

The smaller animal flagged before the larger one.

flagrant

(adj.) glaringly wrong

The flagrant foul was apparent to everyone.

flamboyant

(adj.) being too showy or ornate

The flamboyant nature of the couple was evident in their loud clothing.

fledgling

(n.; adj.) inexperienced person; beginner

The fledgling mountain climber needed assistance from the more

experienced mountaineers.

The course was not recommended for fledgling skiers.

flinch

(v.) wince; drawback; retreat

The older brother made his younger sister flinch when he jokingly tried

to punch her arm.


 
 
Call Me Maybe
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 

Album Call Me Maybe 2012

 

I threw a wish in the well,
Don’t ask me, I’ll never tell
I looked to you as it fell,
and now you’re in my way
I trade my soul for a wish,
pennies and dimes for a kiss
I wasn’t looking for this,
but now you’re in my way
Your stare was holdin’, Ripped jeans, skin was showin’
Hot night, wind was blowin’
Where you think you’re going, baby?

Hey, I just met you,
and this is crazy,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

It’s hard to look right,
at you baby,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

Hey, I just met you,
and this is crazy,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

And all the other boys,
try to chase me,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

You took your time with the call,
I took no time with the fall
You gave me nothing at all,
but still, you’re in my way
I beg, and borrow and steal
Have foresight and it’s real
I didn’t know I would feel it,
but it’s in my way
Your stare was holdin’, Ripped jeans, skin was showin’
Hot night, wind was blowin’
Where you think you’re going, baby?

Hey, I just met you,
and this is crazy,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

It’s hard to look right,
at you baby,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

Hey, I just met you,
and this is crazy,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

And all the other boys,
try to chase me,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

Before you came into my life
I missed you so bad
I missed you so bad
I missed you so, so bad

Before you came into my life
I missed you so bad
And you should know that
I missed you so, so bad

It’s hard to look right,
at you baby,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

Hey, I just met you,
and this is crazy,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

And all the other boys,
try to chase me,
but here’s my number,
so call me, maybe?

Before you came into my life
I missed you so bad
I missed you so bad
I missed you so so bad

Before you came into my life
I missed you so bad
And you should know that

So call me, maybe?


 
 
Online English Speaking Classes - What Are Online English Speaking Classes
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥٥ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 

Do you want to learn English? Do you know someone else who wants to learn? In either case, there are some great options available. Traditional language learning has been conducted in formal classrooms. However, technology has developed in recent times. Now you can learn quicker than ever with online English speaking classes. Instead of making the trip to a language institute on a regular basis, you can learn in the comfort of your own home or office. So, how is this possible?

The internet has made it easier and faster to do just about everything, learning a language included. There are great web modules that allow you to access online English speaking classes with a few clicks of your mouse. These online classrooms offer all the support that you would get at a traditional language institute, but you can study on your own time and do it from the location of your choosing. Professional teachers work for these online companies, and they are fully trained to teach you English. You can learn with certified teachers from home. It is like having a personal tutor, but you get all the benefits at a fraction of the cost. Tutors can be really expensive, and online language courses often give you more materials to work with at a lower price than a private tutor.

Classes are often conducted with a whiteboard and a webcam. By using this method, students can see everything the teacher is showing them, and they can communicate as if they were sitting in the front row of a formal classroom. Companies have adapted to the internet, and online English speaking classes are getting better and better. Techniques for online learning are constantly improving, and there are tons of dedicated professionals out there who make a living by helping people learn English online.

Immigrants, businessmen, tourists, and students of all ages want to learn English. Many people have tried other language learning courses without much success. It can be difficult, and the process is not easy without the proper degree of support and structure. That is where online English speaking classes come in. Look for a course that suits your needs. There are options for all skill levels. No matter what your native language is, there is an online course that will help you develop your English skills. With practice and dedication, it possible to speak and understand English in a really short period of time.

Marc Anderson is the manager of an online English language tutoring company called TalktoCanada.com that helps a variety of clients from around the world improve their spoken English online. All of the English lessons are online and conducted with a headset and web cam in real time with a qualified Canadian English language trainer. If you would like to learn English online, visit TalktoCanada.com today.


 
 
Superlative Forms - Understanding the English Superlative Form
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 

Here is a chart showing how to construct the superlative form in English:

One Syllable Adjectives

Place 'the' before the adjective and add '-est' to end of the adjective (Note: double the final consonant if preceded by a vowel).

Example: cheap - the cheapest / hot - the hottest / high - the highest

Example Sentences

Today is the hottest day of the summer.
This book is the cheapest I can find.

Two, Three or More Syllable Adjectives

Place 'the most' before the adjective.

Example: interesting - the most interesting / difficult - the most difficult

Example Sentences:

London is the most expensive city in England.
That is the most beautiful painting here.

Two Syllable Adjectives Ending in '-y' Place 'the' before the adjective and remove the 'y' from the adjective and add 'iest'.

Example: happy - the happiest / funny - the funniest

Example Sentences

New York is the noisiest city in the USA.
He is the most important person I know.

IMPORTANT EXCEPTIONS

There are some important exceptions to these rules. Here are two of the most important exceptions:

good

  • good - adjective
  • the best - superlative

Example Sentences

Peter is the best golf player in the school.
This is the best school in the city.

bad

  • bad - adjective
  • the worst - superlative

Example Sentences

Jane is the worst student in the class.
This is the worst day of my life.


 
 
did you know that
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٥۱ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 
  • Did you know for every human there are 200 million insects
  • Did you know the average bed contains over 6 billion dust mites
  • Did you know an iguana can stay under water for 28 minutes
  • Did you know emus can't walk backwards
  • Did you know the Eifel Tower has 2,500,000 rivets
  • Did you know Americas top selling ice cream flavor is vanilla
  • Did you know the doorbell was invented in 1831
  • Did you know there are 7 points on the Statue of Liberty's crown
  • Did you know the oldest known vegetable is the pea
  • Did you know the most fatal car accidents occur on Saturdays
  • Did you know the average hen lays 228 eggs a year
  • Did you know the Eiffel Tower has 1,792 steps
  • Did you know Iceland consumes more Coca Cola than any other country
  • Did you know Oak trees don't produce acorns until they are 50 years old
  • Did you know the word 'almost' is the longest word spelt alphabetically
  • Did you know the word 'rhythm' is the longest word without a vowel
  • Did you know human thigh bones are stronger than concrete
  • Did you know Earth is the only planet not named after a god
  • Did you know months that start on a Sunday will always have a Friday the 13th
  • Did you know more people are allergic to cows milk than any other food
  • Did you know more people are killed from bees than snakes
  • Did you know the average person laughs 10 times a day
  • Did you know the Atlantic Ocean is saltier than the Pacific
  • Did you know your mouth produces 1 liter of saliva a day
  • Did you know your head contains 22 bones
  • Did you know the colored part of your eye is called the iris
  • Did you know you breathe 23,000 times a day
  • Did you know if your DNA was stretched out it would reach to the moon 6,000 times
  • Did you know everyone has a unique tongue print
  • Did you know you begin to feel thirsty when your body losses 1% of water
  • Did you know hiccups usually lasts for 5 minutes
  • Did you know not all your taste buds are on our tongue (10% are on the insides of you cheeks)
  • Did you know the life span of a house fly is between 10 to 25 days
  • Did you know a dolphins top speed is 60kmh (37mph)
  • Did you know the smallest dog is the Chihuahua
  • Did you know a sharks top speed is 70kmh (44mph)
  • Did you know there are 70 million sheep in New Zealand (with 4 million people)
  • Did you know sharks are immune to all known diseases
  • Did you know the worlds smallest bird is the 'bee hummingbird' found in Cuba
  • Did you know African elephants only have 4 teeth

 
 
How to speak aloud (7 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٤٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 

The Three Little Pigs

 

1. Once upon a time there were three pigs.

2. The pigs built three houses.

3. The wolf blew down the straw house.

4. The wolf blew down the wood house.

5. The wolf could not blow down the brick house.

Discussion

Posting the key events around the room is not necessary, but it provides important language support. For instance, students are more likely to use the past tense because that is what appears in the sentences we have posted for the reporters.

 

Heterogeneous grouping in this activity encourages peer tutoring. For example, students with skills in writing can model their ability to other group members. The key is that students who are more able should try to enable their groupmates; they should not do tasks for their groupmates. Students, as with most people, often want to do tasks in the quickest way possible. However, the focus in classrooms is on learning, with the task as a means of promoting learning. Thus, the scribe in each group should not necessarily be the best writer in that group.

 

11. Cartoon versions

The issue of whether or not to use cartoons in literacy education is often a controversial one. However, many educators feel that cartoons do have a role to play as a bridge to other types of reading. Furthermore, more and more material, including non-fiction, now comes in cartoon form. In the activity below, groupmates collaborate to sequence frames from a cartoon.

Steps

a.          The teacher cuts a cartoon version of a story into individual frames. Each group receives one complete set of frames with the pictures face down.

b.          Group members distribute the cartoon frames face down in such a way that everyone has an equal number (or as equal as possible). Students look at what is shown in their frames without letting others see.

c.          The teacher reads aloud the story, stopping at various points. If students think they have a cartoon frame that fits with something the teacher has read thus far, they show that frame to their group and explain how it matches something read by the teacher.

d.          Groupmates agree or disagree and place the frames in the correct order.

e.          When the teacher has finished reading, groups try to agree on the order of the frames. The teacher calls a number, and students with that number go to another group and listen as the members of that group take turns to explain, not just tell, the order of their cartoon frames.

Discussion

The fact that students cannot see their groupmates’ cartoon frames promotes equal participation. Imagine the situation if all the frames were visible to all the group members. In that case, one or two people in the group could more easily do all the thinking (and learning).

Two extensions of this activity are: i) Group members divide up the task of writing speech bubbles or sentences to accompany the cartoon frames. The resulting cartoons can be made into mini-books or posted on construction paper. ii) Students write and draw their own cartoon versions of books – fiction or non-fiction – that the teacher reads aloud. Copies of these, in turn, can be cut into frames and used with future classes.

12. Silent reading by students

Last, but maybe best, when the read aloud session is over, students can get their own books and read silently. Some teachers like to read just the first chapter or any particularly engrossing section of a book and then let students finish the book silently on their own. After all, silent reading is the main form that reading takes, and one of the prime reasons for reading aloud to students is to excite them about reading so that they will spend more time reading silently on their own. Therefore, why take away students’s reading time with more class activities, however valuable those activities might be, and, instead, why not give students the maximum possible amount of time for their own reading.

Conclusion

A long-raging debate in language pedagogy revolves around the terms teacher-centred and student/learner-centred instruction, with other terms, such as learning-centred having been thrown into the mix. This article argues for a felicitous combination of two forms of pedagogy from what would seem to be opposite ends of the student-centred – teacher-centred continuum. CL seems to be squarely in the student-centred camp, with students talking more (CL principle of simultaneous interaction) and depending on themselves more (CL principle of group autonomy). On the other hand, reading aloud by teachers appears to have both feet firmly planted in teacher-centred territory, with teachers talking and students listening.

        However, closer examination finds that the demarcation lines are actually rather blurred. Teachers play important roles in CL. These roles include: co-organising the groups, helping students learn and utilise collaborative skills, making available the knowledge students will need to do their group tasks, monitoring the groups and assessing the groups’ products and processes. Similarly, reading aloud by teachers is less one dimensional than it might appear to be. As explained in Section 3 of this article, a good reading aloud session will include a good deal of talking by students as they respond to the teacher’s questions, ask their own, voice their opinions and relate their experiences. Furthermore, a key purpose of read aloud sessions is to encourage students to do more silent reading, a very student-centred activity, particularly when students choose their own reading material. In a similar vein, Section 4 of the article offered more suggestions as to how to reading aloud by teachers can take on student-centred dimensions.

        In conclusion, this article began with two sections introducing CL. The first discussed some of the history, research support, theoretical foundations and principles of CL, while the second explored connections between CL and language pedagogy. The article’s third section explained why teachers should read aloud to their students and gave suggestions on how this might be done. The key section of the article, Section 4, presented ways of combining these two powerful pedagogic ideas – CL and reading aloud by teachers - in order to promote language learning.

Moreover, CL and reading aloud by teachers both not only promote language learning. They also promote, albeit indirectly, active citizenship. This is why. CL encourages students to stand on their own, rather than always depending on an authority figure. Additionally, the CL principles positive interdependence and cooperation as a value encourage students to see others as allies rather than adversaries and to strive for win-win solutions. These two perspectives – taking responsibility rather than leaving everything to the authorities and seeking to collaborate with others – are essential elements of citizenship. Literacy, which reading aloud seeks to promote, provides people with the information they need to take wise actions in their roles as citizens of their country and planet.


 
 
زمان گذشته ساده
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٤٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 


تعریف: کاری است که در گذشته انجام گرفته و تمام شده.

اضافه کنیم گذشته ساده به دست می آید. ied یا ed طرز ساخت : اگر به حال ساده

افعال در گذشته دو دسته اند:

افعال :

see 􀃆 saw :( -1 بی قاعده: (شکل عوض می شود

work 􀃆 worked ( ed-ied) : -2 با قاعده

do 􀃆 did

am , is 􀃆 was

are 􀃆 were

have 􀃆 had

go 􀃆 went

come 􀃆 came

see 􀃆 saw

می باشد. did تغییرات در گذشته: به عهده فعل کمکی

حذف و اگر فعل بی قاعده باشد به حالت اول ied یا ed می آید didn’t یا did تذکر بسیار مهم : وقتی که

خود بر می گردد.

نشانه های گذشته ساده:

34

و تغییر شکل فعل در افعال بی قاعده. ied یا ed -1 وجود

-2 وجود قیود زمان مانند:

last day و yesterday 􀃆 که در آخر جمله می آیند

the other day 􀃆 چند روز قبل

two days ago 􀃆 دو روز قبل

in + تاریخ 􀃆 ( in برای تاریخ گذشته به کار می رود ( 1920

تذکر مهم : اگر در یک جمله دو فعل داشته باشیم فقط فعل اولی به گذشته تبدیل می شود.

ed حروف صدادار داشته باشد برای تبدیل به گذشته فقط y ختم می شوند اگر قبل از y تذکر : افعالی که به

می گیرند.

play 􀃆 played

stay 􀃆 stayed

say 􀃆 said

pay 􀃆 paid

را برمی y حروف صدادار نداشته باشند برای تبدیل به گذشته y ختم می شوند اگر قبل از y و افعالی که به

می شود. ied اضافه می کنیم که ed می کنیم سپس i داریم و تبدیل به

carry 􀃆 carried

study 􀃆 studied

try 􀃆 tried

35

تمرین جملات فارسی :

جملات زیر را به انگلیسی ترجمه کنید.

-1 آنها کمک کردند به ما در کلاس ساعت 2 دیروز

-2 ما دیدیم شما را در پارک ساعت 5 هفته گذشته

-3 ما میخواستیم برویم مدرسه چند روز پیش

-4 ما دوست داشتیم مؤدب باشیم در کلاس در سال 1367

-5 ما خسته بودیم دیروز

-6 پسره پارسال تنبل بود

پاسخ:

1-They helped us in the class at 2 o’clock yesterday.

2-We saw you in the park at 5 o’clock last week.

3- We wanted to go to school the other day.

4-We liked to be polite in the class in 1367 year.

5- We were tired yesterday.

6- The boy was lazy last year.

36

زنگ تفریح:

To Do

You did. Did you do?

اصلی کمکی فعل اصلی فاعل

He does. Does he do?

Did he do? Yes he did.

You had to go. . -1 تو مجبور بودی بروی

Did you have to go? سؤالی

You didn’t have to go منفی

-2 او مجبور است برود.

He has to go.

Does he have to go? سؤالی

-3 او مجبور بود درس بدهد.

He had to teach.

Did he have to teach?

-4 پدرم دیروز اینجا بود .

My father was here yesterday.

-5 والدینشان مهربان بودند پارسال.

Their parents were kind last year.

-6 من پارسال معلم بودم.

37

I was teacher last year.

-7 آنها داشتند درس می خواندند وقتی که پدرم آمد

They were studying when my father came in.

-8 برادرم داشت پیانو می زد وقتیکه معلمش در زد

My brother was playing the piano when his teacher rang.

-9 والدینشان داشتند اخبار تماشا می کردند وقتیکه باران آمد.

Their parents were watching the news when it was raining.

داشته باشیم و دو عمل همزمان و با هم صورت گرفته بود هر دو جمله گذشته when تذکر: هر گاه در جمله

استمراری می شوند.

زمان گذشته ساده

تعریف: کاری است که در گذشته انجام گرفته و تمام شده.

اضافه کنیم گذشته ساده به دست می آید. ied یا ed طرز ساخت : اگر به حال ساده

افعال در گذشته دو دسته اند:

افعال :

see 􀃆 saw :( -1 بی قاعده: (شکل عوض می شود

work 􀃆 worked ( ed-ied) : -2 با قاعده

do 􀃆 did

am , is 􀃆 was

are 􀃆 were

have 􀃆 had

go 􀃆 went

come 􀃆 came

see 􀃆 saw

می باشد. did تغییرات در گذشته: به عهده فعل کمکی

حذف و اگر فعل بی قاعده باشد به حالت اول ied یا ed می آید didn’t یا did تذکر بسیار مهم : وقتی که

خود بر می گردد.

نشانه های گذشته ساده:

34

و تغییر شکل فعل در افعال بی قاعده. ied یا ed -1 وجود

-2 وجود قیود زمان مانند:

last day و yesterday 􀃆 که در آخر جمله می آیند

the other day 􀃆 چند روز قبل

two days ago 􀃆 دو روز قبل

in + تاریخ 􀃆 ( in برای تاریخ گذشته به کار می رود ( 1920

تذکر مهم : اگر در یک جمله دو فعل داشته باشیم فقط فعل اولی به گذشته تبدیل می شود.

ed حروف صدادار داشته باشد برای تبدیل به گذشته فقط y ختم می شوند اگر قبل از y تذکر : افعالی که به

می گیرند.

play 􀃆 played

stay 􀃆 stayed

say 􀃆 said

pay 􀃆 paid

را برمی y حروف صدادار نداشته باشند برای تبدیل به گذشته y ختم می شوند اگر قبل از y و افعالی که به

می شود. ied اضافه می کنیم که ed می کنیم سپس i داریم و تبدیل به

carry 􀃆 carried

study 􀃆 studied

try 􀃆 tried

35

تمرین جملات فارسی :

جملات زیر را به انگلیسی ترجمه کنید.

-1 آنها کمک کردند به ما در کلاس ساعت 2 دیروز

-2 ما دیدیم شما را در پارک ساعت 5 هفته گذشته

-3 ما میخواستیم برویم مدرسه چند روز پیش

-4 ما دوست داشتیم مؤدب باشیم در کلاس در سال 1367

-5 ما خسته بودیم دیروز

-6 پسره پارسال تنبل بود

پاسخ:

1-They helped us in the class at 2 o’clock yesterday.

2-We saw you in the park at 5 o’clock last week.

3- We wanted to go to school the other day.

4-We liked to be polite in the class in 1367 year.

5- We were tired yesterday.

6- The boy was lazy last year.

36

زنگ تفریح:

To Do

You did. Did you do?

اصلی کمکی فعل اصلی فاعل

He does. Does he do?

Did he do? Yes he did.

You had to go. . -1 تو مجبور بودی بروی

Did you have to go? سؤالی

You didn’t have to go منفی

-2 او مجبور است برود.

He has to go.

Does he have to go? سؤالی

-3 او مجبور بود درس بدهد.

He had to teach.

Did he have to teach?

-4 پدرم دیروز اینجا بود .

My father was here yesterday.

-5 والدینشان مهربان بودند پارسال.

Their parents were kind last year.

-6 من پارسال معلم بودم.

37

I was teacher last year.

-7 آنها داشتند درس می خواندند وقتی که پدرم آمد

They were studying when my father came in.

-8 برادرم داشت پیانو می زد وقتیکه معلمش در زد

My brother was playing the piano when his teacher rang.

-9 والدینشان داشتند اخبار تماشا می کردند وقتیکه باران آمد.

Their parents were watching the news when it was raining.

داشته باشیم و دو عمل همزمان و با هم صورت گرفته بود هر دو جمله گذشته when تذکر: هر گاه در جمله

استمراری می شوند.


 
 
چگونه فکر دیگران را بخوانیم
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٤۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٢/٦/۱۱
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
     
 
   
 

آیا مایلید به افکار کسی که کنار دستتان نشسته است پی ببرید؟ اگر با افراد زیادی مواجهه شده باشیم می توانیم بسیاری از افراد را حتی از نوع صحبت کردنشان نیز بشناسیم اما این شناخت در مواجهه حضوری با دانستن بسیاری از حالات اثبات شده در علم روانشناسی بهترین شناخت را نسبت به دیگران برایمان به ارمغان می اورد. اکنون با توجه به نکات ارائه شده میتوانید از روی هر یک از حالات زیر افکار آنها را بخوانید:

قابل ذکر است در علوم انسانی این موارد صد در صد مطلق نیست و نسبی می باشد از این رو عواملی همچون فرهنگ در رفتارها تأثیر بسیار زیادی دارد از این رو در هنگام مطالعه موارد ذیل تفاوت های فرهنگی و عامل جنسیت را در نظر داشته باشید

قابل ذکر است در علوم انسانی این موارد صد در صد مطلق نیست و نسبی می باشد از این رو عواملی همچون فرهنگ در رفتارها تأثیر بسیار زیادی دارد از این رو در هنگام مطالعه موارد ذیل تفاوت های فرهنگی و عامل جنسیت را در نظر داشته باشید

▪ خوددار

اگر شخصی دستهایش را پشت کمر خود قفل کند این امر نشان میدهد که وی خود را بشدت کنترل کرده است . دراین حالت او سعی دارد خشم یا احساس نا امیدی را از خود دور کند. این فرد در واقع نشان میدهد که از اعتماد به نفس بسیار بالایی برخوردار است و میتواند در حالات مختلف بر خشم یا ناامیدی خود غلبه کند . در این حالت بهتر است با این فرد به آرامی ارتباط برقرار کرد

▪ تدافعی

اگر انگشتان دستها به بازو گره خورده باشد این حالت نشان دهنده حالت تدافعی در برابر حمله غیر منتظره و ناگهانی یا بی میلی برای تغییر چهره شخص است. اگر انگشتها مشت شده باشند حالت بی میلی شدیدتر است در این حالت بهتر است با ارامش با شخص مورد بحث برخورد شود تا کم کم از حالت تدافعی خود خارج شده و ارتباطی زیبا را شروع کند

▪ متفکر

گره کردن دستها به دسته های صندلی نشان میدهد که شخص سعی دارد احساس خود را مهار کند اما قفل کردن قوزک پاها به یکدیگر حالت تدافعی است این حالت شاید بیشتر در مسافران مظطرب هواپیما به هنگام پرواز و فرود دیده شود.

بسیاری از افراد این حالت را به نوعی رسیدن به تصمیمی بزرگ میدانند اما روانشناسان بالینی میگویند که حتی اظطراب نیز نشانه تفکر فرد است

▪ دقیق

وقتی شخص انگشت سبابه خود را روی صورت و بقیه دستش را بصورت گره کرده در پایین صورتش قرار میدهد یعنی که فرد مورد نظر بسیار دقیق است. این حالت نشان میدهد که شخص با دقت زیاد به صحبت های شما گوش میدهد و یک یک کلمات شما را می سنجد و در عین حال در چهره او حالت انتقادی نیز به چشم میخورد اما این انتقاد جنبه دوستانه دارد و شاید بیشتر به منظور برقرار یک ارتباط بین دو نفر است

▪ دودلی

انگشتهای گره شده زیر چانه و نگاه خیره نشان دهنده حالت تردید و دو دلی است . او به صحبت های شما و صحت گفته هایتان تردید میکند . در این حالت ممکن است آرنج روی میز قرار گرفته باشد به گفته برخی از روان شناسان نگاه خیره همیشه نشانه دو دلی است چرا که ثابت قدم و محکم بودن نگاه انسان را نیز مصمم و با اراده می سازد. شاید چون از نگاه شما تردید و دودلی آشکار است دیگران برای قدم جلو گذاشتن و دوست شدن با شما ترید دارند

▪ بی گناه

دستهایی که روی سینه قرار گرفته باشند بهترین نمونه برای حالت بی گناهی و درستکاری است. این حالت به عقیده اکثر روانشناسان اثر باقیمانده ای از شکل سوگند خوردن است که در آن دست را روی قلب قرار میدهند. حالت تواضعی که در این عمل وجوددارد میتواند به شما بگوید که این فرد به رغم آنکه خود به بی گناهیش اذعان دارد ولی نمیداند چگونه آنرا به اثبات برساند و در عین حال بسیار مایل است تا دوست صمیمی برای بیان آنچه در قلبش میگذرد داشته باشد

▪ مطمئن

دستهایی که به کمر زده میشود در مردها نشان دهنده آن است که فرد به آنچه میگوید اعتقاد و اعتماد کامل دارد. خانمها هنگامی که دست خود را به کمر میزنند نشان میدهند که به آنچه میگویند اطمینان دارند. اما در هر دو مورد این حالت به ما میگوید که فرد به هر حال احساس اطمینانی در گفته ها و رفتار خود دارد که میتواند به سادگی این شرایط را به دیگری نیز منتقل کند

▪ مرموز

دستهای مشت شده در زیر چانه نشان میدهد که شخص نظریاتش را پنهان میکند و به شما اجازه می دهد تا صحبت خود را تمام کنید. آنگاه زمانیکه حرفهای شما پایان یافت در کمال آرامش به شما و نظریات شما حمله میکند. شگرد جالبی است. شخص ابتدا اطمینان شما را جلب میکند و سپس در نهایت آرامش به شما میگوید که شما و نظریاتتان را قبول ندارد

▪ ظاهر ساز

در این حالت شخص آرام بنظر میرسد اما این آرامش پیش از توفان است این حالتی است که بیشتر روسا بخود میگیرند تا خود ر ا بگونه ای به زیر دستان نزدیک کنند و در عین حال جاذبه و جذابیت آنها نیز کم نشود. ظاهرسازی معمولا از آن دسته حالتهایی است که در بیشتر افراد دیده میشود ولی نوع آنها با یکدیگر متفاوت است . اما به هر حال حالت خوبی از یک فرد برای شروع یک ارتباط محسوب نمیشود

▪ مالکیت

قرار دادن پاها روی هر چیز ( روی صندلی میز سکو و …) نشانه حالت مالکیت است. در یک میز گرد تنها رئیس اجازه دارد چنین حالتی داشته باشد و از این طریق آرامش خود را نشان دهد. روان شناسان این حالت را حالت مالکیت میدانند که در نهایت به عقیده فرد مورد نظر به موفقیت وی در کارها منجر خواهد شد

▪ اعتماد به نفس

تکیه زدن به صندلی درحالتیکه دستها پشت سر قفل شده نشان دهنده اعتماد به نفس قوی است . اگر شخصی در این حالت صحبت میکند به گفته های خود اعتماددارد و اگر به صحبت های شما گوش میدهد به خود زحمت ندهید ا و خود همه ماجرا را میداند.