Vocabulary Part 14
1-What is the opposite of foolish.
1) clever 2) silly 3) careful 4) wise
2- The house was …….by tree, therefore, nobody could see it from outside.
1) directed 2) divided 3) supported 4) surrounded
3- We learned a lot form our teacher’s speech today. He …….a great many points.
1) went back 2) went on 3) went over 4) went to
4-They seem to …….themselves very well to desert region.
1) adapt 2) catch 3) save 4) went to
5-Knowing a foreign language is an important ……for university students.
1)community 2) possibility 3) modernity 4) necessity
6-Take this telephone number and ……me whenever necessary.
1) keep in touch with 2) get ride of 3) catch up with 4) run out of
7- Plants, vegetables and flower were destroyed because of the shortage of……
1) water 2) steam 3) shade 4) cloud
8- The bird’s …….is broken. That’s why it can’t fly
1) leg 2) neck 3) tail 4) wing
9- The engine doesn’t work well, why don’t you have it checked by a ……
1) chemist 2) mechanic 3) painter 4) physician
10- Charles Dickens is known all over the world in fact. He’s the most …..writer I’ve ever known.
1) miserable 2) forgettable 3) famous 4) dangerous
11- My brother was coming back form abroad by plane, so we went to the………to welcome him.
1) airport 2) bus stop 3) rail way 4) taxi stand
12- We live near the airport and always hear the plane …….and land.
1) look up 2) pick up 3) turn off 4) take off
13- What is the most important ….in your life? “ I think it was my graduation in medicine”.
1) event 2) comment 3) pavement 4) movement
14- I had to …….attention to the teacher yesterday.
1) meet 2) pay 3) remember 4) ride
15- He lives in a house…..from any village or town.
1)far away 2) knocked down 3) renewed 40 outside
16- Can you……….this German word for me? I don’t know what it means:
1) write 2) spell 3) translate 4) read
17- Kindergarten is a German…….
1) book 2) city 3) word 4) work
18-My friend is playing alone. It means he plays with……….
1) nobody 2) me 3) some people 4) my brother
19- My brother ……Tehran for Ahwaz to live there.
10 departed 2) went 3) left 4) flew
20- I don’t like a person who …..to know all the answers.
1) prevents 2) presents 3) pretends 4) predicts
21- I want that book. How much should I ……for it.
1) pay 2) play 3) take 4) talk
22- We pick fruits when they are …….
1) green 2) ripe 3) small 4) dry
23- Farmers …..plants , vegetable, and flowers.
1) rise 2) climb 3) ride 4) raise
24- Which of these means “at once”?
1) shortly 2) later 3) immediately 4) at present
25- The opposite of “alive” is
1) asleep 2) ill 3) dead 4) quiet
26- If you stand under a tree when it is raining , the tree…..
1) shelters you 2) hides you 3) masks you 4) conceals you
27- We talk about a range of …….
1) rivers 2) forest 3) lakes 4) mountains
28- Reza was so …….to know what I had said.
1) curious 2) obvious 3) lakes 4) various
29- The children must …..the school bell. They can’t leave soon.
1) wait for 2) go to 3) come to 4) go up
30- All the football players hoped for an……….in the weather.
1) achievement 2) appointment 3) equipment 4) improvement
31- Every body must …..the responsibility of obeying traffic laws.
1) accept 2) admire 3) approach 4) appreciate
32- I would like you to ……what I’ve said.
1) look 2) run over 3) take over 4) think over
33- When an athlete is doing the high jump, what does he jump over?
1) a road 2) a pole 3) a bar 4) a stick
34- If a friend asks you to give him a ring. He wants you………… .
1) to telephone him 2) to marry him
3) to buy him a ring 4) to help him to ring the bells
35- Learning slowly and in stages is learning…………. .
1) step for step 2) step after step 3) step by step 4) step and step
36- Ears are to deaf as eyes are to…….
1) deaf 2) blind 3) dumb 4) lame
37- They returned almost an hour later. “ Return” means……..
1) came back 2) put back 3) paid back 4) turned back
38- If you are in charge of someone you ……..
1) look at him 2) look after him 3) look him over 4) look him up
39- Comfortable is to uncomfortable as complete is to …….
1) imcomplete 2) miscomplete 3) incomplete 4) nocomplete
40- When you stand at the side of a river you are on its………….. .
1) bank 2) coast 3) shore 4) beach
41- The synonym of raise is ………
1) grow 2) pick 3) learn 4) live
42- What do you do?
1) I live in Tehran 2) I buy a book 3) I’m a teacher 4)I read my newspaper
43- The police ……the stolen money with no success.
1) found out 2) help up 3) turned into 4) searched for
44- I can’t find my book. I ……it yesterday.
1) lost 2) given 3) sold 4) kept
45- I want to be a teacher when I ……up.
1) look 2) take 3) grow 4) hurry
46- They ……the baby Ali.
1) saw 2)helped 3) showed 4) called
47- This problem is very difficult only, a…..……student can solve it.
1) hungry 2) funny 3) tired 4) clever
48- Reza studies very hard. He will …..in his examinations.
1) believe 2) succeed 3) change 4) welcome
49- A dictionary gives you ……..for each meaning.
1) a reason 2) a solution 3) an example 4) an illustration
50- The ……..on the man’s face showed that he was displeased.
1) comfort 2) laugh 3) sign 4) smile
If everything has frozen in winter, then Jack Frost has visited.
A confident and not very serious young man who behaves as he wants to without thinking about other people is a Jack the Lad.
A jack-of-all-trades is someone that can do many different jobs.
If you say that someone has jam on their face, they appear to be caught, embarrassed or found guilty.
(UK) This idiom is used when people promise good things for the future that will never come.
Jane Doe is a name given to an unidentified female who may be party to legal proceedings, or to an unidentified person in hospital, or dead. John Doe is the male equivalent.
Someone who has a Jekyll and Hyde personality has a pleasant and a very unpleasant side to the character.
(UK) Jersey justice is very severe justice.
Very wealthy people who travel around the world to attend parties or functions are the jet set.
To emphasise just how black something is, such as someone's hair, we can call it jet-black.
Someone who says they want to comfort, but actually discomforts people is a Job's comforter. (Job's is pronounced 'jobes', not 'jobs')
Where people give jobs, contracts, etc, to their friends and associates, these are jobs for the boys.
If a number of people want the same opportunity and are struggling to emerge as the most likely candidate, they are jockeying for position.
If you jog someone's memory, you say words that will help someone trying to remember a thought, event, word, phrase, experience, etc.
John Doe is a name given to an unidentified male who may be party to legal proceedings, or to an unidentified person in hospital, or dead. Jane Doe is the female equivalent.
(USA) John Hancock means a signature- his signature on the engrossed copy of the Declaration of Independence is very prominent.
(USA) John Q Public is the typical, average person.
A person who is always available; ready, willing, and able to do what needs to be done.('Johnny-on-the-spot' is also used.)
A Johnny-come-lately is someone who has recently joined something or arrived somewhere, especially when they want to make changes that are not welcome.
Said when someone has expressed a desire or opinion, meaning "That viewpoint is not unique to you". It can suggest that the speaker should stop complaining since many others are in the same position. Example: "If this train doesn't come, I'll be late for work!" "Join the club!"
If people are joined at the hip, they are very closely connected and think the same way.
If someone is said to be the judge, jury, and executioner, it means they are in charge of every decision made, and they have the power to be rid of whomever they choose.
If you are juggling frogs, you are trying to do something very difficult.
If you jump down someone's throat, you criticise or chastise them severely.
If people jump on the bandwagon, they get involved in something that has recently become very popular.
If you leave a company or institution for another because it is doing badly, you are jumping ship.
If you jump the gun, you start doing something before the appropriate time.
Said of a salient point in a television show or other activity at which the popularity thereof begins to wane: The Flintstones jumped the shark when a man from outer space came to visit them. The expression derives from an episode of the television sitcom 'Happy Days' in which Fonzie, clad in leather jacket and on water skis, jumps over a shark. That episode was widely seen as the beginning of the end for the formerly popular series.
Jumping the track is suddenly changing from one plan, activity, idea, etc, to another.
If you are prepared to jump through hoops for someone, you are prepared to make great efforts and sacrifices for them.
If someone jumps to a conclusion, they evaluate or judge something without a sufficient examination of the facts.
An expression of surprise or shock.
If someone says that it is a jungle out there, they mean that the situation is dangerous and there are no rules.
If the jury's out on an issue, then there is no general agreement or consensus on it.
If something is just around the corner, then it is expected to happen very soon.
Things, especially education, that affect and influence us in our childhood shape the kind of adult we turn out to be. (There are various versions of this, like 'As the twig is bent, the tree's inclined' and 'As the twig is bent, so the tree inclines', 'As the twig is bent so is the tree inclined')
If the time is just coming up to nine o'clock, it means that it will be nine o'clock in a very few seconds. You'll hear them say it on the radio in the morning.
If a bad or evil person gets their just deserts, they get the punishment or suffer the misfortune that it is felt they deserve.
When someone does something just for the heck of it, they do it without a good reason.
If something is said to be just for the record, the person is saying it so that people know but does not necessarily agree with or support it.
If you do something in the nick of time, you just manage to do it just in time, with seconds to spare.
If someone is just off the boat, they are naive and inexperienced.
If something's just what the doctor ordered, it is precisely what is needed.
Justice is blind means that justice is impartial and objective.
What is EPER?
It is a non-profit making research and development project set up in 1981 by ELTC (formerly IALS) in the University of Edinburgh.
We seek to promote the systematic use of graded readers within an extensive reading programme that forms an integral part of the ELT syllabus.
What do we do?
1. We maintain a library and database of all graded readers published in the UK. We assess the quality of each title on a 5-point scale, and classify its difficulty on an 8-level scale.
2. We advise publishers on the production and development of their series of graded readers.
3. We supervise postgraduate students who wish to study an aspect of extensive reading within their course.
4. We give help and advice to individual teachers, ministries of education and educational organisations who want to set up a reading programme.
5. We publish our own materials to support individual and class use of graded readers.
Who works for EPER
David R Hill directs the project. He taught English in secondary schools in Uganda, the UK and Malaysia before joining ELTC in 1981. As Project Director he has given talks and led workshops in Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, the Maldives, Saudi Arabia, Greece, Spain, Argentina and the UK, and corresponded with teachers and education officials in many other countries including New Zealand, Australia, Malaysia, Korea, China, India, Jordan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Namibia, South Africa, Chile, Mexico, USA, Canada, Norway, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Czech Republic, France and the UK.
Greaney, V. (Ed.). (1996). Promoting reading in developing countries: Views on making reading materials accessible to increase literacy levels. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
[This review, by George Jacobs, appeared in 1998 in Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 8, 125-131.]
This book discusses the state of first language literacy in developing countries, focusing on the need for sufficient quality reading materials to raise and sustain literacy levels. English is not the first language of any Asian country; so, why should readers of this journal be interested in the book? Four reasons suggest themselves.
First, the ESL field should support first language literacy in other languages because we should hold an additive, rather than replacive, view of our goal (Alatis, 1975), i.e., we help people learn English as an additional language, not to take the place of their current language(s). Second, research suggests that literacy skills transfer across languages; so, good readers and writers in their native language have a head start towards being good readers and writers in second languages (Koda, 1994). Third, as education professionals, we should concern ourselves with more than just the scores our students get on English proficiency tests. These broader concerns start with the overall education of our students and of the general population in the countries in which we work (Cates, 1990). Building from there, literacy and education generally form key prerequisites of human and social development. Last, but not least, we should support literacy as a human right.
Fortunately, there is good news to report on the literacy front. Estimates indicate that the percentage of illiterate people internationally will decline from 39% in 1970 to 22% in 2000. Asia is no exception to this trend. Despite the progress made towards promoting universal literacy, almost 1 billion people remain illiterate worldwide, with the overwhelming majority of these in developing countries. This book provides important ideas on how to resolve this gaping wound.
The book comprises 10 chapters, with an overall focus on developing literacy among children rather than adults. In Chapter 1, Vincent Greaney begins by furnishing an overview of reasons for illiteracy and paths towards its elimination. In addition to lack of quality reading materials, the book’s main focus, other key reasons for illiteracy include:
1. Health problems - e.g., malnutrition annually causes blindness in up to a million children.
2. Gender inequality - in developing countries, illiteracy among females stands at 45% versus 25% for males, due in part to girls’ lower school attendance.
3. Unfavourable home conditions - e.g., poverty often leaves homes without space and light for reading and forces children to spend their time working rather than reading.
4. School deficiencies - e.g., teachers often lack training and livable salaries.
Greaney concludes his chapter on an optimistic note, citing the case of South Korea which in 1945 had an illiteracy rate of 78%; however, with sustained effort, today that rate has fallen below 4%.
Warwick Elley has done literacy research and development work in Asia and the Pacific. In Chapter 2, he reports on implications of a 4-year study comparing literacy practices in 32 countries from around the world. Elley notes that such cross-national studies provide unique insights, because many factors vary more between than within countries. Results of the study reported by Elley, for which data were collected in the early 1990s, suggest key factors in raising literacy are:
1. A sufficient quantity of readily available books.
2. School time for students to read.
3. Instruction which places less emphasis on teacher-led drills of discrete skills and more on motivating students to enjoy reading and to read on their own.
Chapter 3, by well known reading researcher Richard Anderson, reviews the research behind the view that large quantities of reading are the most important factor in vocabulary development and overall reading competence. For instance, he states that if students read just 15 minutes a day in school and 15 minutes a day outside school, they will be reading more than a total of 1 million words per year. If 20,000 of these are new words and, as research suggests, at least 5% of these are learned, Anderson estimates 1000 words a year will be learned, much more than would normally be learned by direct vocabulary instruction. Reading also surpasses oral language via conversation and TV as a source of vocabulary enrichment. Anderson cites one study which found that even comic books provided at least a two times richer lexical environment for children than did talking with adults.
Chapter 4 by João Oliveira and Chapter 5 by Tony Read discuss how to improve the quantity and quality of textbooks and children’s literature, respectively..
Oliviera notes that In many developing countries, although textbook expenditure seldom amounts to more than 1% of the education budget, textbooks are scarce. Indeed, while many reading experts advise against over-reliance on textbooks, many teachers are thankful just to have them, because in many schools textbooks provide the sole source of written language for their students. Further, textbooks supply guidance on what to teach and how to teach it.
Oliveira gives several reasons for the textbook shortage. First, as educational opportunity has expanded beyond economic elites, many more children are attending school, but the parents of these new students often lack the money to purchase textbooks. Second, while once the same textbook could be used for several generations, the rapid pace of curriculum change necessitates much more frequent textbook turnover. Third, the infrastructure for textbook production, which can take as long as 15 years to develop, has been stifled by economic woes and unfortunate policies.
The lack of sufficient children’s literature for the development of L1 literacy, according to Read, derives from two main causes: insufficient markets and lack of human and physical resources needed to develop sustainable publishing industries. The small markets result from such factors as:
1. Wealthier parents and the private schools which their children attend often buy imported books in English rather than locally produced books in national and local languages.
2. Teachers may not request the purchase of children’s literature and instead favour sole reliance on textbooks, because they are unfamiliar with teaching methods which promote the kind of wide reading supported by research summarised in the Anderson chapter.
3. Inadequate distribution networks stifle sales, e.g., in one project in the Philippines, 46% of the books produced did not get distributed.
4. The existence of languages spoken by only a portion of the population reduces the demand for books in those languages.
Read provides suggestions for increasing market demand and developing the expertise and equipment necessary to greatly increase the quantity and quality of children’s literature in developing countries.
In Chapter 6, Nelson Rodríquez-Trujillo discusses lessons from successful local pilot projects for promoting independent reading in South America. He notes that certain prerequisites must be met in order to extend these projects beyond the controlled settings in which they first grew:
1. Demonstration models.
2. A nucleus of educators who stay with the project.
3. Ongoing teacher development in line with the practices suggested in the Anderson chapter.
Scott Walter’s Chapter 7 follows from Chapter 5 by describing efforts to develop a children’s publishing industry in Africa. He argues that a "book famine" currently exists in Africa due to over-reliance on government publishing and distribution, and on imported books. Among Walter’s recommendations are:
1. Allocate funds to support demand for books rather than to support book production.
2. Develop local editorial, design, and marketing skills.
3. Promote books set in local contexts.
Chapter 8 is devoted to Elley’s description of "Book Flood" programmes which have been used to boost literacy in schools in several developing countries. Elley outlines 5 characteristics of book floods:
1. Students start reading extensively at primary school.
2. Students have access to a large number of books.
3. Books are selected to be appropriate in terms of student interest, cultural sensitivity, local context, resistance to wear, and print size.
4. Students are encouraged to read often by such means as allotted school time and teacher promotion of books.
5. The shared reading method is used. In this method, the class or a group of students read a book with the teacher who introduces the story, reads to the students, stops to involve them in predicting what will happen next and discussing what has happened, highlights key language points, e.g., vocabulary, as the need arises, and gradually has students do more and more of the reading themselves.
In Chapter 9, Rosamaria Durand and Suzanne M Deehy discuss book donation programmes. Such programmes have been criticized for jeopardizing the development of local book publishing and for the fact that many donated books are unsuitable, because they are outdated or irrelevant to local needs. However, the supply of potentially donatable books is huge, e.g., just in the U.S., every year 40 million new books are destroyed and a minimum of 2-4 million are donated. Durand and Deehy argue that donations can be a valuable interim way of supplying large quantities of quality reading materials if recipients and donors work together to ensure that book donation programmes are driven by demand.
Libraries constitute a key source of reading material, especially when book stores do not exist or are too expensive. Rebecca Knuth, Barbara Perry, and Brigitte Duces use Chapter 10 to illustrate how libraries in developing countries can meet the demands of their potential clients. The authors urge that libraries should change from being passive institutions serving mainly as book caretakers to become active centres which reach out to provide a range of services to the communities they are to serve. Alternatives can take the form of:
1. Mobile libraries.
2. Rotating collections which move between different schools, libraries, and community centres..
3. Staff who support users’ reading.
4. Provision of other services tied to literacy, e.g., storytelling, games related to reading, and health and childcare instruction.
To conclude with some general comments, the book grew out of a seminar sponsored by the World Bank which, at least at that time, stood for a larger role for the private sector in many spheres of society. Thus, it comes as no surprise that several of the book’s authors propose a wider role for private sector publishing and a smaller role for publishing by governments.
An alternative both government and privately produced books is the generation of materials by students and teachers themselves, a common practice in whole language approaches to literacy (e.g., Davidson, et al., 1997). This could have received more attention in this volume. Computers, especially CD-ROM, provide another source of reading materials not highlighted in the book. For instance, the United Nations University is participating in a project which plans to produce over 6,000 3,000-book CD-ROM libraries at a cost of US$50 per library (United Nations University, 1997). The obvious drawback here is the expense of computers and the infrastructure needed to support them.
Most of you reading this review probably have access to large amounts of reading material via libraries, bookstores, and the internet. Indeed, nowadays we hear about people suffering "information fatigue" from all the material out there to read. That is definitely the case for the writer of this review. However, we should remember that, as this book vividly points out, a significant proportion of the world’s population lack the ability to read, in part because they lack access to sufficient materials to read. The situation of information fatigue in the developed world and book famine in the developing world approximates that of people in the developing world spending large sums of money on pills, programmes, and equipment to prevent the ill effects of consuming the large quantity of food available to them, while some in the developing world suffer and even die from lack of access to food.
The International Reading Association has published many fine books, the current volume among them. This book serves its readers by informing us of the many avenues which exist for promoting literacy. ESL educators have already been involved in such efforts, e.g., the Global Issue in Language Education interest group of the Japan Association for Language Teaching <http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp/jalt/nsig/globalissues/gi.html> has supported efforts to maintain minority languages in Japan. Hopefully, with the insights and inspiration found in this book, we will be able to do more and do it better.
Alatis, J.E. (1975). The compatibility of TESOL and bilingual education. In M.K. Burt & H.C. Dulay (Eds.), On TESOL ‘75 (pp. 3-14). Washington, D.C.: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
Cates, K. (1990). Teaching for a better world: Global issues in language education. The Language Teacher, 14, 3-5.
Davidson, C. Ogle, D. Ross, D., Tuhaka, J. & Ng, S.M. (1997). Student-created reading materials for extensive reading. In Jacobs, G.M., Davis, C., & Renandya, W. Successful strategies for extensive reading (pp. 144-160). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
44. Time for a Nap
A: I’m going to take a nap.
B: You should unplug the phone.
A: That’s a good idea.
B: Do you want me to wake you in an hour?
A: No, thanks. Just let me sleep until I wake up.
B: I’ll start dinner at 6:00.
A: Okay. I think I’ll be awake by then.
B: If not, your nose will wake you up.
A: You mean I will smell the food cooking?
B: You might even dream about dinner.
A: I don’t think I’m going to dream about anything. I’m really tired.
B: Have a nice nap.
45. Thinking about His Funeral
A: That was a nice funeral.
B: Yes, dad, it was.
A: The son gave a nice speech about his father.
B: It was long, too.
A: I think it was about 45 minutes long.
B: But it went by fast. It was interesting.
A: I liked it.
B: I’ll give you a speech like that, too.
A: Do you think anyone will come to my funeral?
B: Of course.
A: I think only the family will be there.
B: You have lots of friends. They will be there, too!
telephony n. The art or process of communicating by telephone.
telescope v. To drive together so that one slides into the another like the sections of a spyglass.
telltale adj. That gives warning or information. temerity n. Recklessness.
temporal adj. Pertaining to or concerned with the affairs of the present life. temporary adj. Lasting for a short time only.
temporize v. To pursue a policy of delay.
tempt v. To offer to (somebody) an inducement to do wrong. tempter n. An allurer or enticer to evil.
tenacious adj. Unyielding.
tenant n. An occupant.
tendency n. Direction or inclination, as toward some objector end.
tenet n. Any opinion, principle, dogma, or doctrine that a person believes or maintains as true.
tenor n. A settled course or manner of progress. tense adj. Strained to stiffness.
tentative adj. Done as an experiment.
tenure n. The term during which a thing is held. tercentenary adj. Pertaining to a period of 300 years. termagant adj. Violently abusive and quarrelsome. terminal adj. Pertaining to or creative of a boundary, limit. terminate v. To put an end or stop to.
termination n. The act of ending or concluding.
terminus n. The final point or goal.
terrify v. To fill with extreme fear.
territorial adj. Pertaining to the domain over which a sovereign state exercises jurisdiction. terse adj. Pithy.
testament n. A will.
testator n. The maker of a will.
testimonial n. A formal token of regard, often presented in public. thearchy n. Government by a supreme deity.
theism n. Belief in God.
theocracy n. A government administered by ecclesiastics. theocrasy n. The mixed worship of polytheism. theologian n. A professor of divinity.
theological adj. Based on or growing out of divine revelation. theology n. The branch of theological science that treats of God.
theoretical adj. Directed toward knowledge for its own sake without respect to applications. theorist n. One given to speculating.
theorize v. To speculate.
thereabout adv. Near that number, quantity, degree, place, or time, approximately. therefor adv. For that or this.
thermal adj. Of or pertaining to heat.
thermoelectric adj. Denoting electricity produced by heat. thermoelectricity n. Electricity generated by differences of temperature, thesis n. An essay or treatise on a particular subject.
thoroughbred adj. Bred from the best or purest blood or stock. thoroughfare n. A public street or road.
thrall n. One controlled by an appetite or a passion. tilth n. Cultivation.
timbre n. The quality of a tone, as distinguished from intensity and pitch. timorous adj. Lacking courage.
tincture n. A solution, usually alcoholic, of some principle used in medicine. tinge n. A faint trace of color.
tipsy adj. Befuddled with drinks.
tirade n. Harangue.
tireless adj. Untiring.
tiresome adj. Wearisome.
Titanic adj. Of vast size or strength. toilsome adj. Laborious.
tolerable adj. Moderately good.
tolerance n. Forbearance in judging of the acts or opinions of others. tolerant adj. Indulgent.
tolerate v. To passively permit or put up with. toleration n. A spirit of charitable leniency.
topography n. The art of representing on a map the physical features of any locality or region with accuracy.
torpor n. Apathy.
torrid adj. Excessively hot. tortious adj. Wrongful.
tortuous adj. Abounding in irregular bends or turns. torturous adj. Marked by extreme suffering. tractable adj. Easily led or controlled.
trait n. A distinguishing feature or quality.
trajectory n. The path described by a projectile moving under given forces. trammel n. An impediment.
tranquil adj. Calm.
tranquilize v. To soothe.
tranquility n. Calmness.
transalpine adj. Situated on the other side of the Alps. transact v. To do business.
transatlantic adj. Situated beyond or on the other side of the Atlantic. transcend v. To surpass.
transcendent adj. Surpassing.
transcontinental adj. Extending or passing across a continent. transcribe v. To write over again (something already written) transcript n. A copy made directly from an original.
transfer v. To convey, remove, or cause to pass from one person or place to another. transferable adj. Capable of being conveyed from one person or place to another. transferee n. The person to whom a transfer is made.
transference n. The act of conveying from one person or place to another. transferrer n. One who or that which conveys from one person or place to another. transfigure v. To give an exalted meaning or glorified appearance to.
transfuse v. To pour or cause to pass, as a fluid, from one vessel to another. transfusible adj. Capable of being poured from one vessel to another. transfusion n. The act of pouring from one vessel to another.
transgress v. To break a law.
transience n. Something that is of short duration.
transient n. One who or that which is only of temporary existence. transition n. Passage from one place, condition, or action to another. transitory adj. Existing for a short time only.
translate v. To give the sense or equivalent of in another language or dialect. translator n. An interpreter.
translucence n. The property or state of allowing the passage of light. translucent adj. Allowing the passage of light.
transmissible adj. That may e sent through or across.
transmission n. The act of sending through or across.
transmit v. To send trough or across.
transmute v. To change in nature, substance, or form. transparent adj. Easy to see through or understand. transpire v. To come to pass.
transplant v. To remove and plant in another place.
transposition n. The act of reversing the order or changing the place of. transverse adj. Lying or being across or in a crosswise direction.
travail n. Hard or agonizing labor.
travesty n. A grotesque imitation.
treacherous adj. Perfidious.
treachery n. Violation of allegiance, confidence, or plighted faith.
treasonable adj. Of the nature of betrayal, treachery, or breech of allegiance. treatise n. An elaborate literary composition presenting a subject in all its parts. treble adj. Multiplied by three.
trebly adv. Triply.
tremendous adj. Awe-inspiring.
tremor n. An involuntary trembling or shivering.
tremulous adj. Characterized by quivering or unsteadiness. trenchant adj. Cutting deeply and quickly.
trepidation n. Nervous uncertainty of feeling.
trestle n. An open braced framework for supporting the horizontal stringers of a railwaybridge.
triad n. A group of three persons of things.
tribune n. Any champion of the rights and liberties of the people: often used as the name for a newspaper.
trickery n. Artifice.
tricolor adj. Of three colors. tricycle n. A three-wheeled vehicle.
trident n. The three-pronged fork that was the emblem of Neptune. triennial adj. Taking place every third year.
trimness n. Neatness.
trinity n. A threefold personality existing in the one divine being or substance. trio n. Three things grouped or associated together.
triple adj. Threefold.
triplicate adj. Composed of or pertaining to three related things or parts. triplicity n. The state of being triple or threefold.
tripod n. A three-legged stand, usually hinged near the top, for supporting some instrument.
trisect v. To divide into three parts, especially into three equal parts. trite adj. Made commonplace by frequent repetition.
Much: فقط با اسمهای غیر قابل شمارش و با فعل مفرد همراه است و در جملات مثبت، منفی و سوالی بکار برده می شود ولی بهتر است که در جملات مثبت از کلمات (plenty of) و یا (a lot of ) استفاده نمود.
Many: فقط با اسمهای قابل شمارش و با فعل جمع همراه است و در جملات مثبت، منفی و سوالی بکار برده می شود ولی بهتر است در جملات مثبت از کلمات (a lot of) استفاده کرد.
تمرین: جواب صحیح کدام است؟
۱- He has not (many-much) money.
2- There is not (many-much) food in the house.
3- Are there (many-much) books in the library?
4- How (many-much) times a day do you go to the mosque?
5- How (many-much) time do you need to do it?
کلمه (some) در جملات مثبت و با اسمهای قابل شمارش و غیر قابل شمارش و با فعل مفرد و جمع بکار می رود ولی (any) در جملات منفی و سوالی با اسمهای قابل شمارش و با فعل مفرد و جمع بکار می رود.
البته کلمه ی (any) بعضی مواقع با جملات سوالی می آید و موقعی است که سوال کننده انتظار جواب مثبت داشته باشد.
- Can you give me some more information?
جملاتی که دارای فاعل یکسان هستند بوسیله کلمات (not only) و (but also) به هم ربط داده می شوند.
همیشه برای ترکیب دو جمله بوسیله (not only) و (but also) و فاعل و فعل مشترک بین دو جمله را نوشته و سپس (not only) آورده و سپس ادامه جمله اول و قسمت مشترک جمله دوم (که با جمله اول مشترک بود) را حذف کرده و سپس و (but also) را آورده و بعد ادامه جمله را نوشته .
- He is kind. He is helpful.
- He is not only kind but also helpful
One might be tempted to suggest given the rather slow rate at which vocabulary is learnt from incidental reading, that the multiple meanings, colligations, collocations, register, pragmatic values and so forth could be learnt intentionally. While this may be possible in theory and even in practice, we have to then ask where is the material to do this with? Where are the books that systematically teach this “deeper” vocabulary knowledge and recycle it dozens or hundreds of times beyond the form-meaning relationship (collocation etc.) for even the 1000 most frequent words? A few books exist but do not even come close to more than random selection of a choice few collocations, whereas as we have seen, learners need vastly more. In short, these materials do not exist. Even if they did, it would take a monumental amount of motivation to plough through such books intentionally and I doubt few, if any, learners have this stamina.
Moreover, there are as yet no available data to tell us which collocations might be the most frequent and useful for which words and without these data we could not systematize the learning and teachers would be left to the ad hoc teaching of collocations. Moreover, there are simply far too many individual collocations for each word for learners to try to master intentionally and each collocation is far rarer than the words that it is made up of. For example, the word woman and beautiful occur hundreds of times more frequently with other words than as beautiful woman together. No course book could ever be written to encompass them all. This leaves the learner only one realistic option, which is to pick the vast majority of them up incidentally.
No learner has the time to methodically go through and learn all the above. No course book, or course, can possibly hope to teach even a tiny fraction of them. There is too much to do. But our course books were not designed to teach all of this. Let us look at what course books and course typically are designed to do. Our course books concentrate on introducing new language items with each appearing in new units or lessons, with new topics all the time. For example, learners may meet copula be and jobs in Unit (or lesson) 1, and in Unit 2 they may meet the present simple tense and learn some words for simple actions (play, go, watch). In Unit 3 might come the present continuous and sporting activities. The structure of our courses and course books allows each unit/lesson to present something new – new grammar, new vocabulary, new reading skills, new pronunciation points, and so on in a linear way. Figure 1 illustrates this linearity.
Figure 1: The structure of a typical beginning level course
The structure of course books and linear courses in general, shows us that they are not concerned with deepening knowledge of a given form, only introducing it or giving minimal practice in it beyond a token review unit, or test. They do not concentrate on the revisiting, recycling and revising necessary for acquisition. The assumption underlying most courses and course books is that our learners have “met” or “done that now” and we do not need to go back to it, so we can move on. Adopting this default view of language teaching (that “teaching equals learning” implicit in these materials) is a massive mistake if that is all we do because it undersells what our learners need – which is massive language practice with the things taught in course books but under the right conditions. But how well do course books actually present their vocabulary?
Tables 2, 3 and 4 present a vocabulary analysis four levels of a typical four-skills course book (Sequences by Heinle Cengage) that a typical class may use. The series analyzed here is quite typical of those currently on the market. It has a four-skill focus plus a grammar and vocabulary focus and includes readings and listenings as well as speaking activities. Each unit is about a particular topic or theme (such as home, family, sports, or the environment). As each unit has its own vocabulary, the words tend not to be re-taught or even met again (even in review units) as there is a constant focus on learning new words and new grammar at the expense of recycling previously taught words.
Table 2 shows the number of types (defined as a word family) for each of six recurrence levels (more than 51 recurrences, 21-50, 10-20, 5-9, 4-3 and 2-1) at four frequency bands - the 1-1000 most frequent words in English (the same list was used for the Table 1 analysis), the 1001-2000, the 2001-300 and the over 3000 list. 40% of the types in the top band (3000+) is made up of proper nouns with the remaining 60% are words over 3000 most frequent words. Table 3 presents the data from Table 2 as a percentage of the total types used.
Table 2: The total number of occurrences by type by frequency band level
*The words in the not used category refer to words in that frequency band that did not appear in the series.
Table 3: The percentage of types by recurrence rate by frequency band
Tables 4 and 5 presents the number of tokens for each frequency band for each of the recurrence rates at the four frequency bands. The four books in the series comprise a total of 162,175 tokens. The percentages of the total tokens by recurrence rate and by frequency band are shown in Table 5.
42. A New Hard Drive
A: I called HP about my computer.
B: What did they say?
A: They said I need a new hard drive.
B: That’s too bad. How much is a new one?
A: It’s not too much, only about $85.
B: Plus installation?
A: No, my hard drive is easy to remove and replace.
A: Yes, it’s just a couple of screws.
B: That’s nice.
A: It’s a lot better than paying someone $60.
B: If my hard drive crashes, I’ll just call you.
43. Your Email Address
A: What’s your email address?
B: It’s bluedog123.
A: Bluedog123. Are you sure that's all?
A: No. That’s incomplete.
B: What do you mean?
A: What’s your mailing address?
B: 456 Cherry Drive, Pasadena, CA 91170.
A: That’s correct.
B: So what’s the problem?
A: Bluedog123 is just the street. You have to give me the city, state, and ZIP code.
B: Oh, I get it. My email address is.
(adj.) touching; or adjoining and close, but not touching
There are many contiguous buildings in the city because there is no
excess land to allow space between them.
(v.) to act contrary to; to oppose or contradict
The story of the accused contravened the story of the witness.
The United Nations held that the Eastern European nation had
contravened the treaty.
(adj.) regretful; sorrowful; having repentance
Regretting his decision not to attend college, the contrite man did not
lead a very happy life.
A contrite heart has fixed its wrongs.
(adj.) resisting authority
The man was put in jail for contumacious actions.
(n.) a bruise; an injury where the skin is not broken
The man was fortunate to receive only contusions from the crash.
(n.) a puzzle or riddle
I spent two hours trying to figure out the conundrum.
The legend says that to enter the secret passageway, one must answer
the ancient conundrum.
(adj.) traditional; common; routine
The bride wanted a conventional wedding ceremony, complete with white
dresses, many flowers, and a grand reception party.
Conventional telephones are giving way to videophones.
(v.) to move toward one point (opposite: diverge)
It was obvious that an accident was going to occur as the onlookers
watched the two cars converge.
The two roads converge at the corner.
(n.) a fondness for festiveness or joviality
His conviviality makes him a welcome guest at any social gathering.
(v.) a call to assemble
The teacher convoked her students in the auditorium to help prepare
them for the play.
(adj.) abundant; in great quantities
Her copious notes touched on every subject presented in the lecture.
The corpulence of the man kept him from fitting into the seat.
(v.) to bring into mutual relation
The service man was asked to correlate the two computer demonstration
(v.) to confirm the validity
The witness must corroborate the prisoner's story if she is to be set
(n.) a clique; a group who meet frequently, usually socially
A special aspect of campus life is joining a coterie.
Every day after school she joins her coterie on the playground and they
go out for a soda.
(n.) a binding and solemn agreement
With the exchange of vows, the covenant was complete.
(adj.) greedy; very desirous
Lonnie, covetous of education, went to almost every lecture at the
Covetous of her neighbor's pool, she did everything she could to make
(v.) to huddle and tremble
The lost dog cowered near the tree.
The tellers cowered in the corner as the bandit ransacked the bank.
(adj.) modest; bashful; pretending shyness to attract
Her coy manners attracted the man.
He's not really that shy, he's just being coy.
(adj.) stupid or dull; insensitive; materialistic
To make light of someone's weakness is crass.
They made their money the old-fashioned way, but still they were
accused of being crass.
My respect for the man was lowered when he made the crass remark.
(n.; adj.) coward; abject person; cowardly
While many fought for their rights, the craven sat shaking, off in a corner
Craven men will not stand up for what they believe in.
(adj.) deserving blame; guilty
The convicted criminal still denies that he is culpable for the robbery.
(n.) a restraint or framework
A curb was put up along the street to help drainage.
(n.) an ill-tempered person
The curmudgeon asked the children not to play near the house.
(adj.) hasty; slight
The detective's cursory examination of the crime scene caused him to
overlook the lesser clues.
(n.) one who believes that others are motivated entirely by selfishness.
The cynic felt that the hero saved the man to become famous.
(n.) a raised platform at one end of a room
The dais was lowered to make the speaker look taller.
(v.) to loiter; to waste time
Please do not dally or we will miss our appointment.
(adj.) damp and chilly
The cellar became very dank during the winter time.
(adj.) fearless; not discouraged
The dauntless ranger scaled the mountain to complete the rescue.
(n.) scarcity; shortage
A series of coincidental resignations left the firm with a dearth of talent.
The dearth of the coverage forced him to look for a new insurance agent.
(n.) disaster; collapse; a rout
The Securities and Exchange Commission and the stock exchanges
implemented numerous safeguards to head off another debacle on Wall
(v.) to make lower in quality
The French are concerned that "Franglais," a blending of English and
French, will debase their language.
(n.) indulgence in one's appetites
The preacher decried debauchery and urged charity.
(v.) to enfeeble; to wear out
The phlebitis debilitated him to the point where he was unable even to
The illness will debilitate the muscles in his legs.
(adj.) having an affable manner; carefree; genial
Opening the door for another is a debonair action.
(n.) a decline in morals or art
Some believe the decadence of Nero's rule led to the fall of the empire.
(adj.) shedding; temporary
When the leaves began to fall from the tree we learned that it was
(n.) an act of being firm or determined
Decisiveness is one of the key qualities of a successful executive.
(adj.) showing decorum; propriety, good taste
This movie provides decorous refuge from the violence and mayhem that
permeates the latest crop of Hollywood films.
The decorous suit was made of fine material.
(v.) to denounce or condemn openly
The pastor decried all forms of discrimination against any minority