Andrea was an 8-year-old who lived in the countryside with her parents and grandparents. Andrea thought that she not especially good at anything. So, she never tried to do anything, since nothing she did ever seemed to her to come out very well. The only thing she seemed to have any talent in was finding ways to waste time.
One weekend, even Andrea ran out of ways to waste time. She started feeling bored, and ran to ask her Mom to read her a story. Her Mom was sad to see Andrea depressed and sad to see her daughter didn’t feel more self-esteem. Then, she got an idea. She said, “Honey, I’ll be glad to read you a story, but first you have to find something.” Andrea didn’t think she was very good at finding things, but she really loved it when her Mom read her stories; so, she asked what it was she had to find. “Find something”, her Mom said, “that is red, round, has no windows, but has a surprise star inside”
Andrea scratched her head and wrinkled her nose. Sometimes doing those things helped her think. What could possibly be red, round, have no windows, and have a surprise star inside. She went off down the road thinking and kicking a rock, since kicking things also sometimes helped her think.
After a little while, she met an old man with a cane. She asked him, “Pardon me, sir, have you ever heard of something that is red, round, with no windows but with a surprise star inside?” The old man tugged on his beard and whistled a bit – maybe that helped him to think – but after a couple minutes, he shrugged and said, “Sorry, little one, I can’t help you with that mystery, but there’s an old woman who lives in an old green house about another kilometer down the road. I bet she’d know.”
Andrea had seen the woman before. Wow, was she old! She was all wrinkled and just sat on her porch and rocked all day long. While she rocked she would knit. She would just rock and knit, rock and knit. How would she ever know the answer to the mystery? But, there was no one else to ask, so Andrea decided to give it a try.
When Andrea told the woman what she was looking for, suddenly the woman stopped knitting. She stopped rocking. She just stared at Andrea. The woman knew! But she did not know anyone else knew. At last, she said, “Only the wind can take you to the right place.” Then, once again the woman started knitting, and soon once again she started rocking.
Andrea was disappointed. So near, yet so far! Just then, the wind blew her cap off her head. It sent the cap rolling down the road with Andrea chasing after it. It rolled and rolled until finally it stopped under a huge tree. Andrea sat down, picked up her cap, and tried to catch her breath. That had been a long chase! Then the wind blew again. It blew so strongly that the branches of the tree shook with the wind’s power. Suddenly, an apple fell from the tree and into Andrea’s lap. She picked it up. After all the walking and running, Andrea was thirsty; so, she took a bite. She stopped! She looked!
It was red! It was round! It had no windows! But there was no star inside – just apple and seeds. She still had not solved the mystery. The apple fit only three of the clues. Feeling defeated again but too tired to try any longer, Andrea took the apple and walked home.
Her Mom saw her coming. Her daughter did not look like a successful detective. Then, the Mom saw the half-eaten apple Andrea was carrying and smiled. “You found it. Good for you!”, the Mom said proudly. Andrea did not understand. “Look at it, Andrea. It is red and round. It has no windows.” Next, she picked up a knife and cut the apple in half. “See here. There is the surprise star hiding inside.” Andrea’s eyes were wide with amazement. She had never cut an apple that way. “You see,” her Mom continued, “there is a surprise star inside every apple, and there’s a surprise star in every person. All we need to do is to look the right way and we can find it.”
46. The Elephant
A: Yikes! What was that noise?
B: I had to blow my nose.
A: Did you have to blow right next to the phone?
B: Did you hear that?
A: Of course I heard that. I thought a plane had crashed into your house.
B: It wasn’t that loud.
A: I will blow my nose sometime for you, and you’ll see.
B: Okay. I’ll take your word for it.
A: I thought you had an elephant in your house.
B: You’re funny.
A: What did you say? I think I’ve gone deaf.
B: I’m going into the bathroom to blow my nose. I’ll be right back.
47. You Can Have Some of My Friends
A: I have lots of friends.
B: Really? How many do you have?
A: I don’t know, maybe one hundred.
B: That is a lot of friends. Do you have a best friend?
A: Of course. I have lots of best friends.
B: How many best friends do you have?
A: I think about twenty-five.
B: Hmm. I have only one best friend.
A: I feel sorry for you.
B: I have only a few friends.
A: You must be lonely. I will share my friends with you.
B: That’s very nice of you.
triumvir n. One of three men united coordinately in public office or authority. trivial adj. Of little importance or value.
troublesome adj. Burdensome.
truculence n. Ferocity.
truculent adj. Having the character or the spirit of a savage.
truism n. A statement so plainly true as hardly to require statement or proof. truthful adj. Veracious.
turgid adj. Swollen.
turpitude n. Depravity.
tutelage n. The act of training or the state of being under instruction. tutelar adj. Protective.
tutorship n. The office of a guardian. twinge n. A darting momentary local pain. typical adj. Characteristic.
typify v. To serve as a characteristic example of. typographical adj. Pertaining to typography or printing.
typography n. The arrangement of composed type, or the appearance of printed matter. tyrannical adj. Despotic.
tyranny n. Absolute power arbitrarily or unjustly administrated.
tyro n. One slightly skilled in or acquainted with any trade or profession. ubiquitous adj. Being present everywhere.
ulterior adj. Not so pertinent as something else to the matter spoken of. ultimate adj. Beyond which there is nothing else.
ultimatum n. A final statement or proposal, as concerning terms or conditions. ultramundane adj. Pertaining to supernatural things or to another life.
ultramontane adj. Beyond the mountains, especially beyond the Alps (that is, on their Italian side).
umbrage n. A sense of injury. unaccountable adj. Inexplicable. unaffected adj. Sincere.
unanimous adj. Sharing the same views or sentiments. unanimity n. The state or quality of being of one mind. unavoidable adj. Inevitable.
unbearable adj. Unendurable.
unbecoming adj. Unsuited to the wearer, place, or surroundings. unbelief n. Doubt.
unbiased adj. Impartial, as judgment. unbridled adj. Being without restraint. uncommon adj. Rare.
unconscionable adj. Ridiculously or unjustly excessive. unconscious adj. Not cognizant of objects, actions, etc. unction n. The art of anointing as with oil.
unctuous adj. Oily.
undeceive v. To free from deception, as by apprising of the real state of affairs. undercharge v. To make an inadequate charge for.
underexposed adj. Insufficiently exposed for proper or full development, as negatives in photography.
undergarment n. A garment to be worn under the ordinary outer garments. underman v. To equip with less than the full complement of men. undersell v. To sell at a lower price than.
undersized adj. Of less than the customary size.
underhanded adj. Clandestinely carried on.
underlie v. To be the ground or support of.
underling n. A subordinate.
undermine v. To subvert in an underhand way. underrate v. To undervalue.
understate v. To fail to put strongly enough, as a case. undervalue v. To underestimate.
underworld n. Hades.
underwrite v. To issue or be party to the issue of a policy of insurance. undue adj. More than sufficient.
undulate v. To move like a wave or in waves. undulous adj. Resembling waves. unfavorable adj. Adverse.
ungainly adj. Clumsy.
unguent n. Any ointment or lubricant for local application. unicellular adj. Consisting of a single cell.
univalence n. Monovalency.
unify v. To cause to be one.
unique adj. Being the only one of its kind.
unison n. A condition of perfect agreement and accord.
unisonant adj. Being in a condition of perfect agreement and accord.
Unitarian adj. Pertaining to a religious body that rejects the doctrine of the Trinity. unlawful adj. Illegal.
unlimited adj. Unconstrained. unnatural adj. Artificial.
unnecessary adj. Not essential under the circumstances. unsettle v. To put into confusion.
unsophisticated adj. Showing inexperience. unspeakable adj. Abominable.
untimely adj. Unseasonable.
untoward adj. Causing annoyance or hindrance. unutterable adj. Inexpressible.
unwieldy adj. Moved or managed with difficulty, as from great size or awkward shape. unwise adj. Foolish.
unyoke v. To separate.
up-keep n. Maintenance.
upbraid v. To reproach as deserving blame. upcast n. A throwing upward.
upheaval n. Overthrow or violent disturbance of established order or condition. upheave v. To raise or lift with effort.
uppermost adj. First in order of precedence.
uproarious adj. Noisy.
uproot v. To eradicate.
upturn v. To throw into confusion.
urban adj. Of, or pertaining to, or like a city. urbanity n. Refined or elegant courtesy. urchin n. A roguish, mischievous boy. urgency n. The pressure of necessity. usage n. Treatment.
usurious adj. Taking unlawful or exorbitant interest on money loaned. usurp v. To take possession of by force.
usury n. The demanding for the use of money as a loan, a rate of interest beyond what is allowed by law.
utilitarianism n. The ethical doctrine that actions are right because they are useful or of beneficial tendency.
utility n. Fitness for some desirable practical purpose. utmost n. The greatest possible extent.
vacate v. To leave.
vaccinate v. To inoculate with vaccine virus or virus of cowpox. vacillate v. To waver.
vacuous adj. Empty.
vacuum n. A space entirely devoid of matter. vagabond n. A wanderer.
vagrant n. An idle wanderer.
vainglory n. Excessive, pretentious, and demonstrative vanity. vale n. Level or low land between hills.
valediction n. A bidding farewell.
valedictorian n. Student who delivers an address at graduating exercises of an educational institution.
valedictory n. A parting address.
valid adj. Founded on truth.
valorous adj. Courageous.
vapid adj. Having lost sparkling quality and fiavor. vaporizer n. An atomizer.
variable adj. Having a tendency to change. variance n. Change.
variant n. A thing that differs from another in form only, being the same in essence or substance.
variation n. Modification.
variegate v. To mark with different shades or colors. vassal n. A slave or bondman.
vaudeville n. A variety show.
vegetal adj. Of or pertaining to plants.
vegetarian n. One who believes in the theory that man's food should be exclusively vegetable.
vegetate v. To live in a monotonous, passive way without exercise of the mental faculties. vegetation n. Plant-life in the aggregate.
vegetative adj. Pertaining to the process of plant-life. vehement adj. Very eager or urgent.
velocity n. Rapid motion.
velvety adj. Marked by lightness and softness. venal adj. Mercenary, corrupt.
vendible adj. Marketable.
vendition n. The act of selling.
vendor n. A seller.
veneer n. Outside show or elegance.
venerable adj. Meriting or commanding high esteem.
For further discussion of English spelling patterns and rules, see Phonics.
The thriving communities of English native speakers in countries all over the world also have some noticeable differences in pronunciation,
Comprehension Questions Part 2
1-“Not one of the 100 passengers was injured in the crash”. It means that ………. .
1) all, but one of the passengers, were injured in the crash.
2) of the 100 passengers, only one was injured in the crash.
3) none of the passengers was injured in the crash.
4) none of the 100 passengers was injured and the plane did not crash.
2- “Mehdi and Reza have a great many thing in common.” It means …….. .
1) they do many common things
2) they are similar in many ways
3) they do many things in a common way
4) they are the same in every thing they do.
3- Ahmad feed cows and grew wheat and barley to earn his living. He dressed himself as a butcher….
1) Ahmad feed cows with wheat and barley
2) Ahmad earns his living by selling meat.
3) Ahmad earns his living by farming and feeding cows
4) Ahmad dresses himself as a butcher to earn his living.
4- It is necessary to have a doctor’s prescription to get medicines .
1) A prescription is what a doctor needs for most medicines
2) It is not required to have a doctor’s prescription
3) Most medicines can not be bought without a prescription.
4) Without a prescription you can buy most medicines.
5- In spite of rain, the fireworks display was not cancelled. It means that ……… .
1) Although it rained, the fireworks display was held
2) Rain caused the cancellation of the fireworks display.
3) The fireworks display was not held because it didn’t rain.
4) The fireworks display was not held because it rained.
6- Afshin was too young to get married. It means ……… .
1) Afshin could get married, although he was young.
2) Afshin was so young that he couldn’t get married
3) Afshin couldn’t get married unless he was so young.
7- “I wish I had never seen them before.” In this sentence the writer says that…. .
1) he saw them and now is unhappy
2) he has seen them and now he is glad
3) he wishes to see them again.
4) He has never seen them and now he is upset.
8- A-You’ve given me the wrong change.
B- Oh! ….
1) I do apologize 2) that would be nice
3) what a pity 4) Thanks a lot
برای هر یک از جاهای خالی شمارههای 9 تا13 گزینه صحیح را انتخاب کنید؟
Margaret and Edward were going to stay with their aunt who lived in a small house in the country. They ..9.. a train and arrived at the country..10… after a two –hour journey.
Their aunt was ..11.. for them on the platform, with her little dog GYP. They all ..12.. her small car and soon arrived at her ..13.. where they had a lovely two-week holiday.
9- 1) looked out 2) took off 3) got on 4) picked up
10- 1) street 2) station 3) stand 4) stop
11- 1) watching 2) visiting 3) expecting 4) waiting
12- 1) jumped out 2) got into 3) looked for 4) gave in
13- 1) farm 2) land 3) country 4) hill
با توجه به متن زیر پاسخ صحیح سؤالهای14 تا 16 را انتخاب کنید؟
My rich neighbor is always so busy that I can’t see him often. The whole business of his life is to get money. The more money he earns the more he seems to want. He owns a large company and many expensive cars. He has a beautiful garden at the back of his house but I’ve never found him walking around or being happy there. It seems that he likes the fresh air and the beautiful garden flowers but he only passes on beside the flowers and plants without having much feeling for the beauty of nature. I am so tired of having to argue with one who never accepts any other person’s ideas I often tell him that he search for man should think of. He believes that he should do whatever he can something else that his neighbor has mostly involved himself with …..
14- The writer believes that his neighbor has mostly involved himself with….
1) searching for happiness 2) natural facts
3) his garden flowers 4) getting money
15- The writer’s neighbor has never found spending sometime in his beautiful garden because he might not….
1) be permitted 2) be able to see
3) have free time 4) love his garden
16- We understand from the passage that money….
1) can certainly make a man happy
2) doesn’t necessarily bring happiness
3) comfort and happiness are together
4) is something we have to be involved in
برای هر یک از جاهای خالی در متن زیر از شمارههای 17 تا 21 گزینه درست را انتخاب کنید.
It’s interesting to visit another country, but there are some …17.. when we don’t know the language very well. It may be ..18.. to talk with the people there. We may not know how to ..19.. the telephone in the country we are visiting or how to buy things we require in a ..20.. country we may not know where to eat or what to ..21.. in a restaurant. It’s not pleasant to have an experience like that.
17- 1) answer 2) problems 3) programs 4) questions
18- 1) difficult 2) different 3) programs 4) simple
19- design 2) fix 3) learn 4) use
20- 1) civilized 2) dependent 3) developed 4) foreign
21- 1) cook 2) need 3) order 4) recall
22- You need to provide more room for trees to grow bigger. It means ……… .
1) trees grow bigger in a better room.
2) trees can grow bigger in a wider space.
3) you need more room for the bigger trees to grow.
4) you have to provide more rooms to grow bigger trees.
23- I asked for a cup of tea, but the waiter brought me a piece of cake too. It means.…
1) I had either a cup of tea or a piece of cake.
2) i was given both a piece of cake and a cup of tea.
3) I asked not only for cup of tea but also for piece of cake
4) The waiter did not bring me either a piece of cake or a cup of tea.
24- To furnish a house, we need some money. It means ………. .
1) A house and some money are needed.
2) A house is needed to be furnished.
3) Money is needed for a house.
4) Money is needed to furnish a house.
25- I can’t remember where I put my watch. As a matter of fact…
1) I have a good memory 2) I forget things easily
3) I don’t forget things easily 4) I don’t have a bad memory
Vocabulary Part 15
1) secret 2) uncover 3) find 4) explorer
2- I should ….you not to cheat.
1)find 2) mind 3) remember 4) remind
3- It is …..of him to be always on time.
1) particular 2) special 3) typical 4) definite
4- Your ……is greatly needed to perform the operation.
1)assistance 2) achievement 3) argument 4)appearance
5- The children were highly…… by the sightseeing.
1) impressed 2) interesting 3) insincere 4) intelligent
6- We………….with each other by letter.
1) describe 2) compete 3) interpret 4) communicate
7- The money …….to be sent to the front was more than expected.
1) guided 2) graduated 3) gathered 4) spent
8- You will sometimes find that some kinds of writing are ………with each other.
1)consisted 2) combined 3) concluded 4)communicated
9-Religious people have a lot in ….., however, the way they pray may seen different.
1) common 2) custom 3) necessary 4) language
10- Some animals can……in very high temperatures.
1) survey 2) survive 3) supply 4) support
11- In all languages asking about someone’s health is, not a ………question.
1) correct 2) opposite 3) similar 4) real
12- There are four T.V …….in our country.
1) channels 2) canals 3) coaches 4) viewers
13- Jack hurt his sister. He should be………of what he did.
1) serious 2) humorous 3) religious 4) ashamed
14- Driving in ………streets is very dangerous.
1) snow- covered 2) essential 3) formal 4) official
15- A good way to learn something is to………it many times
1)insist 2) include 3) repeat ` 4) consist
16- Children love Maryann very much because she knows how to……..them
1)entertain 2) confuse 3) disturb 4) scare
17- I like to travel with Parviz because he is very……..
1) agreeable 2) comfortable 3) grateful 4) hopeful
18- There is a ……..between man and his environment.
1) communication 2) friendship 3) relationship 4) tradition
19- Although Parviz was quite young. He was able to ……the experiment successfully.
1) combine 2) conclude 3)conduct 4) consider
20- Minoo says she can recognize her uncle’s ……even, from a long distance.
1) noise 2) sound 3) tone 4) voice
21- Every student is……to be friendly, polite and clever.
1) designed 2) disturbed 3) expected 4) invited
22- I know Mr. Teheri is an honest person. I …..admire his honesty.
1) brightly 2) slightly 3) silently 4) really
23- In the Olympic Games a gold medal is awarded to the…….of every competition.
1) conductor 2) director 3) winner 4) viewer
24- When someone …..it means he doesn’t eat from morning till night.
1) attracts 2) avoids 3) lasts 4) fasts
25- A computer can be given instruction called…….which tell it exactly what to do.
1)programs 2) attraction 3) expression 4) impression
26- Scientist are trying to …..the effect of TV on people’s lives.
1) make up 2) turn on 3) take part 4) find out
27- Amir’s father is a professor. He has a university ……..
1) memory 2) purpose 3) degree 4) average
28- The new students are …….getting used to their school.
1) directly 2) formally 3) gradually 4) locally
29- I can’t see much…….between them. They seem almost the same to me.
1) difference 2) parallel 3) recognition 4) similarity
30- Good friends will make every……..to help when you are in need.
1)action 2) energy 3) effort 4) practice
31- The girl ……the mirror to see herself it.
1) held up 2) gave up 3) grew up 4) looked up
32- In spite of having a dull life, Maryam is …..happy.
1) officially 2) relatively 3) regularly 4) similarly
33- There was a short ……..and then everybody started shouting.
1)difference 2) influence 3) patience 4) silence
34- More experiments were carried out to show the real cause of the disease. The synonym of “carried out” is……..
1) conducted 2) offered 3) produced 4)required
35- The pilot must have been very experienced because after a stormy flight he managed ……the airplane safety.
1) to take off 2) to land 3) to get on 4) to get off
36- Mehdi and I ……..book in class because he had forgotten his.
1) borrowed 2) gave 3) lent 4) shared
37- We didn’t see the film. It was……….
1) boring 2) amusing 3) fascinating 4) interesting
38- A gold medal is awarded to the ………of every competition in the Olympic games.
1) runner 2) winner 3) loser 4) swimmer
39- The ……of the sea is so great that we can’t see the bottom.
1) length 2) depth 3) width 4) height
40- Those who have a photographic memory can……..everything easily.
1) compete 2) communicate 3) recall 4) review
41- What the computer does is to process information by making rapid……..
1) calculation 2)estimation 3) competition 4) education
42- Mr. Brown has a ……idea. In other words, he never changes his idea.
1) achieved 2) discovered 3) greeted 4) fixed
43- Japanese are very hard working. Every year they …..new things.
1) ignore 2) locate 3) mention 4) invent
44- I can’t answer any of these questions now. I’m completely…….
1) admired 2) awarded 3) confused 4) relaxed
45- I made every …..to arrive at school on time, but I didn’t succeed.
1) behavior 2) search 3) endeavor 4)concentration
46- James Watt wasn’t a writer. He was a / an ……..
1) clerk 2) inventor 3) passenger 4) servant
47- My father has a fixed idea. He never …..his idea.
1) allows 2) follows 3) changes 4) remembers
48- Many soldiers were captured during war. The antonym of “captured” is…….
1) arrested 2) cured 3) released 4) wounded
49- I had a cold , so Reza could not…….me on the telephone.
1) guess 2) know 3) recognize 4) wounded
50- Our class includes …..of students from different cities of Iran.
1) a numerous 2) a variety 3) group 4) many
زمان آینده استمراری
این زمان نشان می دهد که کاری در آینده در یک زمان تعیین شده در حال انجام خواهد بود، که معمولاً این زمان آینده استمراری با قید های:
At this time, tomorrow, next month, next week
و یا همراه با کلماتی مثل: if- wish همراه زمان حال ساده می آید.
طرز ساختن آینده استمراری
این زمان با آینده ساده فعل to be و شکل ing هر فعل ساخته می شود.
I will be going -
منفی سوالی کردن آینده استمراری
با آوردن کلمه not بعد از فعل کمکی will منفی می شود و برای سوالی کردن فعل کمکی will را به ابتدای جمله می آوریم.
زمان آینده کامل
این زمان نشان می دهد که کاری در زمان آینده قبل از زمان معینی خاتمه پیدا خواهد کرد
معمولاً آینده کامل با قیدها و یا حروف ربط
after- before- when - by
همراه با زمان حال به کار می روند.
I will have done it before six o'clock.
طرز ساختن آینده کامل
این زمان با آینده ساده فعل have و اسم مفعول فعل اصلی می آید
- I will have done.
- You will have seen
شکل منفی سوالی
با کلمه not بعد از افعال کمکی shall و will منفی شده و اگر این دو فعل کمکی را به ابتدای جمله بیاوریم جمله سوالی می شود.
موقعی به کار می رود که می خواهید بگویید یا بدانید تا چقدر یک کاری در یک زمانی در آینده در حال انجام بوده. البته آن عمل قبل از آن تاریخ که در آینده بررسی می شود شروع گردیده و بعد از آن زمان که در موردش صحبت می کنیم هم یا ادامه خواهد داشت و یا نخواهد داشت
By the year 2030, people will have been using www.salamzaban.com for 24 years.
- At 10 o'clock I will have been working for 5 hours.
I will have been working here for ten years next week.
You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
* They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
* She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
* James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
* How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
* We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.
* A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?
B: No, I will not have been living here that long.
طرز ساختن آینده کامل استمراری:
این زمان را با آینده کامل، فعل to be و شکل ing هر فعل ساخته می شود.
[will have been + present participle]
[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]
* You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
* Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
* You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
* You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
* Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
* You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
طرز منفی سوالی کردن آینده کامل استمراری:
با کلمه not بعد از افعال کمکی shall و will منفی شده و اگر دو فعل کمکی shall و یا will را به ابتدای جمله بیاوریم سوالی می شود.
علامت مشخصه این زمان در اینگلیسی این است که قبل از قید زمان آینده حرف اضافه by
و قبل از طول مدت انجام کار حرف اضافه for به کار می رود.
By the year 2053, man will have been flying for 300 years.
By the time they arrive, we will have been waiting for 4 hours!
John will have been studying for 6 years by the time he finishes his exam.
این زمان معمولا اصطلاح
by the time
را که به معنی
before that time
هست را دارد
بعضی افعال نمی توانند ing بگیرند
know understand owe possess be
have* belong contain equal resemble
tend perceive suppose believe decide
conclude prefer love like seem
* have به معنای مالکیت
I have a car
بنابراین به جای آینده کامل استمراری آن ها را در آینده کامل استفاده می نماییم
By the time I retire in 2025, I will have been knowing you for 36 years.
By the time I retire in 2025, I will have known you for 36 years.
بعضی از افعال هم در هر دو زمان آینده کامل استمراری و آینده کامل یک معنا دارند
progressive By 2010, I will have been living in San Francisco for 20 years.
future perfect By 2010, I will have lived in San Francisco for 20 years.
زمان آینده در گذشته
این زمان نشان می دهد که کاری در گذشته به صورت آینده بوده است، به این معنی که وقتی عملی را در گذشته به صورت آینده بوده است بخواهند در زمان حال آن را ییان کنند آن را آینده در گذشته نامند که معمولاً این زمان در نقل و قول غیر مستقیم به کار می رود. (یعنی اگر بخواهیم بگوییم که شخص دیگری در زمان گذشته چه چیزی در مورد آینده می گفت از این زمان استفاده می کنیم.)
طرز ساختن آینده در گذشته
عیناً مثل آینده است، با این فرق که به جای shall از should و به جای will از would استفاده می کنند.
-I will go to Tehran tomorrow.آینده
He said that he would go to Tehran the next day. -آینده در گذشته
For further discussion of English spelling patterns and rules, see Phonics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"ESL" redirects here. For other uses, see ESL (disambiguation).
English as a second language (ESL), English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) and English as a foreign language (EFL) all refer to the use or study of English by speakers with different native languages. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information.
English language teaching (ELT) is a widely used teacher-centred term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. Teaching English as a second language (TESL), teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) are also used.
Other terms used in this field include English as an additional language (EAL), English as an international language (EIL), English as a lingua franca (ELF), English for special purposes, or English for specific purposes (ESP), English for academic purposes (EAP). Some terms that refer to those who are learning English are English language learner (ELL), limited English proficiency (LEP) and culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD).
The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing. English is a language which has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world under many different circumstances. In English-speaking countries, English language teaching is essentially evolved in two broad directions: instruction for people who intend to live in an English-speaking country and for those who do not. These divisions have grown firmer as the instructors of these two "industries" have used different terminology, followed distinct training qualifications, formed separate professional associations, and so on. Crucially, these two arms have very different funding structures, public in the former and private in the latter, and to some extent this influences the way schools are established and classes are held. Matters are further complicated by the fact that the United States and the United Kingdom, both major engines of the language, describe these categories in different terms: as many eloquent users of the language have observed, "England and America are two countries divided by a common language." (Attributed to Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw, and Oscar Wilde.) The following technical definitions may therefore have their currency contested.
EFL, English as a foreign language, indicates the use of English in a non–English-speaking region. Study can occur either in the student's home country, as part of the normal school curriculum or otherwise, or, for the more privileged minority, in an anglophone country that they visit as a sort of educational tourist, particularly immediately before or after graduating from university. TEFL is the teaching of English as a foreign language; note that this sort of instruction can take place in any country, English-speaking or not. Typically, EFL is learned either to pass exams as a necessary part of one's education, or for career progression while one works for an organisation or business with an international focus. EFL may be part of the state school curriculum in countries where English has no special status (what linguist Braj Kachru calls the "expanding circle countries"); it may also be supplemented by lessons paid for privately. Teachers of EFL generally assume that students are literate in their mother tongue. The Chinese EFL Journal and Iranian EFL Journal are examples of international journals dedicated to specifics of English language learning within countries where English is used as a foreign language.
The other broad grouping is the use of English within the Anglosphere. In what theorist Braj Kachru calls "the inner circle", i.e. countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, this use of English is generally by refugees, immigrants and their children. It also includes the use of English in "outer circle" countries, often former British colonies, where English is an official language even if it is not spoken as a mother tongue by the majority of the population.
In the US, Canada and Australia, this use of English is called ESL (English as a second language). This term has been criticized on the grounds that many learners already speak more than one language. A counter-argument says that the word "a" in the phrase "a second language" means there is no presumption that English is the second acquired language (see also Second language). TESL is the teaching of English as a second language. There are also other terms that it may be referred to in the US including; ELL (English Language Learner) and CLD (Culturally and Linguistically Diverse).
In the UK, Ireland and New Zealand, the term ESL has been replaced by ESOL (English for speakers of other languages). In these countries TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is normally used to refer to teaching English only to this group. In the UK, people usually use the term EAL (English as an additional language), rather than ESOL, when talking about primary and secondary schools, in order to clarify English is not the students' first language, but their second or third.
Other acronyms were created to describe the person rather than the language to be learned. The term LEP (Limited English proficiency) was created in 1975 by the Lau Remedies following a decision of the US Supreme Court. ELL (English Language Learner), used by United States governments and school systems, was created by James Crawford of the Institute for Language and Education Policy in an effort to label learners positively, rather than ascribing a deficiency to them. LOTE (Languages other than English) is a parallel term used in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Typically, a student learns this sort of English (called ESL in the United States, Canada, and Australia, ESOL in the United Kingdom, Ireland and New Zealand) to function in the new host country, e.g. within the school system (if a child), to find and hold down a job (if an adult), to perform the necessities of daily life. The teaching of it does not presuppose literacy in the mother tongue. It is usually paid for by the host government to help newcomers settle into their adopted country, sometimes as part of an explicit citizenship program. It is technically possible for ESL to be taught not in the host country, but in, for example, a refugee camp, as part of a pre-departure program sponsored by the government soon to receive new potential citizens. In practice, however, this is extremely rare.
Particularly in Canada and Australia, the term ESD (English as a second dialect) is used alongside ESL, usually in reference to programs for aboriginal Canadians or Australians, respectively. It refers to the use of standard English, which may need to be explicitly taught, by speakers of a creole or non-standard variety. It is often grouped with ESL as ESL/ESD.
All these ways of denoting the teaching of English can be bundled together into an umbrella term. Unfortunately, all the English teachers in the world cannot agree on just one. The term TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) is used in American English to include both TEFL and TESL. This is also the case in Canada. British English uses ELT (English language teaching), because TESOL has a different, more specific meaning; see above.
Several models of "simplified English" have been suggested or developed for international communication, among them:
Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is closely related to English, whereas Chinese is not. Another example will be Spanish, because a lot of the words that come from this language are written in the same way though pronounced differently. This may be true for anyone of any mother tongue (also called first language, normally abbreviated L1) setting out to learn any other language (called a target language, second language or L2). See also second language acquisition (SLA) for mixed evidence from linguistic research.
Language learners often produce errors of syntax and pronunciation thought to result from the influence of their L1, such as mapping its grammatical patterns inappropriately onto the L2, pronouncing certain sounds incorrectly or with difficulty, and confusing items of vocabulary known as false friends. This is known as L1 transfer or "language interference". However, these transfer effects are typically stronger for beginners' language production, and SLA research has highlighted many errors which cannot be attributed to the L1, as they are attested in learners of many language backgrounds (for example, failure to apply 3rd person present singular -s to verbs, as in 'he make').
Some students may have very different cultural perceptions in the classroom as far as learning a second language is concerned. Also, cultural differences in communication styles and preferences are significant. For example, a study looked at Chinese ESL students and British teachers and found that the Chinese learners did not see classroom discussion and interaction as important but placed a heavy emphasis on teacher-directed lectures.
Main article: Non-native pronunciations of English
Many learners of languages with fewer sounds may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing the distinction necessary for English sounds.
The interdentals, /θ/ and /ð/ (the sounds written with th) are relatively rare in other languages and speakers may have difficulty pronouncing them. English also makes distinctions between sounds that other languages perceive as the same, such as /r/ and /l/, which native speakers of Japanese have difficulty with. Similarly, The distinction between [b] and [v] can cause difficulty for native speakers of Spanish, Arabic, Tagalog, Japanese and Korean.
Languages may also differ in syllable structure; English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and five after it (e.g., straw, desks, glimpsed, strengths). Japanese, for example, broadly alternates consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan often try to force vowels in between the consonants (e.g., desks becomes "desukusu" or milk shake becomes "mirukushēku").
See also: Accent reduction
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A second language or L2 is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas (such as Esperanto).
A person's first language may not be their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition. This can happen when young children move, with or without their family (because of immigration or international adoption), to a new language environment.
    According to some researchers, the defining difference between a first language (L1) and a second language (L2) is the age the person learned the language. For example, linguist Eric Lenneberg used second language to mean a language consciously acquired or used by its speaker after puberty. In most cases, people never achieve the same level of fluency and comprehension in their second languages as in their first language. These views are closely associated with the Critical Period Hypothesis.
In acquiring an L2, Hyltenstam (1992) found that around the age of six or seven seemed to be a cut-off point for bilinguals to achieve native-like proficiency. After that age, L2 learners could get near-native-like-ness but their language would, while consisting of few actual errors, have enough errors to set them apart from the L1 group. The inability of some subjects to achieve native-like proficiency must be seen in relation to the age of onset (AO). “The age of 6 or 8 does seem to be an important period in distinguishing between near-native and native-like ultimate attainment... More specifically, it may be suggested that AO interacts with frequency and intensity of language use” (Hyltenstam, 1992, p. 364).
Later, Hyltenstam & Abrahamsson (2003) modified their age cut-offs to argue that after childhood, in general, it becomes more and more difficult to acquire native-like-ness, but that there is no cut-off point in particular. Furthermore, they discuss a number of cases where a native-like L2 was acquired during adulthood.
As we are learning more and more about the brain, there is a hypothesis that when a child is going through puberty, that is the time that accents start. Before a child goes through puberty, the chemical processes in the brain are more geared towards language and social communication. Whereas after puberty, the ability for learning a language without an accent has been rerouted to function in another area of the brain—most likely in the frontal lobe area promoting cognitive functions, or in the neural system of hormone allocated for reproduction and sexual organ growth.
As far as the relationship between age and eventual attainment in SLA is concerned, Krashen, Long, and Scarcella, say that people who encounter foreign language in early age, begin natural exposure to second languages and obtain better proficiency than those who learn the second language as an adult. However, when it comes to the relationship between age and rate SLA, “Adults proceed through early stages of syntactic and morphological development faster than children (where time and exposure are held constant) ” ( Krashen, Long, Scarcella 573). Also, “older children acquire faster than younger children do (again, in early stages of morphological and syntactic development where time and exposure are held constant) ” (573). In other words, adults and older children are fast learners when it comes to the initial stage of foreign language education.
As for the fluency, it is better to do foreign language education in early age, but being exposed to foreign language since early age causes one a “weak identification” (Billiet, Maddens and Beerten 241). Such issue leads to a “double sense of national belonging,” that makes one not sure of where he or she belongs to because according to Brian A. Jacob, multicultural education impacts on student’s “relations, attitudes, and behaviors” (Jacob 364). And as children learn more and more foreign language, children start to adapt, and gets absorbed into the foreign culture that they “undertake to describe themselves in ways that engage with representations other have made” (Pratt 35). Due to such factors, learning foreign language in early age may incur one’s perspective of his or her native country.
Acquiring a second language can be a lifelong learning process for many. Despite persistent efforts, most learners of a second language will never become fully native-like in it, although with practice considerable fluency can be achieved. However, children by around the age of 5 have more or less mastered their first language, with the exception of vocabulary and a few grammatical structures.
Error correction does not seem to have a direct influence on learning a second language. Instruction may affect the rate of learning, but the stages remain the same. Adolescents and adults who know the rule are faster than those who do not. In the first language, children do not respond to systematic correction. Furthermore, children who have limited input still acquire the first language.
In the learning of a second language the correction of errors remains a controversial topic with many differing schools of thought. Throughout the last century much advancement has been made in research on the correction of students’ errors. In the 1950s and 60s the viewpoint of the day was that all errors must be corrected at all costs. Little thought went to students’ feelings or self-esteem in regards to this constant correction (Russell, 2009).
In the 1970s Dulay and Burt’s studies showed that learners acquire grammar forms and structures in a pre-determined, inalterable order, and that teaching or correcting styles would not change this (Russell, 2009).
In this same decade Terrell (1977) did studies that showed that there were more factors to be considered in the classroom than the cognitive processing of the students (Russell, 2009). He contested that the affective side of students and their self-esteem were equally important to the teaching process (Russell, 2009).
A few years later in the 1980s, the strict grammar and corrective approach of the 1950s became obsolete. Researchers asserted that correction was often unnecessary and that instead of furthering students’ learning it was hindering them (Russell, 2009). The main concern at this time was relieving student stress and creating a warm environment for them. Stephen Krashen was a big proponent in this hands-off approach to error correction (Russell, 2009).
The 1990s brought back the familiar idea that explicit grammar instruction and error correction was indeed useful for the SLA process. At this time, more research started to be undertaken to determine exactly which kinds of corrections are the most useful for students. In 1998, Lyster concluded that “recasts” (when the teacher repeats a student’s incorrect utterance with the correct version) are not always the most useful because students do not notice the correction (Russell, 2009). His studies in 2002 showed that students learn better when teachers help the student recognize and correct his own error (Russell, 2009). Mackey, Gas and McDonough had similar findings in 2000 and attributed the success of this method to the student’s active participation in the corrective process (Russell, 2009).
Learners in the first or second language have knowledge that goes beyond the input they received, in other words, the whole is greater than the parts. Learners of a language are able to construct correct utterances (e.g. phrases, sentences, and questions) that they have never seen or heard before.
Success in language learning can be measured in two ways: likelihood and quality. First language learners will be successful in both measurements. It is inevitable that all first language learners will learn a first language and with few exceptions, they will be fully successful. For second language learners, success is not guaranteed. For one, learners may become fossilized or stuck as it were with ungrammatical items. (Fossilization occurs when language errors become a permanent feature. See Canale & Swain (1980), Johnson (1992), Selinker (1972), and Selinker and Lamendella (1978).) The difference between learners may be significant. Finally, as noted elsewhere, L2 learners rarely achieve complete native-like control of the second language.
Similarities and differences between L2 and L1
acquisition is rapid
systematic stages of development
systematic stages of development
not directly influential
depth of knowledge
beyond the level of input
beyond the level of input
not inevitable (possible fossilization*)
rarely fully successful
Being successful in learning a second can seem like a daunting task. Research has been done to look into why some students are more successful than others. Stern (1975), Rubin (1975) and Reiss (1985) are just a few of the researchers who have dedicated time to this subject. They have worked to determine what qualities make a “good language learner” (Mollica, Neussel, 1997). Some of their common findings are that a good language learner uses positive learning strategies, is an active learner who is constantly searching for meaning. Also good language learner demonstrates a willingness to practice and use the language in real communication. He also monitors himself and his learning, has a strong drive to communicate, and has a good ear and good listening skills (Mollica, Neussel, 1997).
The distinction between acquiring and learning was made by Stephen Krashen (1982) as part of his Monitor Theory. According to Krashen, the acquisition of a language is a natural process; whereas learning a language is a conscious one. In the former, the student needs to partake in natural communicative situations. In the latter, error correction is present, as is the study of grammatical rules isolated from natural language. Not all educators in second language agree to this distinction; however, the study of how a second language is learned/acquired is referred to as Second Language Acquisition or SLA.
Research in SLA focuses on the developing knowledge and use of a language by children and adults who already know at least one other language... [and] a knowledge of second language acquisition may help educational policy makers set more realistic goals for programmes for both foreign language courses and the learning of the majority language by minority language children and adults (Spada & Lightbown, p. 115).
SLA has been influenced by both linguistic and psychological theories. One of the dominant linguistic theories hypothesizes that a device or module of sorts in the brain contains innate knowledge. Many psychological theories, on the other hand, hypothesize that cognitive mechanisms, responsible for much of human learning, process language.
Other dominant theories and points of research include 2nd language acquisition studies (which examine if L1 findings can be transferred to L2 learning), verbal behaviour (the view that constructed linguistic stimuli can create a desired speech response), morpheme studies, behaviourism, error analysis, stages and order of acquisition, structuralism (approach that looks at how the basic units of language relate to each other according to their common characteristics), 1st language acquisition studies, contrastive analysis (approach where languages were examined in terms of differences and similarities) and inter-language (which describes L2 learners’ language as a rule-governed, dynamic system) (Mitchell, Myles, 2004).
These theories have all had an impact on second language teaching and pedagogy. There are many different methods of second language teaching, many of which stem directly from a particular theory. Common methods are the grammar-translation method, the direct method, the audio-lingual method (clearly influenced by audio-lingual research and the behaviourist approach), the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, community language learning, the Total Physical Response method, and the communicative approach (highly influenced by Krashen’s theories) (Doggett, 1994). Some of these approaches are more popular than others, and are viewed to be more effective. Most language teachers do not use one singular style, but will use a mix in their teaching. This provides a more balanced approach to teaching and helps students of a variety of learning styles succeed.
In pedagogy and sociolinguistics, a distinction is often made between 'second language' and foreign language, the latter being learned for use in an area where that language is not generally spoken. Arguably, English in countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Philippines, the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands can be considered a second language for many of its speakers, because they learn it young, speak it fluently, and use it regularly; indeed in southern Asia it is the official language of the courts, government and business.
The same can be said for French in the Arab Maghreb Union, except for Libya, although—as with English in the Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands—French is nominally not an official language in any of these Arabic-speaking countries. In practice, French is widely used in a variety of contexts in these countries, and public signs are normally printed in both Arabic and French. A similar phenomenon exists in the post-Soviet states such as Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, Russian can be considered a second language, and there are large Russophone communities there.
In China (with the exception perhaps of Hong Kong), however, English must be considered a foreign language due to the lack of a number of characteristics, such as historical links, media, opportunities for use, similar vocabulary, and common script.
French would be considered a foreign language in Romania, and Moldova as well. This is despite Romanian and French being Romance languages (unlike Chinese and English, which come from two different language families). This is also despite Romania and Moldova being the only two countries in the world where Romanian is an official language at the federal level, Romania's historical links to France, and both Romanian-speaking countries' membership in the Francophonie.
George H. J. Weber, a Swiss businessman and independent scholar, founder of the Andaman Association and creator of the encyclopedic andaman.org Web site, made a report in December 1997 about the number of secondary speakers of the world's leading languages. Weber used the Fischer Weltalmanach of 1986 as his only source] for the L2-speakers data, in preparing the data in the next table. These numbers should be compared with those referred to by Ethnologue, an authoritative site in the linguistics field, however, the data for English as L2 has not been yet reported by Ethnologue.
It is important to read texts that are at the right level for you - not too easy, not too difficult.
You need to know what your personal reading level is. (Note that your reading level may not be the same as your overall level in English. For example, your reading level is normally higher than your writing level, and higher than your overall level.)
Ask your teacher to help you determine your reading level. If you don’t have a teacher, try reading a few texts from different levels. If you have to look up a lot of words in a dictionary, the text is too difficult for you. If you don't have to look up any words, the text is too easy for you. Try something at a lower or higher level. A teacher, librarian or bookstore clerk can help you find something easier or more difficult.
You can also try our reading test to help determine your reading level.
Designate a place and time for reading every day. Your reading level will increase with time.
What Are Graded Readers?
Graded readers (also sometimes called "readers") are books that have been written for English learners at a specific level. Different publishers may use different ways of describing level, but essentially they range from Beginner to Advanced. The language in graded readers is graded by vocabulary and grammatical structure. Beginner graded readers typically use only easy grammatical forms (eg basic tenses) and a limited number of words (eg 300 headwords). Advanced graded readers may use the full range of grammatical structures and many more words (eg 3,000 headwords). Most publishers of English language learning materials publish a range of graded readers on a variety of subjects covering fiction and non-fiction.