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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

یوزر پسورد نود 32 سه شنبه تاریخ 09/03/1391 مصادف با 29/05/2012
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٤٢ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/٩
 
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سوالات کوتاه ضمیمه:Tag Ending -Taq Question
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:٤٧ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/٩
 

 

در هر جمله اگر جوابی خواسته باشند اگر جمله مثبت باشد یا منفی سوالی جواب داده و اگر جمله منفی باشد با مثبت سوالی جواب داده.


تذکر
۱:در جملاتی که افعال کمکی دارند برای جمله مثبت ،همان فعل کمکی رابا (not) آورده وسپس فاعل جمله را به دنبالش ذکر کرده ولی اگر جمله منفی باشد ،فعل کمکی را آورده و سپس فاعل جمله را به دنبالش ذکر کرده .


تذکر
۲:اگر جمله فعل کمکی نداشته باشد برای جملات گذشته از (did) برای جواب یک جمله ی منفی واز (did not) برای جواب جملات مثبت استفاده کرده و سپس فاعل جمله را بیان کرده.

تذکر
۳:از (does) برای جملات حال سوم شخص مثبت استفاده کرده و برای سایر ضمایر شخصی از (do) و(donot) استفاده می شود.

 


 
 
افعال معین
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:۳٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/٩
 


طرز بکار بردن این افعال در جملات با سایر افعال دیگر فرق دارد که اغلب این افعال ناقص می باشد به این صورت که تمام قسمتهای یک فعل معمولی را ندارند و اغلب این افعال را افعال مخصوص هم مینامند. البته تمام این افعال معین با کلمه ی (not) منفی می شوند و اگرقبل از فاعل ذکر کنیم جمله بصورت سوالی در می آید.

حال ساده فعلam –is –are

گذشته ساده was- were


 
 
فعل: verb
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:۳۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/٩
 

 

فعل
کلمه ایست که بر انجام کاری یا داشتن حالتی دلالت می کند فعل بر دو نوع است ،

۱-لازم

۲-متعدی


۱- فعل لازم :فعلی است که احتیاج به مفعول ندارد وبدون مفعول معنی جمله کا مل است و کلمه ای که بعد از فعل می آید متمم نامیده می شود .

 

 

فعل: verb
کلمه ایست که بر انجام کاری یا داشتن حالتی دلالت می کند فعل بر دو نوع است ،

۱-لازم

۲-متعدی


۱- فعل لازم :فعلی است که احتیاج به مفعول ندارد وبدون مفعول معنی جمله کا مل است و کلمه ای که بعد از فعل می آید متمم نامیده می شود .

 

I go to school.

2-فعل متعدی: که بدون مفعول معنی جمله کا مل نشود.

The cat caught the mouse

طرز بکار بردن مفعول با متعدی

مفعول بر دو نوع است:

۱-مفعول بی واسطه direct object ، 

۲-مفعول با واسطه indirect object 

الف- هر گاه مفعول با واسطه بعد از فعل متعدی آید به حرف اضافه احتیاج نیست .
مفعول با واسطه + حرف اضافه+ مفعول بی واسطه+ فعل متعدی


ب- هر گاه مفعول با واسطه بعد از مفعول بی واسطه قرار گیرد ما بین دو مفعول حرف اضافه مناسبی احتیاج است .

 

۱/ مفعول بی واسطه + مفعول با واسطه + فعل متعدی

 
He gave me a book.

 

He gave a book to me.
I send her some flowers.

بی واسطه   باواسطه

اگر مفعول با واسطه ضمیر و یا یک کلمه ی کوچک باشد آنرا بعد از فعل متعدی بیان می کنند.


ولی اگر مفعول با واسطه چند کلمه ویا کلمه ی طولانی باشد آنرا بعد از مفعول بی واسطه بیان می کنند.

He will give the book to who ever wants it


 
 
جمع بستن اسمها
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:٢٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/٩
 

 


اسمها با حرف (
S)جمع بسته می شوند ولی اگر کلمه ای به حروف (f-t-k-p)ختم شود در تلفظ (s)آخر را با صدای (س)بیان می کنند ولی اگر به حروف دیگری ختم شوند (s)آخر صدای (z)میدهد.

صدای(س)a books – cats

صدای(ز)boys – girls


الف- اسم هایی که به حروف (
x- ch- sh- s - ) ختم شوند با(es)جمع بسته میشوند .

 

Dresses - bushes – churches - boxes


ب- اسم هایی که به (
y)ختم شوند و قبل از آن حرف صدادار باشد با (s)جمع بسته می شود .ولی اگر حرف ما قبل از (y)بی صدا باشد (y)تبدیل به (i) شد و(esمی گیرد.


City==>cities ولی boy==>boys

ج-اسم هایی که به (fe) و یا (f) ختم شوند در صورت جمع (f) و یا (ef) تبدیل (ves) می شوند.

Thief==>thieves و wife==>wives

د-بعضی اسامی در انگلیسی جمع یا مفرد شان یکی است.


گوسفند= sheep
گوزن=deer


ذ-بعضی از اسمها فقط در حالت جمع وجود دارند.

Pyjams – trousers –scissors

ر- بعضی از اسامی از هیچ قانونی تبعیت نمی کنند.

Man==>men 
Ox==>oxen

 

ی- بعضی ازاسم ها که به (o) ختم می شوند در جمع(es)و بعضی فقط (s)می گیرند.

Hero==> heroes ولی piano==> pianos


 
 
یوزر پسورد نود 32 دوشنبه تاریخ 08/03/1391 مصادف با 2012/05/28
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۱۸ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۸
 

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لیست لغات گرامری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۱٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۸
 

burgeon

(v.) to grow or develop quickly

The tumor appeared to burgeon more quickly than normal.

After the first punch was thrown, the dispute burgeoned into a brawl.

burlesque

(v.; n.) to imitate in a non-serious manner; a comical imitation

His stump speeches were so hackneyed, he seemed to be burlesquing of

his role as a congressman.

George Burns was considered one of the great practitioners of

burlesque.

burly

(adj.) strong; bulky; stocky

The lumberjack was a burly man.

burnish

(v.) to polish by rubbing

The vase needed to be burnished to restore its beauty.

cabal

(n.) a group of persons joined by a secret

The very idea that there could be a cabal cast suspicion on the whole

operation.

cache

(n.) stockpile; store; heap; hiding place for goods

The town kept a cache of salt on hand to melt winter's snow off the

roads.

Extra food is kept in the cache under the pantry.

The cache for his jewelry was hidden under the bed.

cacophonous

(adj.) sounding jarring

The cacophonous sound from the bending metal sent shivers up our

spines.

cacophony

(n.) a harsh, inharmonious collection of sounds; dissonance

The beautiful harmony of the symphony was well enjoyed after the

cacophony coming from the stage as the orchestra warmed up.

The amateur band created more cacophony than beautiful sound.

cajole

(v.) to coax with insincere talk

To cajole the disgruntled employee, the manager coaxed him with lies

and sweet talk.

The salesman will cajole the couple into buying the stereo.

calamity

(n.) disaster

The fire in the apartment building was a great calamity.

caliber

(n.) quality

The caliber of talent at the show was excellent.

callow

(adj.) being young or immature

With the callow remark the young man demonstrated his age.

Although the girl could be considered an adult, the action was very

callow.

calumny

(n.) slander

I felt it necessary to speak against the calumny of the man's good

reputation.

canard

(n.) a false statement or rumor

The canard was reported in a scandalous tabloid.

candid

(adj.) honest; truthful; sincere

People trust her because she's so candid.

cant

(n.) insincere or hypocritical statements of high ideals; the jargon of a

particular group or occupations

The theater majors had difficulty understanding the cant of the computer

scientists.

The remarks by the doctor were cant and meant only for his associates.

caprice

(n.) a sudden, unpredictable or whimsical change

The caprice with which the couple approached the change of plans was

evidence to their young age.

The king ruled by caprice as much as law.

capricious

(adj.) changeable; fickle

The capricious bride-to-be has a different church in mind for her

wedding every few days.

captious

(adj.) disposed to find fault

A captious attitude often causes difficulties in a relationship.

carte blanche

(n.) unlimited authority

The designer was given carte blanche to create a new line for the fall.

cascade

(n; v.) waterfall; pour; rush; fall

The hikers stopped along the path to take in the beauty of the rushing

cascade.

The water cascaded down the rocks into the pool.

He took a photograph of the lovely cascade.

The drapes formed a cascade down the window.

castigate

(v.) to punish through public criticism

The mayor castigated the police chief for the rash of robberies.

cataclysm

(n.) an extreme natural force

The earthquake has been the first cataclysm in five years.

catalyst

(n.) anything which creates a situation in which change can occur

The low pressure system was the catalyst for the nor'easter.

catharsis

(n.) a purging or relieving of the body or soul

He experienced a total catharsis after the priest absolved his sins.

Admitting his guilt served as a catharsis for the man.

caustic

(adj.) eating away at; sarcastic words

The caustic chemicals are dangerous.

The girl harmed her mother with her caustic remarks.

His caustic sense of humor doesn't go over so well when people don't

know what they're in for.

cavil

(v.) to bicker

The children are constantly caviling.

censor

(v.) to examine and delete objectionable material

The children were allowed to watch the adult movie only after it had

been censored.

censure

(n.; v.) a disapproval; an expression of disapproval; to criticize or

disapprove of

His remarks drew the censure of his employers.

A censure of the new show upset the directors.

Her parents censured her idea of dropping out of school.

ceremonious

(adj.) very formal or proper

The black-tie dinner was highly ceremonious.

cessation

(n.)ceasing; a stopping

The cessation of a bad habit is often difficult to sustain.

chafe

(v.) to annoy, to irritate; to wear away or make sore by rubbing

His constant teasing chafed her.

He doesn't wear pure wool sweaters because they usually chafe his skin.

chaffing

(n.) banter; teasing

The king was used to his jesters good-natured chaffing.

chagrin

(n.) a feeling of embarrassment due to failure or disappointment

To the chagrin of the inventor, the machine did not work.

She turned red-faced with chagrin when she learned that her son had

been caught shoplifting.

charisma

(n.) appeal; magnetism; presence

She has such charisma that everyone likes her the first time they meet

her.

charlatan

(n.) a person who pretends to have knowledge; an impostor; fake

The charlatan deceived the townspeople.

It was finally discovered that the charlatan sitting on the throne was not

the real king.


 
 
The Characteristics of an Extensive Reading Approach
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٠٧ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۸
 

 

  1. Students read as much as possible, perhaps in and definitely out of the classroom.
  2. A variety of materials on a wide range of topics is available so as to encourage reading for different reasons and in different ways.
  3. Students select what they want to read and have the freedom to stop reading material that fails to interest them.
  4. The purposes of reading are usually related to pleasure, information and general understanding. The purposes are determined by the nature of the material and the interests of the student.
  5. Reading is its own reward. There are few or no follow-up exercises after reading.
  6. Reading materials are well within the linguistic competence of the students in terms of vocabulary and grammar. Dictionaries are rarely used while reading because the constant stopping to look up words makes fluent reading difficult.
  7. Reading is individual and silent, at the student's own pace, and, outside class, done when and where the student chooses.
  8. Reading speed is usually faster rather than slower as students read books and other material they find easily understandable.
  9. Teachers orient students to the goals of the program, explain the methodology, keep track of what each student reads, and guide students in getting the most out of the program.
  10. The teacher is a role model of a reader for the students -- an active member of the classroom reading community, demonstrating what it means to be a reader and the rewards of being a reader.

 
 
Biodata
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٠٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۸
 


George Jacobs has enjoyed working in the field of language education where

over the past almost 20 years he has had the pleasure of meeting many nice

people and many valuable ideas, as well as many valuable people and many

nice ideas. His main academic interests these days are co-operative learning

and environmental education, because he believes co-operation and concern

for the environment are keys to a better world. George looks forward to

continuing the dialogue with any readers who wish to explore projects of mutual interest: 

Finally, Willy,

Julian Bamford, and George are looking for nice and valuable people to join

them in maintaining the ER in L2 bibliography.

 

Willy Renandya teaches at SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, Singapore. His areas of interest include extensive reading, teacher/learner beliefs, teaching methodology, and language testing. He has taught language as well as applied linguistics courses in Indonesia, Singapore and other Southeast Asian countries.

 

Select one of the reasons given for why some teachers lack enthusiasm for ER. Alternatively, you can nominate another idea. Explain how you might try to overcome this objection to ER or why you agree with the objection.

Minimum # of words: 150.

 

Extensive Reading (ER) is by no means a new idea. However, although many teachers readily acknowledge its educational benefits of ER (Krashen, 1993), in many schools, Extensive Reading is not practiced “extensively” or at all. If ER is good for language development, for building knowledge of the world, and for promoting a lifelong reading habit, why aren’t all teachers using it? According to Day and Bamford (1998), one of the most important reasons for less than unanimous use of ER is that many teachers believe that intensive reading alone will produce good, fluent readers. In intensive reading, students spend lots of time analyzing and dissecting short, difficult texts under the close supervision of the teacher. The aim of intensive reading is to help students construct detailed meaning from the text, to develop reading skills, and enhance vocabulary and grammar knowledge.

 

While intensive reading can be useful, an overemphasis on the explicit teaching of reading and language skills leaves little room for implementing other approaches. The intensive reading approach by itself, Day and Bamford further argue, may produce skilled readers but not skilled readers. In other words, students may know how to read but may not want to read.

 

A related reason why ER is not done involves perceptions of the role of teachers. Are we sages on stages or guides on the sides. Many of us (not to mention students, parents, administrators, and others) are still uncomfortable with the idea of teachers playing a “less” central role in the classroom. In intensive reading, instruction is more teacher-centered in that we are more center-stage in what is happening in the classroom. We do lots of talking and decide what skills or strategies to teach, how these are taught, and what passages to use. In contrast, with ER, roles shift as we not only pass on knowledge, but also “guide students and participate with them as members of a reading community” (Day & Bamford, 1998: 47).

 

Another possible explanation of why not all teachers are ER enthusiasts relates to the time needed to see results from ER. Vocabulary and grammar often require multiple encounters in order for learning to take place (Anderson, 1996). Some teachers may be impatient or lack confidence that this long-term approach will bear fruit.

 

Even in places where ER has been incorporated into the curriculum, full implementation of ER programs is hampered by practical considerations, including time, assessment, and materials. I often hear teachers saying that they don’t have enough time to get students to read extensively because they feel pressured by the administration to cover the predetermined materials specified in the syllabus.

 

Some other teachers report that since ER is not directly assessed, they feel that curriculum time would be better spent on subjects and activities that students are directly tested on. Similarly, some students shy away from any activities that are not graded. Furthermore, many students search for quick fixes that will result in major, overnight leaps in their exam scores. Lack of appropriate materials arises as yet another difficulty.

 

One more recent why we don’t see more ER in schools is that some teachers, even some language teachers, feel it is not their responsibility. They may believe that unless they are specifically teaching reading, ER is beyond their purview. For instance, some writing instructors at tertiary level forget about the close link between reading and writing.

 

Nevertheless …

 

Despite ER not being universal practice, many teachers are active ER practitioners (Jacobs, Bamford, & Renandya, 2003), because they appreciate the logic of Eskey’s (1986: 21) words, “Reading … must be developed, and can only be developed, by means of extensive and continual practice. People learn to read, and to read better, by reading.” Furthermore, he benefits of ER extend beyond reading proficiency. After reviewing hundreds of research studies in both first and second language learning contexts, Krashen (1993: 23) states:

 

Reading is good for you. The research supports a stronger conclusion, however. Reading is the only way, the only way we become good readers, develop a good writing style, an adequate vocabulary, advanced grammar, and the only way we become good spellers.

 

Beyond powerful gains in language proficiency, reading offers more. It offers a richer understanding of the world and a place in the ongoing, worldwide dialogue on a universe of topics open only to those who are literate and who exercise their literacy.  Thus, ER represents much more than a teaching device. It represents a life-long habit, a habit that brings with it the power and wealth that language offers in such large quantities. By encouraging our students to read extensively and showing them how to do so, we help them strengthen their grip on the efficacious tool of reading.

 


 
 
دو مکالمه آسان برای شما
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٠٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۸
 

32. What’s That Smell?


A: My grandma’s apartment smells funny.
B: So does mine.
A: I think it’s an old people’s smell.
B: Really?
A: Yes. I think when you get old, you begin to smell.
B: Like fruit that is too ripe?
A: Yes, just like fruit that is too ripe.
B: But the smell is different.
A: Yes, old people don’t smell like fruit.
B: No, they smell like a thrift shop.
A: Yes, a thrift shop has that same smell.
B: Yes, an old smell.

 

33. They Deliver

 


A: The price of stamps goes up and up.
B: I think stamps used to cost a penny.
A: That was a long time ago.
B: It was before I was born.
A: Now a stamp is 42 cents.
B: But in May it will be 44 cents.
A: Have you ever lost a letter in the mail?
B: No, I haven’t.
A: Neither have I.
B: So, they do a good job for the money.
A: Yes, they do.
B: Maybe we shouldn’t complain.


 
 
5000 لغت مهم برای تافل
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:٢۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۸
 

 

prevention n. Thwarting.

prickle v. To puncture slightly with fine, sharp points. priggish adj. Conceited.

prim adj. Stiffly proper.

prima adj. First.

primer n. An elementary reading-book for children. primeval adj. Belonging to the first ages.

primitive adj. Pertaining to the beginning or early times. principal adj. Most important.

principality n. The territory of a reigning prince. principle n. A general truth or proposition. priory n. A monastic house.

pristine adj. Primitive.

privateer n. A vessel owned and officered by private persons, but carrying on maritime war.

privilege n. A right or immunity not enjoyed by all, or that may be enjoyed only under special conditions.

privity n. Knowledge shared with another or others regarding a private matter.

privy adj. Participating with another or others in the knowledge of a secret transaction. probate adj. Relating to making proof, as of a will.

probation n. Any proceeding designed to ascertain or test character, qualification, or the like.

probe v. To search through and through.

probity n. Virtue or integrity tested and confirmed. procedure n. A manner or method of acting.

proceed v. To renew motion or action, as after rest or interruption. proclamation n. Any announcement made in a public manner. procrastinate v. To put off till tomorrow or till a future time. procrastination n. Delay.

proctor n. An agent acting for another.

prodigal n. One wasteful or extravagant, especially in the use of money or property. prodigious adj. Immense.

prodigy n. A person or thing of very remarkable gifts or qualities. productive adj. Yielding in abundance.

profession n. Any calling or occupation involving special mental or other special disciplines.

professor n. A public teacher of the highest grade in a university or college. proffer v. To offer to another for acceptance.

proficiency n. An advanced state of acquirement, as in some knowledge, art, or science. proficient adj. Possessing ample and ready knowledge or of skill in any art, science, or industry. profile n. An outline or contour.

profiteer n. One who profits.

profligacy n. Shameless viciousness.

profligate adj. Abandoned to vice.

profuse adj. Produced or displayed in overabundance. progeny n. Offspring.

progression n. A moving forward or proceeding in course. prohibition n. A decree or an order forbidding something.

prohibitionist n. One who favors the prohibition by law of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.

prohibitory adj. Involving or equivalent to prohibition, especially of the sale of alcoholic beverages.

projection n. A prominence.

proletarian n. A person of the lowest or poorest class. prolific adj. Producing offspring or fruit.

prolix adj. Verbose.

prologue n. A prefatory statement or explanation to a poem, discourse, or performance. prolong v. To extend in time or duration.

promenade v. To walk for amusement or exercise.

prominence n. The quality of being noticeable or distinguished.

prominent adj. Conspicuous in position, character, or importance.

promiscuous adj. Brought together without order, distinction, or design (for sex). promissory adj. Expressing an engagement to pay.

promontory n. A high point of land extending outward from the coastline into the sea. promoter n. A furtherer, forwarder, or encourager.

promulgate v. To proclaim.

propaganda n. Any institution or systematic scheme for propagating a doctrine or system. propagate v. To spread abroad or from person to person.

propel v. To drive or urge forward.

propellant adj. Propelling.

propeller n. One who or that which propels. prophecy n. Any prediction or foretelling.

prophesy v. To predict or foretell, especially under divine inspiration and guidance. propitious adj. Kindly disposed.

proportionate adj. Being in proportion.

propriety n. Accordance with recognized usage, custom, or principles. propulsion n. A driving onward or forward.

prosaic adj. Unimaginative.

proscenium n. That part of the stage between the curtain and the orchestra. proscribe v. To reject, as a teaching or a practice, with condemnation or denunciation. proscription n. Any act of condemnation and rejection from favor and privilege. proselyte n. One who has been won over from one religious belief to another. prosody n. The science of poetical forms.

prospector n. One who makes exploration, search, or examination, especially for minerals. prospectus n. A paper or pamphlet containing information of a proposed undertaking. prostrate adj. Lying prone, or with the head to the ground.

protagonist n. A leader in any enterprise or contest.

protection n. Preservation from harm, danger, annoyance, or any other evil. protective adj. Sheltering.

protector n. A defender.

protege n. One specially cared for and favored by another usually older person. Protestant n. A Christian who denies the authority of the Pope and holds the right of special judgment.

protomartyr n. The earliest victim in any cause.

protocol n. A declaration or memorandum of agreement less solemn and formal than a treaty.

protoplasm n. The substance that forms the principal portion of an animal or vegetable cell.

prototype n. A work, original in character, afterward imitated in form or spirit. protract v. To prolong.

protrude v. To push out or thrust forth. protrusion n. The act of protruding.

protuberance n. Something that swells out from a surrounding surface. protuberant adj. Bulging.

protuberate v. To swell or bulge beyond the surrounding surface.

proverb n. A brief, pithy saying, condensing in witty or striking form the wisdom of experience.

provident adj. Anticipating and making ready for future wants or emergencies. providential adj. Effected by divine guidance.

provincial adj. Uncultured in thought and manner.

proviso n. A clause in a contract, will, etc., by which its operation is rendered conditional. provocation n. An action or mode of conduct that excites resentment.

prowess n. Strength, skill, and intrepidity in battle.

proximately adv. Immediately.

proxy n. A person who is empowered by another to represent him or her in a given matter. prudence n. Caution.

prudential adj. Proceeding or marked by caution. prudery n. An undue display of modesty or delicacy. prurient adj. Inclined to lascivious thoughts and desires. pseudapostle n. A pretended or false apostle.

pseudonym n. A fictitious name, especially when assumed by a writer. pseudonymity n. The state or character of using a fictitious name. psychiatry n. The branch of medicine that relates to mental disease. psychic adj. Pertaining to the mind or soul.

psychopathic adj. Morally irresponsible.

psychotherapy n. The treatment of mental disease.

pudgy adj. Small and fat.

puerile adj. Childish.

pugnacious adj. Quarrelsome.

puissant adj. Possessing strength.

pulmonary adj. Pertaining to the lungs.

punctilious adj. Strictly observant of the rules or forms prescribed by law or custom. punctual adj. Observant and exact in points of time.

pungent adj. Affecting the sense of smell.

pungency n. The quality of affecting the sense of smell. punitive adj. Pertaining to punishment.

pupilage n. The state or period of being a student.

purgatory n. An intermediate state where souls are made fit for paradise or heaven by expiatory suffering.

purl v. To cause to whirl, as in an eddy. purloin v. To steal.

purport n. Intent.

purveyor n. one who supplies pusillanimous adj. Without spirit or bravery.

putrescent adj. Undergoing decomposition of animal or vegetable matter accompanied by fetid odors. pyre n. A heap of combustibles arranged for burning a dead body.

pyromania n. An insane propensity to set things on fire.

pyrotechnic adj. Pertaining to fireworks or their manufacture.


 
 
یوزر پسورد نود32 شنبه تاریخ 06/03/1391 مصادف با 2012/05/26
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:٢۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/٧
 

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مـردها چه زنـی را همسـر ایـده آل می داننـد؟
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:۱٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/٧
 


برای تازه عروس ها این که همسرشان روز به روز عاشق تر شود، موضوع بی اهمیتی نیست. آن ها دوست دارند با تک تک حرف ها و رفتارهای شان یک قدم به همسرشان نزدیک تر شوند اما همیشه ماجرا این طور پیش نمی رود. گاهی هر قدم رو به جلوی زن، مرد را ده ها قدم به عقب می راند. برای زنی که فکر می کند، حساب همه چیز را کرده و تمام تلاشش را خرج کرده کنار آمدن با این موضوع، آسان نیست. اگر شما چنین احساساتی را تجربه کرده اید، باید بار دیگر گذشته تان را مرور کنید تا بدانید چرا در چشم همسرتان یک زن ایده آل جلوه نکرده اید؟

باید خاص باشید

یک مرد به دنبال زنی خاص می گردد که تا پایان عمر کنارش بماند و با او پیر شود. زنی که اهل شکایت نیست یا با نق نق کردن روزش را خراب نمی کند. مردها یک زن منطقی و با حساب و کتاب می خواهند که آن ها را در سراسر زندگی شان حمایت کند و در موقعیت های حساس همیشه بتوانند روی کمکش حساب کنند.

از طرف دیگر زن ایده آل آن ها شباهت زیادی با همان کلیشه همسر در خانواده و اجتماع دارد. آن ها اغلب زنی را ستایش می کنند که مورد ستایش خانواده و اطرافیان شان قرار می گیرد و حتی اگر خودشان هم این واقعیت را ندانند در ناخودآگاه شان آن را پرورش داده و به تصمیم گیری های شان راه می دهند.

باید قانع باشید

مردها دوست دارند، بعد از ازدواج همان طوری که پیش از این بوده اند بمانند. آن ها همسری می خواهند که با وجود معایب یا خلق و خوی خاص شان آن ها را بپذیرد و عاشق شان بماند. این ویژگی یکی از مهم ترین چیزهایی است که در ذهن مردها می گذرد.

آن ها از سرکوفت خوردن بیزارند و دوست دارند همسرشان با همین اخلاقی که دارند و همین وضع زندگی ای که دارند بسازد و مدام برای تغییر کردن، آن ها را تحت فشار نگذارد. برخلاف اغلب زن ها که سعی می کنند، از مرد معمولی مقابل شان همسر ایده آل و رویایی بسازند، مردها دوست دارند با زنی زندگی کنند که به همین وضع موجود قانع باشد.

باید سعی کنید زیبا باشید

درست است که زیبایی و وضعیت ظاهری نخستین موضوعی نیست که اغلب مردها به آن توجه می کنند اما این موضوع در انتخاب همسر آینده آن ها بی تاثیر هم نیست. انگار مردها دوست دارند از این طریق انتخاب شان را به رخ دیگران بکشند و یک افتخار کسب کنند. ظرافت و زیبایی در رفتار هم می تواند تاثیر مثبتی روی انتخاب آن ها بگذارد. گرچه معیارهای زیبایی از فردی به فرد دیگر متفاوت است اما همیشه با نگه داشتن حد وسط می توان از این که یکی از کاندیداهای ازدواج مردان اطراف تان هستید یا خیر مطمئن شوید.

باید جاه طلب باشید

نمی توان در این مورد یک قانون بی چون و چرا صادر کرد اما اغلب مردهای امروز، به دنبال همسری می گردند که چیزی بیشتر از زنان دیگر دارد. یک مهارت خاص، دانش بالا یا شغلی که به آن افتخار کنند. مردهای امروزی زنانی را دوست دارند که در کنار تعهدات خانوادگی، امور روزمره کار و فعالیت های اجتماعی اش را هم جدی بگیرد. این موضوع به آن ها ثابت می کند آن زن قادر است زندگی خود را پیش ببرد و بیش از زنان اطرافش توانمند است. جاه طلبی هم برای مردان دلیل دوست داشتن یک زن است؛ زنی که برای رسیدن به اهدافش تلاش می کند و به سادگی عقب نشینی نمی کند.

باید نیمی از مشکلات مال شما باشد

سال ها از روزگاری که مردها بار خانه را یک تنه به دوش می کشیده اند گذشته است. مردهای امروزی دوست دارند زن شان دوشادوش آن ها حرکت کند، بحران های خانه را بشناسد و گاهی مانند آن ها استرس های زندگی بعد از ازدواج را به دوش بکشد. آن ها دوست ندارند تنها فکر کنند، تنها تلاش کنند، تنها نگران باشند و تنها عمل کنند. مردهای امروز به دنبال همسری هستند که در تمامی این لحظه ها کنارشان باشد و این مشکلات را مشکلات خودش بداند، نه این که اگر کاری برای حل کردن شان می کند آن را یک لطف تلقی کند.

باید با فامیل و دوستان همسرتان دوست باشید

جدا شدن از زندگی مجردی در سال های بعد از ازدواج سخت ترین اتفاقی است که می تواند برای یک مرد بیفتد. مردها از تنهایی بعد از ازدواج می ترسند. آن ها دوست دارند روابط قبلی شان را این بار در کنار همسرشان تجربه کنند. رابطه با خانواده و اعضای فامیل شان و همین طور دوستانی که حضورشان برای آن ها اهمیت دارد. هیچ مردی نمی تواند بدگویی علیه دوست یا خانواده اش را تحمل کند و تمام عمرش را تنها و تنها با همسرش بگذراند.

آن ها ترجیح می دهند، با ازدواج خانواده پیشین شان بزرگ تر شود نه این که از یک خانواده بیرون بروند و خانواده تازه ای را بسازند. اغلب مردها در ارتباط داشتن با آدم های تازه و شرایط تازه کمی مشکل دارند. آن ها دوست دارند، زن شان روابط اجتماعی خوبی داشته باشد و آن ها را در پیوند زدن به این اجتماع یاری دهد. گذشته از این، آن ها دوست دارند با ورود همسرشان به خانواده شان، روابط خانوادگی و فامیلی گرم تری را هم برای شان به همراه بیاورد و لاک تنهایی شان را از آن ها بگیرد.

باید ستایش کنید

 دوست داشته شدن حس خوبی به آدم ها می دهد. مردها هم از این قاعده مستثنی نیستند. آن ها ترجیح می دهند، وقتی خسته از کار بر می گردند یک لبخند منتظرشان باشد و به خاطر این که زنی تا این حد دوست شان دارد به همه فخر بفروشند. خیلی از مردها زندگی خود را با اطرافیان شان مقایسه می کنند و تصویر ذهنی که دیگران به آن ها منتقل می کنند برای شان اهمیت زیادی دارد.

همین است که آن ها دوست دارند همسری فداکار و پر محبت داشته باشند و این موضوع را به دیگران هم نشان دهند. مردها دوست دارند همسرشان قدرت و توانایی شان را ستایش کند و به آن ها تکیه داشته باشد. آن ها از این که مستقل ترین زن جهان هم برای تصمیم گیری هایش با آن ها مشورت کند و در مشکلاتش به آن ها تکیه کند لذت می برند.

باید با منطق باشید

 گرچه خیلی از زن ها گمان می کنند با فداکاری تمام و کمال می توانند یک مرد را عاشق خود کنند اما واقعیت این است که مرد ها ترجیح می دهند، همسرشان عقاید و نظرات خودش را داشته باشد. مردها بیشتر به زنان با اعتماد به نفس توجه می کنند و دوست دارند به جای خمیری که به آن شکل می دهند، یک زن قدرتمند و منطقی را انتخاب کنند که دوشادوش شان برای ساختن یک زندگی خوب انرژی می گذارد.

باید پیشرفت کنید

 یک زن هرچه قدر هم که باهوش و زیبا و تحصیل کرده باشد، اگر روند پیشرفتش را بعد از ازدواج متوقف کند، نمی تواند یک همسر ایده آل باشد. مردها دوست دارند زن شان به دنبال یادگرفتن چیزهای جدید باشد و حتی بعد از مادر شدن هم آنقدر با زمانه پیش برود که بتواند مایه افتخار او و فرزندانش شود. برای مردهای پرمشغله تنها داشتن یک همسر خانه دار و هنرمند کافی نیست بلکه آنها به دنبال زنی دنیا دیده می گردند که موضوعات روز را می شناسد و هیچ وقت دست از یادگرفتن و پیشرفت بر نمی دارد.