دلایل عدم اجراء برنامهریزی:
یکی از عوامل استرسزا برای هر دانشآموز کنکوری، عدم اجراء برنامههای اوست. دانشآموز پیش از دیگران از اجراء نکردن برنامههای خود دچار نگرانی و پشیمانی میگردد. هر چند که تکرار این موضوع بهتدریج به یک عادت تبدیل میشود.
پس لازم است بدانیم چه دلایل مهمی مانع اجراء برنامههای ما میشود. بدیهی است عدم توجه به نکات گفته شده در بحث قبلی از مهمترین عوامل مؤثر در این مورد هستند، بهطور مثال دانشآموزی که توان مطالعاتی او در روز یک ساعت است به یکباره تصمیم میگیرد، روزانه شش ساعت مطالعه کند.
برای افزایش ساعات مطالعه باید به یک مدل افزایش تدریجی متناسب با توان شخصی روی آوریم. ”هفته اول (۱ ساعت)، هفته دوم (۱ ساعت و نیم)، هفته سوم (۲ ساعت و نیم)، هفته چهارم (۳ ساعت و نیم)، هفته پنجم (۴ ساعت و نیم)، هفته ششم (۵ ساعت و نیم تا ۶ ساعت).
▪ دلیل دیگر، عدم توجه به واقعیات روزمره و یا ضعف در آیندهنگری است:
به این معنی که پیشبینی نکردن اتفاقاتی که در طول روز یا هفته میتواند مانع اجراء برنامه باشند قطعاً دانشآموز را دچار مشکل میسازد.
عدم توجه به واقعیات روزمره و یا ضعف در آیندهنگری
مثلاً دانشآموزی که میداند هفته آینده در روز پنجشنبه به عروسی یکی از بستگان نزدیک خود دعوت شده است، باید برای آن روز میزان ساعت مطالعاتی کمتری را لحاظ کند در غیر اینصورت او قادر نخواهد بود به آن برنامه عمل نماید.
تعارف با دوستان و نزدیکان نیز یکی دیگر از این دلایل است. بسیاری از دانشآموزان ما هنگام اجراء برنامههای خود با اطرافیان دچار تعارف میشوند. یعنی در حالیکه میدانند امروز نمیتوانند با دوستان خود به گردش یا تفریح بپردازند، اما با اولین پیشنهاد از طرف آنها ترجیح میدهند برای حفظ دوستی (یا به اصطلاح معرفت!) از اجراء برنامه پرهیز کنند و به خواسته دوستان خود توجه نمایند.
پس بهتر است که بهطور غیر مستقیم برنامههای تنظیمی خود را به اطلاع دوستان و اطرافیان نزدیک خود برسانیم (مثلاً با نصب این برنامهها در روی دیوار اتاق و یا کمک گرفتن از خود آنها برای برنامهریزی).
ناهماهنگی در اجزاء برنامه نیز میتواند مانع اجراء صحیح برنامه باشد، چرا که بارها با دانشآموزانی روبهرو شدهایم که بهدلیل پراکندگی و از هم گسیختگی در اجزاء برنامههای خود نمیتوانند بهدرستی آن را اجراء کنند.
مثلاً یا آنقدر تعداد زیادی درس را در یک روز برای مطالعه در نظر گرفتهاند و یا دروسی را برای مطالعه انتخاب کردهاند که با هیچیک از برنامههای کلاسی فردا و یا امروز خود هماهنگی ندارند. بنابراین این برنامه حتی در صورت اجراء، بازدهی مطلوبی برای آنها نخواهد داشت.
الف) برنامهریزی گروهی:
گاهی اوقات با مشاورانی روبهرو میشویم که بهدلایل معقول و یا نامعقول برای تمام دانشآموزان یک کلاس (با توانها و ویژگیهای گوناگون) یک برنامه درسی واحد را ارائه میدهند.
یک دانشآموز باید بداند اینگونه برنامهها، کلیات را شامل میشود و لازم است خود او با فکر و اندیشه نسبت به تعدیل و یا تغییرات لازم در برنامه (براساس شرایط و مشخصات فردی خود) اقدام نماید یا قابلیت اجرائی آن تضمین گردد.
ب) عواطف و احساسات:
بارها شاهد بودهایم که بهدلیل وابستگیهای عاطفی دوران جوانی برنامههای مطالعاتی اجراء نمیشوند. مثلاً بهراحتی برنامه یک دانشآموز به سبب یک اتفاق ناگوار عاطفی نظیر دعوا دچار اختلال میگردد و به اصطلاح معروف برای دانشآموز هیچ حس و حالی برای درس خواندن باقی نمیماند.
برای ایجاد یادگیری، آزمون یکی از عوامل تٲثیرگذار است بنابراین در این زمینه به نکات زیر توجه کنید:
الف) هدف خود را در آزمونهای موضوعی، پیدا کردن نقاط ضعف و نواقص علمی خود قرار دهید، بهعبارت دیگر با گرفتن کارنامه، در پی درصدها و رتبهها نباشید، بلکه مشخص نمائید که در چه سئوالاتی دچار اشتباه شدهاید و یا در چه سئوالاتی ضعف علمی داشتهاید. سپس نسبت به رفع این مشکلات اقدام کنید (هر چند که دانشآموزی قوی و عالی قبل از گرفتن کارنامه نیز به اینکار اقدام میکنند).
اما در آزمونهای جامع که معمولاً در اواخر دوره آمادگی کنکور برگزار میشود، بهدنبال کسب درصد و رتبههای مناسب باشید تا بتوانید تا حد مناسبی رتبه واقعی خود را در آینده پیشبینی نمائید و از خطاهای تاکتیکی جلوگیری کنید.
این در حالی است که اکثر دانشآموزان در هدفگذاری برعکس عمل میکنند به این معنی که با کسب درصدهای پائین در آزمونهای موضوعی بهتدریج ناامید میشوند و در انتها نیز معمولاً در آزمونهای جامع شرکت نمیکنند.
در حالیکه کسب درصدهای پائین در آزمونهای ابتدائی باید منجر به تلاش دانشآموزان برای رفع نواقص شود که نهایت این تلاشها در طول دوره، منجر به افزایش توان علمی او خواهد شد، بهعبارت دیگر آزمون، خود یک جلسه آموزشی محسوب میگردد.
ب) از شرکت در آزمونهای متعدد و گوناگون پرهیز کنید چرا که اگر تعداد آزمونها زیاد باشد، منجر به کاهش انگیزه میگردد و ارزش شرکت در آزمون برای دانشآموز کمرنگ خواهد شد تعداد مناسب و متعادل آزمونها در طول دوره آمادگی کنکور بین ۱۲ـ۱۰ آزمون است که از این تعداد ۳ـ۲ آزمون باید بهصورت جامع برگزار شود.
ج) اگر حداقل ۸۰ـ۷۰ درصد موضوعات آزمونی را مطالعه نکردهاید در آن آزمون شرکت نکنید زیرا کسب هر نتیجهای (چه خوب و چه بد) کاذب است. بهعبارت دیگر این نتیجه نمیتواند آینده را برای شما پیشبینی کند.
د) دفترچه سئوالات و پاسخهای تشریحی هر آزمون را حفظ کنید تا در هنگام مرور مطالب، مجدداً به آنها رجوع نمائید و نسبت به پاسخگوئی سئوالاتی که قبلاً در آنها دچار مشکل بودهاید، اقدام کنید.
و) برای شرکت در آزمون و در حین برگزاری آزمون، از تغذیه مناسبی بهرهمند شوید (حداقل در آن روز صبحانه مناسبی میل کنید).
ه) از مسئولان برگزارکننده آزمون بخواهید تشویقهای مناسبی را برای نفرات برتر هر آزمون در نظر بگیرند.
ی) از شرکت در آزمونهائی که طراحان سئوالات آن، به تٲلیف تستهای سخت و دشواری میپردازند، پرهیز کنید
Comprehension Questions Part 1
1-“Why did you walk to work this morning ?” “Because…………..”
1) I didn’t have enough time 2) I was very tired
3) it was a beautiful morning 4) I was in a hurry
2- You probably care more about what you eat than what you see. It means that …...
eating and seeing should probably go with care.
1) you are as careful about eating as about seeing
2) you think about eating carefully
3) eating seems more important to you
3- Speaking seems to be an ability that can be used only by human beings. In other words, speaking ….
1) can’t be learnt by other animals 2) can’t be learnt by human beings
3) can be learn by other animals 4) can be learnt by special people
4- Javad! The train leaves in two hours. Why don’t you sit down and relax? The above sentences show that Javad…
1) has a lot of time 2) has a little time
3) must leave immediately 4) doesn’t have enough time
5- The old man standing over there pretends to be very poor, but he’s quite rich , for this reason….
1) people should give him some money 2) he should give people some money
3) he is not an honest person at all 4) he mustn’t be ashamed of himself
6- You don’t have to worry about anything. You are under the protection of the police force. According to this sentence…….. .
1) since the police take care of you, you needn’t be worried.
2) since you don’t have to worry about anything, the police look after you.
3) the police will protect you against your worry.
4) the police won’t protect you
برای هر یک از مکانهای خالی در متن زیر از شمارههای 7 تا 10 گزینه صحیح را انتخاب کنید؟
There is only one shop in the village but it seems to sell everything. There is …7… a post office in one corner. The problem is that the man who runs the shop is a very…8… person. His clothes are dirty, he smells and …9…, he is often quite rude to his …10…. That is why people don’t like him very much.
7- 1) even 2) fairly 3) mainly 4) rather
8- 1) damaging 2) education 3)invalid 4) undesirable
9- 1) worst of all 2) in return 3) by means of it 4) as a result
10- 1) advertisers 2) customers 3) craftsmen 4) individuals
برای هر یک از مکانهای خالی در متن زیر از شماره 11 تا 14 گزینه صحیح را انتخاب کنید؟
Animals with six legs are called insects. There are …11… insects than any other kind of animals. Insects eat …12…. Some eat the leaves, others eat roots. Farmers …13… insects. There are other animals that eat insects. They …14...farmers. Birds destroy insects every where.
11- 1) more 2) many 3) much 4)most
12- 1) plans 2) planes 3) planets 4) plants
13- 1) need 2) hate 3) like 4) grow
14- 1) hurt 2) hold 3) help 4) harm
برای هر یک از مکانهای خالی در متن از شماره 15 تا 20 گزینه صحیح را انتخاب کنید؟
The dinosaurs were the biggest animals that lived on the ..15..they were kings of the ..16..for a long time. We know that some dinosaurs ate only ..17..just as sheep and elephants eat grass now. Some dinosaurs ate other animals, as ..18.. eat other animals now. They were so heavy. They ..19.. much of their food in the water. Later all at once they began to ..20.. and no animals like them have ever been seen again.
15- 1) yard 2) Earth 3) ground 4) floor
16- 1) city 2) town 3) country 4) world
17- 1) plans 2) plants 3) plain 4) planets
18- 1) cows 2) horses 3) lions 4) camels
19- 1) found 2) saved 3) cooked 4) stored
20- 1) find out 2) pick up 3) die out 4)give up
متن زیر را با دقت بخوانید و گزینه صحیح سوالهای 21 تا 23 را انتخاب کنید؟
The fact that a good teacher has the capacity of a good actor does not mean that he will actually be able to act well on the stage for there are very important difference between the teacher’s work and the actors. The actor has to repeat exactly the same words each time he plays a certain part. What he has to do is to make all the carefully learned words and actions seem natural on the stage. A good teacher works differently. His listeners take an active part in his play. They ask and answer questions, they obey orders, and if they don’t understand anything they say so. The teacher , therefore, has to make his act suitable to the needs of his students. He can not learn his part by heart like that of an actor. He must invent it as he goes a long.
21- When an actor is on the stage, he should……… .
1) be able to act like teachers 2) consider the needs of his listeners
3) invent something as he goes along 3) perform what is in the part
22- The teacher’s listeners ..…. .
1) always understand him well 2) are active in his play
3) help the teacher to play his role 4) make no response in the class
23- From the passage we understand that teachers and actors…
1) act differently 2) are slopped
3) have the same listeners 4) look natural on the stage
24- Before the invention of telephone people could not speak to each other if they were..
1) together 2) far apart 3) too near 4) alone
25- The student will play unless it rains. It means that ………. .
1) if it rains, they will play tennis 2) if it doesn’t rain, they will play tennis
3) they won’t play tennis until it rains 4) they won’t play tennis if it doesn’t rain
Vocabulary Part 13
Your ………is greatly needed to perform the operation.
1) assistance 2) achievement 3) argument 4)appearance
2- It is not very……..for a person to say “I don’t know”.
1) disappointed 2) destructive 3) descriptive 4) disgraceful
3- Drivers should be very…….. when they are driving fast.
1) curious 2) obvious 3) precious 4) careful
4- The ………of the lake was so great that we couldn’t see the bottom.
1) width 2) depth 3) length 4) height
5- People who clean our street should not be……….of what they do.
1) afraid 2) ashamed 3) amused 4) confused
6-Students ……a holiday after finishing the final examinations.
1) reflect 2) review 3) repair 4) require
7- The host ……….the guest with a smile.
1) achieved 2) discovered 3) greeted 4) related
8- The child was ……..of being left alone in the house.
1) ignored 2) located 3) mentioned 4) terrified
9- Did you study all evening ?
No, I …………two hours playing.
1) failed 2) missed 3) wasted 4) spent
10- The accident ……at two o’clock after midnight .
1) came across 2) came about 3) ran into 4) ran out
11- Did Parvin leave for Tehran yesterday?
The plane had left before she got to the airport, she ……it
1) didn’t receive 2) failed 3) lost 4) missed
12- How can you recognize good students?
They always make ….at use the knowledge they get in school.
1) an effort 2) a resistance 3) arrangement 4) concentration
13- She usually dresses like her sister. One can’t …….them from distance.
1) distract 2) extract 3) distinguish 4) concentration
14- The beautiful pictures in our homes make us feel happy and …….about our family.
1) bored 2) cheerful 3) lazy 4) nervous
15- Hamid generally comes to school by bus. The synonym of generally is ……. .
1) barely 2) rarely 3) nearly 4) usually
16- Have you got any matches?
I’ve left my….….at home.
1) lightness 2) light 3) lighter 4) lightening
17- Apart from teaching English, the school organizes a number of outside ……for students.
1) acts 2) actors 3) actions 4) activities
18- Mr. Safavi told the students to conduct some ……..with metals and salt water.
1) experiment 2) experiences 3) discoveries 4) materials
19- Living creatures are generally affected by the……in which they live.
1) development 2) employment 3) environment 4) management
20- The students who go abroad should be able to ……effectively in foreign languages.
1) relate 2) communicate 3) concentrate 4) repeat
21- A strange voice in the forest……….the sleepy child.
1) hated 2) insisted 3) offered 4) terrified
22- In order to understand better, students should ……on what they read.
1) concentrate 2) comprehend 3) progress 4) present
23- University students …..need to read a lot of materials in the foreign language.
1) chiefly 2) excellently 3)pleasantly 4) mechanically
24- In a desert area, it is often useless to……for water.
1) honor 2) search 3) think 4) worry
25- Behrooz likes football very much, but his ……..sport is tennis.
1) addition 2) combination 3) effective 4) favorite
26- The price of meat is so high that most people can’t …..it.
1) afford 2) appear 3) attach 4)attend
27- I don’t want to go to the cinema tonight. I ……….to stay home.
1) consider 2) had better 3) prefer 4) would rather
28-Lights , radios telephones and many other things depend on…..
1) curiosity 2) electricity 3) necessity 4) ability
29- Please leave the baby alone and …….yourself in other ways.
1) amuse 2) excuse 3) refuse 4) confuse
30- Many desert plant produce long roots which search for water “Produce” means…
1)wake 2) save 3) give 4) make
31- I like something …….; something that makes me laugh.
1) exciting 2) amusing 3) boring 4) surprising
32- I try to attend my classes regularly. Attend means…..
1) be late to 2) be present at 3) escape from 4)take care of
33- It’s noteworthy that nearly two thirds of the total land area of the ………is devoted to agriculture.
1)ocean 2) river 3) space 4) world
34- Monkeys climb to the …..of the trees to pick coconuts.
1) bottom 2) center 3) root 4) top
35- He is interested in different subject. He doesn’t want to…..his studies to only one subject.
1) confine 2) connect 3) conquer 4) continue
36- Leonard da Vinci made a lot of things which did not exist before. He’s known as
1) a calculator 2) a lecturer 3) an officer 4) an inventor
37- There’s a thick layer of ice on the river. It’s …..to go swimming now.
1) impossible 2) impolite 3) inevitable 4) inexpensive
38- Majid can tell us everything about the matter because he has a lot of …..
1) celebration 2) information 3) organization 4) population
39- “Does Ali always come to class early?” “Yes, he …….comes late.”
1) never 2) often 3) sometimes 4) usually
40- A: Excuse me please. How can I get to Tehran University?
B: Sorry I am not sure.
1) Why aren’t you sure? 2) You couldn’t help?
3) But you should know 4) Thanks any way
41- could you tell me where the bus. Stop is?……..
1) Where are you going to ? 2) It is opposite the library
3) yes 4) here is the door
42- A: Can you come over on Saturday night?
B: ……I have to go to the airport.
1) I am glad, I can’t 2) I’m happy I can’t
3) I’m sorry I can’t 4) I am sorry I can
43- I’d like some strawberry ice cream please.
“…….., sir we haven’t got any strawberry left.
1) I’m afraid 2) Never mind 3) Thank you 4)Yes, please
44- He lost the birthday present he was given last week. “…….”
1) I do apologize 2) Not at all 3) that all right 4) what a pity
45-A: Where’s the post office located? B: ………. .
1) It’s close to Azadi cinema 2) No, it is not far from here
3) There’s only one post office here 4) Yes, the post office is closed
46- You’ve given me the wrong change!……
1) That’s your problem 2) Thanks a lot
3) I do apologize 4) That’s O.K
47- “Would you like to have lunch with us tomorrow?” “……………….. .”
1) I’m really sorry, I can’t 2) That’s a pity
3) Just a hamburger, please 4) You are welcome
48- “Where is your friend form?” “………………….. .”
1) He’s a doctor 2) He’s at home 3) He’s German 4) He’s just fine
49- “How did you go to school?” “………….”
1) At night 2) On foot 3) To study 4) Very late
50- “How can we move this big box?” “……..”
1) By pushing it 2) Let’s measure it 3) Never mind 4) What a pity
It is important to remember that these data refer to opportunity of learning from reading, not to learning itself. However, we can multiply these occurrence rates with an estimate of the repetition rate to get some idea of possible uptake rates. If we set the uptake threshold whereby a word become “learnt” at 10 recurrences, 85,329 words need to be read to “learn” all the 1000 most frequent words in English (3).To “learn” all the 500 most frequent words in English at an uptake threshold of 20 times, 80,732 words need to be read (4) and 2.6 million words need to be met to meet the most frequent 5000 words at 20 recurrences (5).
Many researchers argue that learners can build a huge vocabulary simply from reading. However, even at the 10 meeting recurrence rate for learning to occur, Table 1 clearly shows that a huge amount of text needs to be met to facilitate the learning of vocabulary incidentally from reading. It also shows that as one’s vocabulary level increases, there is a huge increase in the amount of text that one needs to be read in order to meet unknown words because each new or partially-learnt word is met more and more infrequently.
Considerable evidence (e.g. Nation 2001, Waring – Takaki 2003) suggests that our brains do not learn things all in one go, and we are destined to forget many things we learn and especially recent knowledge is quite fragile. We also tend to pick up complex things like language in small incremental pieces rather than in whole chunks. We know for example, that it takes between 10-30 or even 50 or more meetings of a word receptively for the form (spelling or sound) of an average word to be connected to its meaning (Waring, forthcoming).
The data in Table 1 comes from an analysis of the British National Corpus and reflect natural occurrence in English. One might protest by saying that language learners do not meet the type of L1 language found in the BNC, but rather they meet specially graded texts (like those found in course books and graded readers) and so this is an unfair analysis. It is true to say learners can’t deal with the density of native text, especially at the early levels of reading but there are many other factors at work here that grossly under-estimate the amount of language table 1 presents that one needs to meet in order to build a functioning L2 vocabulary.
The BNC data in Table 1 are for word families based on type. In other words the data states that meeting any of the family members 20 times (use, then uselessness, then user) means the whole family will be learnt after those 20 meetings. This is obviously a gross simplification as many derivations are easy to learn (wind/windy or teach/teacher), whereas other are complex and late acquired (govern/ungovernable or excuse/inexcusable). Moreover, the analysis does not account for polywords, not the thousands of lexical chunks and set phrases such as I’d rather not; If it were up to me, I’d…; We got a quick bite to eat; What’s the matter?; The best thing to do is … and so on. Nor does it take into account polysemy (multiple meaning senses of words), phrasal verbs, idioms and metaphor because the analysis was done by type. All these need to be learnt in addition to the single words.
Table 1 also does not take into account the volume of text needed to learn the collocations and colligations either. If we assume that the learning of a meaning and its form is a precondition for the learning of its collocations (we need to know calm and sea to know the collocation calm sea), we can conclude that these ‘deeper’ aspects of the learning of a word will take far longer than just learning the word as a single unit i.e. its form-meaning connection only. But how many collocations does each word have, on average? Here is a sample of some of the main collocations and colligations for the very common word idea (taken from Hill – Lewis 1997).
Verb collocations of Idea. e.g. abandon an idea
abandon, absorb, accept, adjust to, advocate, amplify, advance, back, be against, be committed/dedicated/drawn to, be obsessed with, be struck by, borrow, cherish, clarify, cling to, come out/up with, confirm, conjure up, consider, contemplate, convey, debate, debunk, defend, demonstrate, develop, deny, dismiss, dispel, disprove, distort, drop …………………….
These are just a small part of the verb collocations and colligations of one word – idea. And most of them were not given. This list only goes up to the letter d and there are about 100 more! And that doesn’t count the adjective uses (e.g. an abstract idea, an appealing idea, and arresting idea and so on) of which there are also several dozen. Not all words have this number of collocational partners and no one would suggest that learners need to know them all. Learners do however, need to know a good proportion of these to even approach native-like control and fluency over a given word and its collocations, thus the vocabulary task becomes even more arduous than that painted in Table 1.
The density of a text is a property of the learner, not the text itself. Thus a given text could be easy for one learner but impossibly hard for another. The above clearly suggest that language EFL learners who are trying to read fluently (extensively) who have not yet reached an advanced level (i.e. they know fewer than 5000 word families) should meet language which has been controlled and simplified so they are not overwhelmed by dense texts that prevent them from reading fluently. L1 texts (especially literary texts) typically are very dense lexically which would make them difficult to read and learn from and almost impossible to read fluently for all but the most highly advanced learners of English. Learners reading native texts that contain a high would make the reading slow and intensive and change the reading task into a linguistic (study) one rather than one for building fluency. This is not bad necessarily, but learners should be aware that unless they read a lot, they will not have the opportunity to meet the unknown words they need to strengthen their partially-known vocabularies. Therefore, EFL learners would need to use graded readers initially to help even out the density issues by systematizing the vocabulary load. Only when the learners can cope with more advanced texts, should they be exposed to them. Nevertheless, the volume of text needed to be met is immense and far beyond that of most normal courses. What this means is that far more than one book a week at the learner’s level will be required as was recommended by Nation and Wang (1999).
Table 1 also shows that the occurrence of general English words above about the 2-3000 headword level, becomes rather random, unstable and unpredictable for selection. The data clearly show that learners wishing to master more than 3000 words must resort to upgraded texts as most graded reader series top out at around this level. However, doing this further complicates the task because as frequency lowers, each new word appears less frequently which in turn requires more volume of text to be written to meet unknown or partially known words (one’s “partially-known vocabulary”). Unless the volume of reading is increased, it is likely that any partial knowledge of a given word will be lost from memory especially as each individual occurrence of words above this level appears so randomly and unpredictably in ungraded text. These data together suggest that it is unlikely much learning will occur from only reading above the 3000 word level unless several thousands of words are read per day.
To this point we have examined the vocabulary task at hand. If we now turn to the grammar, we can see a similarly massive task ahead of our learners. These examples of the present perfect tense, in its various guises, mask various forms and cannot be seen in the same way words can be, as the tense is abstract which makes it even harder to acquire.
A government committee has been created to …
He hasn’t seen her for a while.
Why haven’t you been doing your homework?
There’s been a big accident in Market Street.
Have you ever eaten snails?
The tense appears with differing subjects and objects, as both yes/no and wh- question forms, in the negative as well as declarative. It can be active or passive, continuous or simple, with have or has and that does not count the myriad regular and irregular past participle forms and the short answer forms. There are about 75 different possible variations of the form of the present perfect tense – and that does not count the different uses such as present perfect for experiences (I’ve been to Paris), present perfect for recent news (He’s got a new car); or present perfect for recently completed events (He’s just finished dinner)! Nor does it count how the present perfect is different from say the past simple or past perfect tenses.
To be able to master the form, function and pragmatic information underlying the forms, let alone the different uses and nuances of the present perfect tense as well as learning how it differs from other tenses, must surely take thousands and thousands of meetings. One of the major problems facing the learning of say a tense is that syntax is abstract. Learners cannot see the present perfect tense (or indeed any syntactic feature) as they always come with different verbs and subjects. The example sentences above are all the present perfect tense but are hiding in passive and active forms, and inside the verbs create, see, be, eat and so on. The abstract have (has) + past participle cannot be seen which makes the job that much harder and possibly requires meeting the tenses thousands of times before the learners become comfortable with it.
We have a fairly good idea about the uptake rates for words, but what about grammatical features? It is sad to say that after an exhaustive search for the uptake rates of grammatical features it appears that in the whole history of language research there is no data at all. None. This is amazing given that the vast majority of language courses taught today have a grammatical focus at least in part. How can we, as an industry, create courses and write learning materials without at least some idea of how frequently grammatical items need to be met for learning to occur? That said, it is clear that it typically takes several years after learners have been introduced to language features that they finally feel comfortable enough with them to start to use them at all, let alone correctly.
The above would seem to be a damning indictment on the benefit of incidental learning from fluent reading because it could be said that the time expended on the reading might be more fruitfully spent on intentional learning. Statistically, Table 1 would suggest that as the learner’s ability increases, more words in the learners “partially-working vocabulary” (the words in the learners partially known set of words) shifts to more and more rare and less frequent words. This is because the highly frequent words (their “working vocabulary”) have already been learnt. It could be concluded that this time is “wasted” because a natural outcome of increased vocabulary knowledge is that it takes so much more time to meet words in the “partially-working vocabulary” or in one’s “unknown vocabulary”. To meet even one unknown, or partially known word might require the learner to read several thousand other, already known, words first which suggests intentional learning might be faster and more effective. Indeed, recent research (Nozaki 2007) has shown that direct and intentional learning of vocabulary is faster than from incidental learning (i.e. from reading). Nozaki used two groups in two conditions, in a rotated design. Both groups were given the same amount of time to learn the same words either from word cards or from an easy reading text. Nozaki found that the words met with word cards were learnt not only 16 times faster (words per hour of study), but were also retained longer than words learnt incidentally from reading.
Additionally, a case study of a learner in a study by Mukoyama (2004) showed that 30 minutes a day of learning Korean-Japanese word pairs for 30 days lead to 640 words being attempted and partially learnt. At the end of 30 days, 468 words were learnt (all the words were tested by L1-L2 translation) and two months later 395 words were still known, and at 7 months 310 words were retained all without any further meetings. These two studies together clearly show the power of intentional learning over incidental learning.
One might easily conclude from the above that we should not ask learners to learn vocabulary incidentally from reading, but rather adopt a systematic and intensive approach to direct vocabulary learning such as with word cards. One might even go further to conclude that by doing so, learners would not need to “waste” time reading, because they can learn faster from intentional learning and free up valuable class / learning time. However, this would be a grave mistake and a fundamentally flawed conclusion because language learning is far more complex than the extremely simplistic picture given above.
As has been mentioned, the above mentioned studies and the data in Table 1, define a “word” as a single meaning based on orthographic forms that a computer can understand and thus polysemous meanings, collocations and so forth were omitted which vastly underestimates the actual task at hand. To really know a word well, learners need to know not only meanings and spellings, but the nuances of its meanings, its register, whether it is more commonly used for speaking or writing, which discourse categories it is usually found in, as well as its collocations and colligations, among many other things. The above studies see words as single stand-alone objects rather than words that co-exist and are co-learnt (and forgotten) with other words. They vastly underestimate what might be learnt because they only look at a partial, though very important, picture of word learning – the learning of single meanings.
40. Time for Your Bath
A: It’s time for your bath, young lady.
B: But, Mom, I’m not dirty.
A: You need a bath every day.
A: Because you don’t want to smell bad.
B: I don’t smell bad.
A: That’s what you think.
B: If I smelled bad, I could smell me.
A: I can smell you.
B: I can smell you, too.
A: That’s my perfume.
B: When can I wear perfume?
41. A Black Screen
A: Something’s wrong with my computer.
B: Exactly what?
A: All I get is a black screen.
B: What’s the matter?
A: I think I know, because this happened before.
B: What happened before?
A: My hard drive crashed.
B: Oh, no. That’s bad news.
A: It sure is, but I’m going to call HP first, just to make sure.
B: Will you lose all your files?
A: No, I always back up my files.
B: You’re smart.
stringent adj. Rigid. stripling n. A mere youth.
studious adj. Having or showing devotion to the acquisition of knowledge. stultify v. To give an appearance of foolishness to.
stupendous adj. Of prodigious size, bulk, or degree.
stupor n. Profound lethargy.
suasion n. The act of persuading.
suave adj. Smooth and pleasant in manner. subacid adj. Somewhat sharp or biting.
subaquatic adj. Being, formed, or operating under water.
subconscious adj. Being or occurring in the mind, but without attendant consciousness or conscious perception.
subjacent adj. Situated directly underneath.
subjection n. The act of bringing into a state of submission. subjugate v. To conquer.
subliminal adj. Being beneath the threshold of consciousness. sublingual adj. Situated beneath the tongue.
submarine adj. Existing, done, or operating beneath the surface of the sea. submerge v. To place or plunge under water.
submergence n. The act of submerging.
submersible adj. Capable of being put underwater.
submersion n. The act of submerging.
submission n. A yielding to the power or authority of another. submittal n. The act of submitting.
subordinate adj. Belonging to an inferior order in a classification. subsequent adj. Following in time.
subservience n. The quality, character, or condition of being servilely following another's behests.
subservient adj. Servilely following another's behests. subside v. To relapse into a state of repose and tranquility. subsist v. To be maintained or sustained.
subsistence n. Sustenance.
substantive adj. Solid.
subtend v. To extend opposite to. subterfuge n. Evasion.
subterranean adj. Situated or occurring below the surface of the earth. subtle adj. Discriminating.
subtrahend n. That which is to be subtracted. subversion n. An overthrow, as from the foundation. subvert v. To bring to ruin.
succeed v. To accomplish what is attempted or intended.
success n. A favorable or prosperous course or termination of anything attempted. successful adj. Having reached a high degree of worldly prosperity.
successor n. One who or that which takes the place of a predecessor or preceding thing. succinct adj. Concise.
succulent adj. Juicy.
succumb v. To cease to resist.
sufferance n. Toleration.
sufficiency n. An ample or adequate supply. suffrage n. The right or privilege of voting.
suffuse v. To cover or fill the surface of suggestible adj. That can be suggested. suggestive adj. Stimulating to thought or reflection. summary n. An abstract.
sumptuous adj. Rich and costly. superabundance n. An excessive amount.
superadd v. To add in addition to what has been added.
superannuate v. To become deteriorated or incapacitated by long service. superb adj. Sumptuously elegant.
supercilious adj. Exhibiting haughty and careless contempt.
superficial adj. Knowing and understanding only the ordinary and the obvious. superfluity n. That part of anything that is in excess of what is needed. superfluous adj. Being more than is needed.
superheat v. To heat to excess.
superintend v. To have the charge and direction of, especially of some work or movement. superintendence n. Direction and management.
superintendent n. One who has the charge and direction of, especially of some work or movement.
superlative n. That which is of the highest possible excellence or eminence. supernatural adj. Caused miraculously or by the immediate exercise of divine power. supernumerary adj. Superfluous.
supersede v. To displace.
supine adj. Lying on the back.
supplant v. To take the place of
supple adj. Easily bent.
supplementary adj. Being an addition to. supplicant n. One who asks humbly and earnestly. supplicate v. To beg.
supposition n. Conjecture.
suppress v. To prevent from being disclosed or punished. suppressible adj. Capable of being suppressed. suppression n. A forcible putting or keeping down. supramundane adj. Supernatural.
surcharge n. An additional amount charged.
surety n. Security for payment or performance.
surfeit v. To feed to fullness or to satiety.
surmise v. To conjecture.
surmount v. To overcome by force of will. surreptitious adj. Clandestine.
surrogate n. One who or that which is substituted for or appointed to act in place of another.
surround v. To encircle. surveyor n. A land-measurer.
susceptibility n. A specific capability of feeling or emotion. susceptible adj. Easily under a specified power or influence. suspense n. Uncertainty.
suspension n. A hanging from a support. suspicious adj. Inclined to doubt or mistrust. sustenance n. Food.
swarthy adj. Having a dark hue, especially a dark or sunburned complexion. Sybarite n. A luxurious person.
sycophant n. A servile flatterer, especially of those in authority or influence. syllabic adj. Consisting of that which is uttered in a single vocal impulse. syllabication n. Division of words into that which is uttered in a single vocal impulse. syllable n. That which is uttered in a single vocal impulse.
syllabus n. Outline of a subject, course, lecture, or treatise.
sylph n. A slender, graceful young woman or girl.
symmetrical adj. Well-balanced.
symmetry n. Relative proportion and harmony.
sympathetic adj. Having a fellow-feeling for or like feelings with another or others. sympathize v. To share the sentiments or mental states of another.
symphonic adj. Characterized by a harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds. symphonious adj. Marked by a harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds. symphony n. A harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds.
synchronism n. Simultaneousness.
syndicate n. An association of individuals united for the prosecution of some enterprise. syneresis n. The coalescence of two vowels or syllables, as e'er for ever.
synod n. An ecclesiastical council.
synonym n. A word having the same or almost the same meaning as some other. synopsis n. A syllabus or summary.
systematic adj. Methodical.
tableau n. An arrangement of inanimate figures representing a scene from real life. tacit adj. Understood.
taciturn adj. Disinclined to conversation. tack n. A small sharp-pointed nail.
tact n. Fine or ready mental discernment shown in saying or doing the proper thing. tactician n. One who directs affairs with skill and shrewdness.
tactics n. Any maneuvering or adroit management for effecting an object. tangency n. The state of touching.
tangent adj. Touching.
tangible adj. Perceptible by touch.
tannery n. A place where leather is tanned. tantalize v. To tease.
tantamount adj. Having equal or equivalent value, effect, or import.
tapestry n. A fabric to which a pattern is applied with a needle, designed for ornamental hangings.
tarnish v. To lessen or destroy the luster of in any way. taut adj. Stretched tight.
taxation n. A levy, by government, of a fixed contribution.
taxidermy n. The art or process of preserving dead animals or parts of them. technic adj. Technical.
technicality n. Something peculiar to a particular art, trade, or the like. technique n. Manner of performance.
technography n. The scientific description or study of human arts and industries in their historic development.
technology n. The knowledge relating to industries and manufactures. teem v. To be full to overflowing.
telepathy n. Thought-transference.