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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

50 سوال از معنی برای کنکور
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۳:۱۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸

Vocabulary Part 12 

   1-We couldn’t take a trip because the police had …….the road was closed.

1) reported                    2) replied       3) removed      4) recorded

2- Some paintings and drawings look better at a ….you don’t get anything clear from near.

1)bottom       2) distance                    3) front        4) passage

  3- There has been a ……change in cars produced in the factories in recent years.

1) short                     2)deep              3) loud                          4) physical

  4- Everyone should learn how to ……himself from cold and heat.

1) discover                    2) guide        3) protect                 4)prevent

  5- The government has been able to create good …..with the other countries.

1) behavior                    2) choices      3) guidance                4) relations

6- A teacher should know how to handle a class well, “ handle” means……..

1) behave                      2) educate               3) manage                     4) receive

7- Building a tall building like that needs a lot of ……..

1)calculations       2) conversations      3) competitions              4) compositions

8- Some people can easily ……themselves to the new conditions and are successful.

1) adapt                                    2) correct             3) fight          4) involve

  9- We had to use ………to open the locked suitcase.

1) ability            2) capacity             3) force                                    4) service

10- Copper which is a conductive metal is used in all kinds of……..

1) canals           2) ropes                 3) strings                                   4) wires

11- The government should consider heavy fine for the factories which …..rivers with chemical waste.

1) perform                    2) produce            3) pollute                   4) provide

12- The football match between our national team and the other team was so exciting that all the …… were sold.

1) available                   2) comfortable     3) respectable               4) suitable

13- The president made a very interesting …….in his meeting with the teachers.

1) message                   2) research              3) speech           4) solution

14- I found some money on the way to the park yesterday. “found’ is the opposite of …

1) held                          2) lost      3) sold                          4) worn

15- This room is never clean. You can always find a fine …….of dust on the furniture.

1) core                          2) edge             3) layer                 4) row

16- When I returned home after 20 years everything had ……changed.

1) completely                2) particularly                3) recently            4) similarly

17- What did you … the manager? I told him that we should solve the problem another way.

1) attend            2) complain                 3) employ                    4) suggest

18- Mr. Akbari works in a factory and earns a lot of money. “Earn” means…….

1) find                           2) get                3) give                          4) want

19- Dentists usually use different …in their jobs.

1) appointments             2) departments              3) employments                         4) instruments

  20- A large mosque will be …..near our school next month.

1) constructed               2) complicated               3) corrected                              4) calculated

21- The students asked the teacher to …….their mistake after the exam.

1) give back                  2) point out               3) talk to                    4) wait on

  22-The study of different ……may be helpful to everybody especially history students.

1) arithmetic                  2) civilizations                3) compositions                         4) economics

23- We believe that international problems must be solved by ……not war.

1) drawing                    2) distance                                3) development              4) diplomacy

24-Collecting stamps is an interesting …if one can afford to buy them.

1)duty          2) habit                                     3) hobby             4) role

  25- The computer is an electronic machine which can……..complicated problems very easily.

1) forget                                   2) limit           3) repair                     4) solve

  26-To communicate in English we have to learn the …….behavior of  the people who speak it.

1) brief              2) mental                      3) quite                  4) social

27- While traveling to Shiraz my father drove at the ….of 100 KM an hour.

1) speed              2) space            3) race                          4) order

28- Some parents forbid their children to go to the movie. “forbid” is the opposite of……. .

1) allow            2) provide           3) respect                                 4) restrict

29- A person who has a photographic……usually remembers what she has learned easily.

1) service                      2)character           3) habit           4) memory

30- The use of television is so common today that we can……..imagine the world without it.

1) hurriedly                   2) hardly               3) really            4) rapidly

  31- Scientists have ……..that the world population will double by the end of the 20 century .

1) calculated                 2) disappointed         3) offended                4) succeeded

32-James grandmother said,“ The fire turns the water into steam.” “Turn into” means…… .

1) die out                                  2) change into               3) go up                                    4) make hot

33- “Do you know Carl’s …..?”  “Yes, he is Australian.”

1) behavior                    2)character                               3) nationality                 4) responsibility

34- He had to walk to school because he couldn’t ….a taxi.

1) attend                                   2) afford                                   3) repair                                    4) paint


35- Children usually ……their parents for food and clothes.

1) depend on                 2) insist on                                3)keep on                                  4) turn on

36-“Can you tell me the …..why you are always late for the class?” The teacher asked.

1) meaning                    2) advice                                   3) reason                                  4) system

37- The athletic …….between countries are always fascinating and exciting.

1) conversations            2) concentrations                       3)compositions              4) competitions

     38- The ground was full of ……after the hot, dry summer.

1) ropes                                    2) cracks                                  3) pockets                                 4) solids

39- My friend could not …..the fact that he was disappointed.

1) decide                                  2) hide                          3) limit                          4) restrict

   40- Some people aren’t .. of  themselves for telling lies.

1) ashamed                   2) construction              3) celebration                4) application

41- Our family had arranged a very big………when my brother got married.

1) migration                   2) construction             3) celebration                4) application

42- My brother passed in physics but failed in mathematics the opposite of “fail” is..…

1) search                                  2) struggle                                 3) stick                                     4) succeed

  43-Some people believe in the ……..of life on other planets.

1) distance                    2) importance                3)guidance                                4) existence

  44- It has been raining ………..for more than eight hours.

1) closely                      2) equally                                  3) heavily                                  4) merely

45- Can you ……….your way of working to the new job?

1) avoid                                    2) afford                                   3) allow                                    4) adapt

  46- Your brother knows all the students by name. In fact, he has a good……. .

1) brain                                     2) heart                                     3) memory                                4) opinion

47- In some countries children are prevented from going to school. “prevent” means…….

1) stop                          2) confine                                 3) contact                                 4) avoid

  48- What is your …….for having such  bad behavior towards Ali?

1) reason                                  2) request                                 3) secret                       4) service

  49- The doctor …….on the patient to remove the damaged part of his leg.

1) calculated                 2) operated                               3) performed                 4) survived

  50- A solution to the problem of unemployment in villages is to encourage the ………of small businesses there.

1) appointment              2) development              3) experiment                4) instrument

اصطلاحات انگلیسی (9 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۳:٠۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸

I hereby give notice of my intention

Hereby is used sometimes in formal, official declarations and statements to give greater force to the speaker' or the writer's affirmation. People will say it sometimes to emphasise their sincerity and correctness.

I may be daft, but I'm not stupid

I might do or say silly things occasionally, but in this instance I know what I am doing (Usually used when someone questions your application of common-sense).

I should cocoa

(UK) This idiom comes from 'I should think so', but is normally used sarcastically to mean the opposite.

I'll be a monkey's uncle

I'll be a monkey's uncle is used as an expression of surprise.

I'll cross that road when I come to it

I'll think about something just when it happens, not in advance.

I'll eat my hat

You can say this when you are absolutely sure that you are right to let the other person know that there is no chance of your being wrong.

I've got a bone to pick with you

If somebody says this, they mean that they have some complaint to make against the person they are addressing.

I've got your number

You have made a mistake and I am going to call you on it. You are in trouble (a threat). I have a disagreement with you. I understand your true nature.

Icing on the cake

This expression is used to refer to something good that happens on top of an already good thing or situation.

Idle hands are the devil's handiwork

When someone is not busy, or being productive, trouble is bound to follow.

If at first you don't succeed try try again

When you fail, try until you get it right!

If I had a nickel for every time

(USA) When someone uses this expression, they mean that the specific thing happens a lot. It is an abbreviation of the statement 'If I had a nickel for every time that happened, I would be rich'

If it ain't broke, don't fix it

Any attempt to improve on a system that already works is pointless and may even hurt it.

If Mohammed won't come to the mountain, the mountain must come to Mohammed

If something cannot or will not happen the easy way, then sometimes it must be done the hard way.

If the cap fits, wear it

This idiom means that if the description is correct, then it is describing the truth, often when someone is being criticised. ('If the shoe fits, wear it' is an alternative)

If the shoe fits, wear it

This is used to suggest that something that has been said might apply to a person.

If wishes were horses, beggars would ride

This means that wishing for something or wanting it is not the same as getting or having it.

If worst comes to worst

This isused to show the worst that could happen in a situation: If worst comes to worst and the hotels are full, we can sleep in the car.('If the worst comes to the worst'  is also  used.)

If you are given lemons make lemonade

Always try and make the best out of a bad situation. With some ingenuity you can make a bad situation useful.

If you can't run with the big dogs, you'd better stay on the porch

If you can't keep up with what others are doing, then it is best not to attempt it.  

If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen

Originally a Harry S. Truman quote, this means that if you can't take the pressure, then you should remove yourself from the situation.

If you fly with the crows, you get shot with the crows

If you wish to be associated with a particular high risk and/or high profile situation and benefit from the rewards of that association, you have to accept the consequences if things go wrong - you cannot dissociate yourself.

If you lie down with dogs, you will get up with fleas

This means that if you become involved with bad company, there will be negative consequences.

If you lie down with the Devil, you will wake up in hell

This means that if you become involved with bad company, there will be negative consequences.

If you will

'If you will' is used as a way of making a concession in a sentence: He wasn't a very honest person, a liar if you will. Here, it is used a way of accepting that the reader or listener might think of the person as a liar, but without commit the writer or speaker to that position fully.

If you'll pardon my French

(UK) This idiom is used as a way of apologising for swearing.

Ill at ease

If someone is ill at ease, they are worried or uncomfortable.

Ill-gotten gains

Ill-gotten gains are profits or benefits that are made either illegally or unfairly.

In a cleft stick

If you are in a cleft stick, you are in a difficult situation, caught between choices.

In a coon's age

A long time. Example: I haven't seen her in a coon's age.

In a dog's age

I you haven't done something in a dog's age, you haven't done it for a very long time.

In a fix

If you are in a fix, you are in trouble.

In a flash

If something happens in a flash, it happens very quickly indeed.

In a fog

If you're in a fog, you are confused, dazed or unaware.

In a heartbeat

If something happens very quickly or immediately, it happens in a heartbeat.

In a jam

If you are in a jam, you are in some trouble.  If you get out of a jam, you avoid trouble.

In a jiffy

If something happens in a jiffy, it happens very quickly.

In a nutshell

This idiom is used to introduce a concise summary.

In a pickle

If you are in a pickle, you are in some trouble or a mess.


لیست لغات گرامری زبان انگلیسی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۳:٠٠ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸




(adj.) cautious; being sparing in giving

Be chary when driving at night.

The chary man had few friends.


(adj.) virtuous; free of obscenity

Because the woman believed in being chaste, she would not let her date

into the house.


(v.) to punish; discipline; admonish

The dean chastised the first-year student for cheating on the exam.


(v.) to feel love for

The bride vowed to cherish the groom for life.


(n.) trickery or deception

The swindler was trained in chicanery.

A news broadcast is no place for chicanery.


(n.) an impossible fancy

Perhaps he saw a flying saucer, but perhaps it was only a chimera.


(adj.) cranky; cantankerous; easily moved to feeling displeasure

The choleric man was continually upset by his neighbors.

Rolly becomes choleric when his views are challenged.


(v.) to make a gleeful, chuckling sound

The chortles emanating from the audience indicated it wouldn't be as

tough a crowd as the stand-up comic had expected.


(n.) crude or surly behavior; behavior of a peasant

The fraternity's churlishness ran afoul of the dean's office.

The churlishness of the teenager caused his employer to lose faith in



(n.) a roundabout or indirect way of speaking; not to the point

The man's speech contained so much circumlocution that I was unsure of

the point he was trying to make.

The child made a long speech using circumlocution to avoid stating that it

was she who had knocked over the lamp.


(adj.) being too long, as in a description or expression; a roundabout,

indirect, or ungainly way of expressing something


It was a circumlocutory documentary that could have been cut to half its

running time to say twice as much.


(adj.) considering all circumstances

A circumspect decision must be made when so many people are involved.


(n.) a fortress set up high to defend a city

A citadel sat on the hill to protect the city below.


(adj.) secret

The clandestine plan must be kept between the two of us!


(n.) mercy toward an offender; mildness

The governor granted the prisoner clemency.

The weather's clemency made for a perfect picnic.


(n.) a parliamentary procedure to end debate and begin to vote

Cloture was declared as the parliamentarians readied to register their



(adj.) too sugary; too sentimental or flattering

After years of marriage the husband still gave cloying gifts to his wife.

Complimenting her on her weight loss, clothing and hairstyle was a

cloying way to begin asking for a raise.


(v.) to become a semisolid, soft mass; to clot

The liquid will coagulate and close the tube if left standing.


(v.) to grow together

The bride and groom coalesced their funds to increase their collateral.

At the end of the conference the five groups coalesced in one room.


(n.) in music, a concluding passage

By the end of the coda, I was ready to burst with excitement over the

thrilling performance.

The audience knew that the concerto was about to end when they heard

the orchestra begin playing the coda.


(v.) to treat with tenderness

A baby needs to be coddled.


(v.) to organize laws or rules into a systematic collection

The laws were codified by those whom they affected.

The intern codified all the city's laws into a computerized filing system.


(n.) a chest where money or valuables are kept

The coffer that contained the jewels was stolen.


(adj.) to the point; clear; convincing in its clarity and presentation

The lawyer makes compelling and cogent presentations, which evidently

help him win 96 percent of his cases.

He made a short, cogent speech which his audience easily understood.


(v.) to think hard; ponder; meditate

It is necessary to cogitate on decisions which affect life goals.

The room was quiet while every student cogitated during the calculus



(adj.; n.) having the same family; a person related through ancestry

English and German are cognate languages.

The woman was a cognate to the royal family.


(adj.) possessing the power to think or meditate; meditative; capable of


Cognitive thought makes humans adaptable to a quickly changing


Once the toddler was able to solve puzzles, it was obvious that her

cognitive abilities were developing.


(adj.) aware of; perceptive

She became alarmed when she was cognizant of the man following her.

It was critical to establish whether the defendant was cognizant of his



(adj.) sticking together; connected; logical; consistent

The course was a success due to its coherent information.

If he couldn't make a coherent speech, how could he run for office?


(n.) the act of holding together

The cohesion of the group increased as friendships were formed.

The cohesion of different molecules forms different substances.


(n.) a group; band

The cohort of teens gathered at the athletic field.


(v.) to work together; cooperate

The two builders collaborated to get the house finished.


(adj.) having to do with conversation; informal speech

The colloquial reference indicated the free spirit of the group.

When you listen to the difference between spoken colloquial

conversation and written work, you realize how good an ear a novelist

must have to write authentic dialogue.


(n.) secret agreement for an illegal purpose

The authority discovered a collusion between the director and treasurer.


(n.) beauty; attractiveness in appearance or behavior

The comeliness of the woman attracted everyone's attention.


(v.) to show sympathy for

The hurricane victims commiserated about the loss of their homes.


(adj.) spacious and convenient; roomy

The new home was so commodious that many new pieces of furniture

needed to be purchased.


(adj.) shared or common ownership

The communal nature of the project made everyone pitch in to help.


(adj.) in agreement with; harmonious

When repairing an automobile, it is necessary to use parts compatible

with that make and model.


(adj.) content; self-satisfied; smug

The CEO worries regularly that his firm's winning ways will make it


The candidate was so complacent with his poll numbers that he virtually

stopped campaigning.


(n.) the quality of being agreeable or eager to please

The complaisance of the new assistant made it easy for the managers to

give him a lot of work without worrying that he may complain.


(adj.) complying; obeying; yielding

Compliant actions should be reinforced.

The slave was compliant with every order to avoid being whipped.


Practical Advice on Running Extensive Reading Programs
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٥٧ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸


1. Maximize Learner Involvement

A number of logistical hurdles have to be overcome in order to make an extensive reading program effective. Books need to be transported, displayed and collected at the end of each reading session. Considerable paperwork is required to document the card file system, reading records, inventories, book reports and in maintaining and updating lists of titles. Students should therefore be encouraged to take an active role in the management and administration of the reading program. In the Yemen program, students gained a strong sense of ownership through running the reading resources in an efficient, coordinated and organized manner.

2. The Reader Interview

Regular conferencing between teacher and student played a key role in motivating students in the Yemen to read the books. This enabled effective monitoring of individual progress and provided opportunities for the teacher to encourage students to read widely, show interest in the books being read, and to guide students in their choice of titles. By demonstrating commitment in their own reading, teachers can foster positive attitudes to reading, in which it is no longer viewed as tedious, demanding, hard work, but as a pleasurable part of their learning.

3. Read Aloud to the Class

In the Yemen study, reader interviews conducted with students revealed the popularity of occasions when the teacher read aloud to the class. The model of pronunciation provided acted as a great motivator, encouraging many students to participate in classroom reading. Students gained confidence in silent reading because they were able to verbalize sounds they previously could could not recognize. This resulted in wider reading by some of the weaker readers in the class. Often thought of as bad practice, reading aloud should play a full part in motivating the emerging reader to overcome the fear of decoding words in an unfamiliar script.

4. Student Presentations

Short presentations on books read played an absolutely crucial role in the program and students frequently commented on the value of oral work in class for exchanging information about the books. The reader interviews revealed that most of the book choices made by students resulted from recommendations made by friends and not by the teacher. This demonstrates that given the right preparation, encouragement, sense of ownership and belonging, an extensive reading program will achieve a direction and momentum governed by the learners themselves; a large step in the promotion of student independence and autonomy.

5. Written Work Based on the Reading

Effective reading will lead to the shaping of the reader's thoughts, which naturally leads many learners to respond in writing with varying degrees of fluency. Elementary level students can be asked simply to write short phrases expressing what they most enjoyed about a book they read, or to record questions they wish to ask the teacher or other students in class. With intermediate students, book reports may be used, with sections for questions, new vocabulary, and for recording the main characters and events. At this level, summary writing is also a valuable practice because it allows learners to assert full control, both of the main factual or fictional content of a book, and of the grammar and vocabulary used to express it. Advanced students can be asked to write compositions, which, by definition, are linguistically more demanding written responses to the reading material.

6. Use Audio Material in the Reading Program

The use of audio recordings of books read aloud and of graded readers on cassette proved very popular with the students in Yemen, and is advocated for wide application. Listening material provided the learners with a model of correct pronunciation which aided word recognition, and exposed students to different accents, speech rhythms and cadences. Student confidence in their ability to produce natural speech patterns and to read along with the voice of a recorded speaker is central to maintaining their motivation to master the language as a medium for talking about their reading.

7. Avoid the Use of Tests

Extensive reading programs should be "without the pressures of testing or marks" (Davis 1995:329). The use of tests runs contrary to the objective of creating stress-free conditions for pleasure reading because it invokes images of rote learning, vocabulary lists, memorization and homework. Extensive reading done at home should be under the learner's control and not an obligation imposed by the teacher. By their very nature, tests impose a rigor on the learning process, which the average student will never equate with pleasure.

8. Discourage the Over-Use of Dictionaries

While dictionaries certainly have a place in the teaching of reading, it is probably best located in intensive reading lessons, where detailed study of the lexical content of texts is appropriate. If learners turn to the dictionary every time they come across an unfamiliar word, they will focus only on the language itself, and not on the message conveyed. This habit will result in slow, inefficient reading and destroy the pleasure that reading novels and other literature are intended to provide. Summarizing comments on the extensive reading done by his subjects, Pickard (1996:155) notes that "Use of the dictionary was sparing, with the main focus on meaning".

9. Monitor the Students' Reading

In order to run an extensive reading program successfully, effective monitoring is required, both to administer the resources efficiently, and to trace students' developing reading habits and interests. In the Yemen program, a card file system was used to record titles and the dates the books were borrowed and returned. Input from the monitoring process helps us to record students' progress, maintain and update an inventory of titles, and locate and select new titles for the class library. It therefore serves both the individual needs of the reader and the logistical task of managing the reading resources.

10. Maintain the Entertainment

This is perhaps the most important aspect of the program to emphasize. Teachers need to invest time and energy in entertaining the participants by making use of multimedia sources to promote the books (e.g. video, audio, CD ROM, film, etc.). They should also exploit the power of anecdote by telling the students about interesting titles, taking them out to see plays based on books, exploiting posters, leaflets, library resources, and even inviting visiting speakers to give a talk in class on a book they have read recently. In these ways, teachers can maintain student motivation to read and secure their full engagement in the enjoyment the program provides.


Tsang's (1996) study, carried out in Hong Kong secondary schools, provided further persuasive evidence of the effectiveness of extensive reading in fostering learners' language development. He found that "the reading program was significantly more effective than the writing program" (1996:225) . Extensive reading programs can provide very effective platforms for promoting reading improvement and development from elementary levels upwards. Although they do require a significant investment in time, energy and resources on the part of those charged with managing the materials, the benefits in terms of language and skills development for the participating learners far outweigh the modest sacrifices required. If such programs receive institutional support and can be integrated into the curriculum so that they become agreed school policy, as suggested in Davis (1995), they will likely be more readily and widely adopted, particularly in countries where material and financial resources are adequate.


1. USSR is uninterrupted sustained silent reading.

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نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٥٥ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸


36. Washed and Folded


A: Did you do the laundry?
B: Yes, I did.
A: What did you wash?
B: I washed the sheets and towels.
A: What about the pillowcases?
B: Yes, I took them off the pillows and washed them.
A: Did you dry everything in the dryer?
B: Yes, I dried everything in the dryer.
A: Then what did you do?
B: I folded all the towels.
A: Did you put the sheets on the beds?
B: Yes, and I put the pillowcases on the pillows.


37. Talk Radio

A: Do you listen to the radio?
B: I listen day and night.
A: What do you listen to?
B: Mostly talk radio.
A: What’s that?
B: People talk about current events.
A: What do they say?
B: They say they want change.
A: What kind of change?
B: They want tax cuts.
A: Why do they want tax cuts?
B: Because tax cuts will save them money.

لغت مهم برای تافل5000
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٥٢ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸

regimen n. A systematized order or course of living with reference to food, clothing and personal habits.
regiment n. A body of soldiers.
regnant adj. Exercising royal authority in one's own right. regress v. To return to a former place or condition. regretful adj. Feeling, expressive of, or full of regret.
rehabilitate v. To restore to a former status, capacity, right rank, or privilege. reign v. To hold and exercise sovereign power.
reimburse v. To pay back as an equivalent of what has been expended. rein n. A step attached to the bit for controlling a horse or other draft-animal. reinstate v. To restore to a former state, station, or authority.
reiterate v. To say or do again and again.
rejoin v. To reunite after separation.
rejuvenate v. To restore to youth.
rejuvenescence n. A renewal of youth.
relapse v. To suffer a return of a disease after partial recovery.
relegate v. To send off or consign, as to an obscure position or remote destination. relent v. To yield.
relevant adj. Bearing upon the matter in hand. reliance n. Dependence.
reliant adj. Having confidence.
relinquish v. To give up using or having.
reliquary n. A casket, coffer, or repository in which relics are kept. relish v. To like the taste or savor of.
reluctance n. Unwillingness.
reluctant adj. Unwilling.
remembrance n. Recollection.
reminiscence n. The calling to mind of incidents within the range of personal knowledge or experience.
reminiscent adj. Pertaining to the recollection of matters of personal interest. remiss adj. Negligent.
remission n. Temporary diminution of a disease. remodel v. Reconstruct.
remonstrance n. Reproof.
remonstrant adj. Having the character of a reproof.
remonstrate v. To present a verbal or written protest to those who have power to right or prevent a wrong.
remunerate v. To payor pay for. remuneration n. Compensation.
Renaissance n. The revival of letters, and then of art, which marks the transition from medieval to modern time.
rendezvous n. A prearranged place of meeting. rendition n. Interpretation.
renovate v. To restore after deterioration, as a building. renunciation n. An explicit disclaimer of a right or privilege. reorganize v. To change to a more satisfactory form of organization. reparable adj. Capable of repair.
reparation n. The act of making amends, as for an injury, loss, or wrong. repartee n. A ready, witty, or apt reply.
repeal v. To render of no further effect.
repel v. To force or keep back in a manner, physically or mentally.
repellent adj. Having power to force back in a manner, physically or mentally. repentance n. Sorrow for something done or left undone, with desire to make things right by undoing the wrong.
repertory n. A place where things are stored or gathered together. repetition n. The act of repeating.
repine v. To indulge in fretfulness and faultfinding.
replenish v. To fill again, as something that has been emptied. replete adj. Full to the uttermost.
replica n. A duplicate executed by the artist himself, and regarded, equally with the first, as an original. repository n. A place in which goods are stored.
reprehend v. To find fault with.
reprehensible adj. Censurable.
reprehension n. Expression of blame.
repress v. To keep under restraint or control.
repressible adj. Able to be kept under restraint or control. reprieve v. To grant a respite from punishment to. reprimand v. To chide or rebuke for a fault.
reprisal n. Any infliction or act by way of retaliation on an enemy. reprobate n. One abandoned to depravity and sin.
reproduce v. To make a copy of.
reproduction n. The process by which an animal or plant gives rise to another of its kind. reproof n. An expression of disapproval or blame personally addressed to one censured. repudiate v. To refuse to have anything to do with.
repugnance n. Thorough dislike.
repugnant adj. Offensive to taste and feeling.
repulse n. The act of beating or driving back, as an attacking or advancing enemy. repulsive adj. Grossly offensive.
repute v. To hold in general opinion.
requiem n. A solemn mass sung for the repose of the souls of the dead. requisite adj. Necessary.
requital n. Adequate return for good or ill.
requite v. To repay either good or evil to, as to a person.
rescind v. To make void, as an act, by the enacting authority or a superior authority. reseat v. To place in position of office again.
resemblance n. Similarity in quality or form.
resent v. To be indignant at, as an injury or insult.
reservoir n. A receptacle where a quantity of some material, especially of a liquid or gas, may be kept. residue n. A remainder or surplus after a part has been separated or otherwise treated. resilience n. The power of springing back to a former position
resilient adj. Having the quality of springing back to a former position.
resistance n. The exertion of opposite effort or effect.
resistant adj. Offering or tending to produce resistance.
resistive adj. Having or exercising the power of resistance.
resistless adj. Powerless.
resonance n. The quality of being able to reinforce sound by sympathetic vibrations. resonance adj. Able to reinforce sound by sympathetic vibrations.
resonate v. To have or produce resonance.
resource n. That which is restored to, relied upon, or made available for aid or support. respite n. Interval of rest.
resplendent adj. Very bright.
respondent adj. Answering.
restitution n. Restoration of anything to the one to whom it properly belongs. resumption n. The act of taking back, or taking again.
resurgent adj. Surging back or again.
resurrection n. A return from death to life
resuscitate v. To restore from apparent death.
retaliate v. To repay evil with a similar evil.
retch v. To make an effort to vomit.
retention n. The keeping of a thing within one's power or possession.
reticence n. The quality of habitually keeping silent or being reserved in utterance. reticent adj. Habitually keeping silent or being reserved in utterance.
retinue n. The body of persons who attend a person of importance in travel or public appearance.
retort n. A retaliatory speech. retouch v. To modify the details of.
retrace v. To follow backward or toward the place of beginning, as a track or marking. retract v. To recall or take back (something that one has said).
retrench v. To cut down or reduce in extent or quantity.
retrieve v. To recover something by searching.
retroactive adj. Operative on, affecting, or having reference to past events, transactions, responsibilities.
retrograde v. To cause to deteriorate or to move backward. retrogression n. A going or moving backward or in a reverse direction. retrospect n. A view or contemplation of something past. retrospective adj. Looking back on the past.
reunite v. To unite or join again, as after separation.
revelation n. A disclosing, discovering, or making known of what was before secret, private, or unknown.
revere v. To regard with worshipful veneration. reverent adj. Humble.
reversion n. A return to or toward some former state or condition.
revert v. To return, or turn or look back, as toward a former position or the like. revile v. To heap approach or abuse upon.
revisal n. Revision.
revise v. To examine for the correction of errors, or for the purpose of making changes. revocation n. Repeal.
revoke v. To rescind.
rhapsody n. Rapt or rapturous utterance. rhetoric n. The art of discourse. rhetorician n. A showy writer or speaker.
ribald adj. Indulging in or manifesting coarse indecency or obscenity. riddance n. The act or ridding or delivering from something undesirable. ridicule n. Looks or acts expressing amused contempt.
ridiculous adj. Laughable and contemptible.
rife adj. Abundant.
righteousness n. Rectitude.
rightful adj. Conformed to a just claim according to established laws or usage.

یوزر پسورد نود32 پنج شنبه تاریخ 18/03/1391 مصادف با 2012/06/07
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٢٥ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸

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طریقه بکار بردن کلمات استفهامی Question Words
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٢۳ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸

بعضی کلمات شوال بصورت ضمیر و بعضی ها بصورت قید و صفت در جمله بکار می روند. این کلمات بعنوان کلمه ی سوال همیشه در اول جمله واقع می شوند.



طریقه بکار بردن کلمات استفهامی Question Words

بعضی کلمات شوال بصورت ضمیر و بعضی ها بصورت قید و صفت در جمله بکار می روند. این کلمات بعنوان کلمه ی سوال همیشه در اول جمله واقع می شوند.

۱- who:

همیشه ضمیر است و برای اشخاص بکار برده می شود که اگر کلمه (who) در حالت فاعلی قرار گیرد بعد از آن افعال کمکی قرار نمی گیرد ولی اگر در حالت مفعولی بیان شود در این صورت بعد از کلمه ی who افعال to be قرار گیرد و جمله به حالت سوال نوشته می شود.


۲- Whom
شکل مفعولی
who است که بعد از آن همیشه جمله بصورت سوال نوشته می شود.

به صورت های صفت، ضمیر، فاعل و مفعول در جمله بکار می رود. اگر به صورت فاعل بکار رود فعل کمکی بعد از آن نمی آید ولی اگر بصورت مفعولی باشد بعد از آن فعل معین می آید.


۳- what

هم ضمیر و هم صفت و هم بصورت فاعل و هم بصورت مفعول در جمله بکار می رود.

اگر به صورت فاعل بکار رود فعل کمکی بعد از آن نمی آید ولی اگر به صورت مفعولی باشد، بعد از آن فعل معین می آید.



What makes it sweet?فاعل

What did you do last night?مفعول

What book do you reed?صفت


۴- why
اغلب به صورت قید بیان می شود و بعد از آن همیشه جمله به صورت سوالی بیان می شود.

Why are you so sad? قید

۵- Whose
بصورت صفت و ضمیر برای اشخاص بکار برده می شود.
به صورت صفت و ضمیر وهمچنین فاعل و مفعول در جمله می آید. در حالت فاعلی فعل معین بعد از آن نمی آید ولی در حالت مفعولی فعل معین بعد از آن می آید.




Whose book is this?صفت

Whose is this coat? ضمیر



هم ضمیر و هم صفت و هم بصورت فاعل و هم بصورت مفعول در جمله بکار می رود.

در حالت فاعلی فعل معین بعد از آن نمی آید ولی در حالت مفعولی فعل معین بعد از آن می آید.



Which bus goes to Tehran?فاعل وصفت
Which is yours?فاعل -ضمیر
Which book did you take?صفت- مفعول

بعد از کلمات(
why- how- where- when- whom) باید جمله را سوالی کنیم.

کلمات (
how much- how long- how many- whose- which- what) اگرفاعل جمله باشند جمله بعد از آنها سوالی نمی شود و اگر مفعول جمله باشند باید جمله بعد از آنها سوالی می شود.


حالت اضافه(حالت ملکی) و انواع (s)
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٢٠ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱۸


حالت اضافه برای مالکیت بکار می رود و مالک یا نام مربوط به انسان است یا غیر انسان.

الف- اگر مالک نام مربوط به غیر انسان باشد بین دو اسم (of) بکار می رود.
-the leaf of the tree.

ب-اگر مالک نام مربوط به انسان باشد بعد از نام انسان ('s) اضافه می شود.

-hassan's book.


اگر نام مالک مربوط به انسان با (s) جمع بسته شده باشد فقط بعد از (s)جمع آپاستروف (')بکار می رود .

مدرسه دختران
girls' school

یادآوری ۲:
اگر شیئی دارای چند مالک باشد ('s) را به آخرین اسم اضافه می کنیم.

معمولاً وقتی ('s) به آخر اسم شغل یا حرف یا مالک اضافه شود از بکار بردن نام مکان مثل مغازه، storeفروشگاه و... خودداری می شود.

- I must go to the buther's.

(s) جمع مثل (book(s و دیگری (s) سوم شخص مثل:

- He runs very fast.

یوزر پسورد نود 32 دوشنبه تاریخ 15/03/1391 مصادف با 2012/06/04
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٠٠ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٥

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اصطلاحات انگلیسی ( 8 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٤٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤


Someone whose behavior is hearty, friendly and congenial.

Hair of the dog

If someone has a hair of the dog, they have an alcoholic drink as a way of getting rid of a hangover, the unpleasant effects of having drunk too much alcohol the night before. It is commonly used as a way of excusing having a drink early on in the day.

Hair on fire

If something sets your hair on fire, it excites you or catches your attention urgently.

Hairy at the heel

(UK) Someone who is hairy at the heel is dangerous or untrustworthy.

Hale and hearty

Someone who is hale and hearty is in very good health.

Half a loaf is better than no bread

It means that getting part of what you want is better than getting nothing at all.

Half a mind

If you have half a mind to do something, you haven't decided to do it, but are thinking seriously about doing it.


A half-baked idea or scheme hasn't not been thought through or planned very well.

Hammer and tongs

If people are going at it hammer and tongs, they are arguing fiercely. The idiom can also be used hen people are doing something energetically.

Hand in glove

If people are hand in glove, they have an extremely close relationship.

Hand in hand

Hand in hand= work together closely When people in a group, say in an office or in a project, work together with mutual understanding to achieve the target, we say they work hand in hand. There is no lack of co-operation and each synchoranises the activity with that of the other.

Hand that rocks the cradle

Women have a great power and influence because they have the greatest influence over the development of children- the hand that rocks the cradle. ('The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world' is the full form.)

Hand to mouth

Someone who's living from hand to mouth, is very poor and needs the little money they have coming in to cover their expenses.

Hands down

If someone is better hands down than everyone else, they are much better.

Handwriting like chicken scratch

If your handwriting is very hard to read, it is like chicken scratch.

Hang by a thread

If something hangs by a thread, there is a very small chance indeed of it being successful or surviving.

Hang in the balance

If an outcome is hanging in the balance, there are at least two possibilities and it is impossible to predict which will win out.

Hang out to dry

If you hang someone out to dry, you abandon them when they are in trouble.

Hang your hat on (something)

To depend on OR believe in something.

Hangdog expression

A hangdog expression is one where the person's showing their emotions very clearly, maybe a little too clearly for your liking. It's that mixture of misery and self-pity that is similar to a dog when it's trying to get something it wants but daren't take without permission.

Hanged for a sheep as a lamb

This is an expression meaning that if you are going to get into trouble for doing something, then you ought to stop worrying and should try to get everything you can before you get caught.

Happy as Larry

When you're as happy as Larry, you're very happy indeed.

Happy medium

If you reach a happy medium, you are making a compromise; reaching a conclusion or decision.


If someone is happy-go-lucky, they don't worry or plan and accept things as they happen.

Hard act to follow

If something or something is exceptionally good, it is difficult to replace them or take their place.

Hard as nails

A person who is as hard as nails is either physically tough or has little or no respect for other people's feelings.

Hard by

"Hard by" means mean "close to" or "near".

Hard cheese

(UK) Hard cheese means hard luck.

Hard of hearing

Someone who's hard of hearing is a bit deaf.

Hard on someone's heels

If you are hard on someone's heels, you are close to them and trying to catch or overtake them.  ('Hot on someone's heels' is also used.)

Hard sell

If someone puts a lot of pressure on you to do or buy something, they are hard selling it.

Hard to come by

If something is hard to come by, it is difficult to find.

Hard up

If you are hard up, you have very little money.

they might not a

ExtensiveReading: Why? and How?
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۳٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤


The Internet TESL Journal


Timothy Bell
timothy [at]


An extensive reading program was established for elementary level language learners at theBritishCouncilLanguageCenterinSanaa,Yemen. Research evidence for the use of such programs in EFL/ESL contexts is presented, emphasizing the benefits of this type of input for students' English language learning and skills development. Practical advice is then offered to teachers worldwide on ways to encourage learners to engage in a focused and motivating reading program with the potential to lead students along a path to independence and resourcefulness in their reading and language learning.

Introduction: TheReadingProgram

An extensive reading program was established at theBritishCouncilLanguageCenterinSanaa,Yemen. An elementary level class of government employees (age range 17-42) was exposed to a regime of graded readers, which was integrated into normal classroom teaching. Students followed a class reader, had access to a class library of graded readers, and had classes in the British Council library, which gave them access to a collection of 2000 titles. Questionnaires were used to examine students' reading interests, habits and attitudes, both prior to, and following the program. The class library contained 141 titles in the published readers of some major publishers (see inventory of titles inBell, 1994). Familiar titles (e.g. popular Arab folk tales) were selected for both the class readers and the class library, so as to motivate the students to read. These titles proved very popular, as did the practice of reading aloud to the class.

Students' reading was carefully monitored; formal and informal records being kept both by the researcher, and by the students themselves. Readingdiaries and book reports were used, together with a card file system to document the program and record both the titles read and students' written comments on the books. A wall chart acted as a focal point for in-class reading, discussion and exchange of titles. Reader interviews were conducted throughout the program, which ran for a period of six months over the course of two semesters. Students became actively involved in running the class library; tables were arranged and titles displayed attractively during the periods set aside for the reading program. Students were taken into the main British Council library for one lesson a week, during which they participated in controlled twenty-minute sessions of USSR 1 (cf. Davis, 1995).

With reference to research evidence, we now turn to the role of extensive reading programs in fostering learners' progress in reading development and improvement.

The Role of ExtensiveReadingin Language Learning

1. It can provide 'comprehensible input'

In his 1982 book, Krashen argues that extensive reading will lead to language acquisition, provided that certain preconditions are met. These include adequate exposure to the language, interesting material, and a relaxed, tension-free learning environment. Elley and Manghubai (1983:55) warn that exposure to the second language is normally "planned, restricted, gradual and largely artificial." The reading program provided inYemen, and the choice of graded readers in particular, was intended to offer conditions in keeping with Krashen's model.

2. It can enhance learners' general language competence

Grabe (1991:391) and Paran (1996:30) have emphasized the importance of extensive reading in providing learners with practice in automaticity of word recognition and decoding the symbols on the printed page (often called bottom-up processing). The book flood project in Fiji (Elley & Manghubai: op cit.), in which Fijian school children were provided with high-interest storybooks, revealed significant post treatment gains in word recognition and reading comprehension after the first year, and wider gains in oral and written skills after two years.

3. It increases the students' exposure to the language

The quality of exposure to language that learners receive is seen as important to their potential to acquire new forms from the input. Elley views provision of large quantities of reading material to children as fundamental to reducing the 'exposure gap' between L1 learners and L2 learners. He reviews a number of studies with children between six and twelve years of age, in which subjects showed rapid growth in language development compared with learners in regular language programs . There was a "spread of effect from reading competence to other language skills - writing, speaking and control over syntax," (Elley 1991:404).

4. It can increase knowledge of vocabulary

Nagy & Herman (1987) claimed that children between grades three and twelve (US grade levels) learn up to 3000 words a year. It is thought that only a small percentage of such learning is due to direct vocabulary instruction, the remainder being due to acquisition of words from reading. This suggests that traditional approaches to the teaching of vocabulary, in which the number of new words taught in each class was carefully controlled (words often being presented in related sets), is much less effective in promoting vocabulary growth than simply getting students to spend time on silent reading of interesting books.

5. It can lead to improvement in writing

Stotsky (1983) and Krashen (1984) reviewed a number of L1 studies that appear to show the positive effect of reading on subjects' writing skills, indicating that students who are prolific readers in their pre-college years become better writers when they enter college. L2 studies by Hafiz & Tudor (1989) in theUKandPakistan, and Robb & Susser (1989) inJapan, revealed more significant improvement in subjects' written work than in other language skills. These results again support the case for an input-based, acquisition-oriented reading program based on extensive reading as an effective means of fostering improvements in students writing.

6. It can motivate learners to read

Readingmaterial selected for extensive reading programs should address students' needs, tastes and interests, so as to energize and motivate them to read the books. In theYemen, this was achieved through the use of familiar material and popular titles reflecting the local culture (e.g.. Aladdin and His Lamp).Bell&Campbell(1996, 1997) explore the issue in a South East Asian context, presenting various ways to motivate learners to read and explaining the role of extensive reading and regular use of libraries in advancing the reading habit .

7. It can consolidate previously learned language

Extensive reading of high-interest material for both children and adults offers the potential for reinforcing and recombining language learned in the classroom. Graded readers have a controlled grammatical and lexical load, and provide regular and sufficient repetition of new language forms (Wodinsky & Nation 1988).Therefore, students automatically receive the necessary reinforcement and recycling of language required to ensure that new input is retained and made available for spoken and written production.

8. It helps to build confidence with extended texts

Much classroom reading work has traditionally focused on the exploitation of shorts texts, either for presenting lexical and grammatical points or for providing students with limited practice in various reading skills and strategies. However, a large number of students in the EFL/ESL world require reading for academic purposes, and therefore need training in study skills and strategies for reading longer texts and books. Kembo (1993) points to the value of extensive reading in developing students confidence and ability in facing these longer texts.

9. It encourages the exploitation of textual redundancy

Insights from cognitive psychology have informed our understanding of the way the brain functions in reading. It is now generally understood that slow, word-by-word reading, which is common in classrooms, impedes comprehension by transferring an excess of visual signals to the brain. This leads to overload because only a fraction of these signals need to be processed for the reader to successfully interpret the message. Kalb (1986) refers to redundancy as an important means of processing, and to extensive reading as the means of recognizing and dealing with redundant elements in texts.

10. It facilitates the development of prediction skills

One of the currently accepted perspectives on the reading process is that it involves the exploitation of background knowledge. Such knowledge is seen as providing a platform for readers to predict the content of a text on the basis of a pre-existing schema. When students read, these schema are activated and help the reader to decode and interpret the message beyond the printed words. These processes presuppose that readers predict, sample, hypothesize and reorganize their understanding of the message as it unfolds while reading (Nunan 1991: 65-66).

یوزر پسورد نود32 شنبه تاریخ 13/03/1391 مصادف با 2012/06/02
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۳٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤

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دو مکالمه برای سطح مبتدی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۳۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤


34. A Lost Button


A: A button came off my shirt.
B: What are you going to do?
A: First, I have to find the button.
B: Where did you lose it?
A: I have no idea.
B: A button is hard to find. Did you look in your pant cuffs?
A: That’s a good idea.
B: I found a button in my pant cuffs one time.
A: Let me look. No, it’s not there.
B: Many shirts come with an extra button.
A: You’re right. This one does have an extra button.
B: Now all you have to do is sew it on.


35. Did You Say Something?

A: I have to go to the bathroom.
B: You drink too much coffee.
A: But I love coffee.
B: Well, it’s your life.
A: You eat too much chocolate.
B: I don’t think so.
A: Have you looked in the mirror?
B: Do you think I’m getting fat?
A: I didn’t say that.
B: What did you say?
A: I said I have to go to the bathroom.
B: That’s what I thought you said.

نمو نه سوال معنی 50 سوال کنکوری
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٢۱ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤

Vocabulary Part 11 

  1-Indonesia …..of several principle islands.

1) consists                     2) insists            3) holds up                    4) persists

2-Their …….and proud faces showed their firm decision .

1) humorous            2) melodious      3) mysterious                4) various

3-Parents have practically learned how to ……big meetings to support the schools.

1) modernize          2) organize                    3) realize               4) recognize

4-The clouds gradually ……from the sky after the rain.

1) disappeared               2) disappointed 3) disliked                4) discovered

5- He doesn’t pay …….to the teachers at all.

1- attention                    2) affection            3) intention                    4) addition

6- This English textbook is ……to increase the student’s reading skill.

1) affected            2) appreciated   3) designed                   4) filled

7- Last summer, the highest temperature inTehranwas………45.

1) attracted                   2) avoided               3) recorded         4) rewarded

8- This telephone does not work because it is not…..yet.

1) connected                 2) fastened                    3) joined             4) related

9- Listening to the radio and tapes, reading newspapers and books will be a great….to the students of language.

1) progress                    2) prize               3) loss               4) benefit

  10- I’m very tired of working hard. I’d better ……and relax for a few minutes .

1) do my best                2) keep in mind 3) give my word            4) take it easy

11- I called him up to apologize for troubling him. “Troubling” means……. .

1) astonishing                2) bothering       3) neglecting     4) pleasing

12- Smoking can damage your health, I don’t know why you don’t try to…….

1) fill it out            2) give it up            3) hand it in                   4) take it off

13- Most people ……..the flood although many houses were destroyed .

1) survived                    2) settled             3) recovered     4) protested

14- Today various instruments are…….for the blind here and there.

1) available                   2) audible            3) dependable    4) reliable

  15- The woman that was seriously injured was easily…….by the police.

1) memorized                2) identified       3) displayed       4) satisfied

16- A country which gets a lot of help from other countries can’t be an ……country.

1) irregular                    2) improbable        3) inactive            4)independent

 17- Strong walls protected us and helped our soldiers to ……..the city for many years.

1) enlarge                     2) explore          3) defend                      4) devote

18-Two communication …….have been put into orbit around the earth since the beginning of the year.

1) planes                       2)planets               3) satellites          4) vehicles

19- He can’t decide what to do now , he’s ……mixed up.

1) carefully       2) completely                3) efficiently              4) hurriedly

20- Trees are useful to us. They give us shade and …….us with wood and fruits.

1) award               2) recall                      3) disturb                 4) provide

  21-After Graham Bell………the telephone, people could talk to each other even when they were far apart.

1) attended             2) commented               3) invented             4) offended

  22-White is the easiest color to see at night because it….the most light.

1) absorbs                     2) controls        3) destroys                    4) reflects

  23-Sometimes Jack says he wants to become an engineer sometimes he says he wants to become a pilot nobody knows what he’s …..going to become.

1) actually                     2) completely                3) immediately   4) simply

24- In the Olympic Games a gold medal is awarded to the ……..of every competition.

1) loser            2) viewer                      3) waiter                       4) winner

25- A computer can be given instructions called ……which tells it exactly what to do .

1) languages                  2) numbers         3) programs                  4) problems

  26-What the computer does is amazing. It’s able to …….so many different tasks in a short time.

1)provide        2) perform         3) protect             4) permit                      

  27- Ramin’s strange behavior implies that he’s ……ill

1)consciously                2) physically          3) mentally                4) emotionally

  28- Mr. Green pays much attention to his children and…….them with whatever they require.

1) prevents                    2) pretends         3) protects                    4) provides

   29-Computers can help us ………how an aircraft wing will stand up to different conditions in real life.

1) describe                    2) estimate          3) concentrate               4) struggle

30-The influence of your new books on the readers is unbelievable. “Influence” means…… .

1) impact            2) contact           3) contract                                4) product

  31-Our brave soldiers defended our country during the eight-year imposed war “Brave” means……….

1)hopeless                     2) careless           3) homeless             4) fearless

32- Those who have a good …..almost never forget anything.

1) behavior                    2) favor        3) ability            4) memory

33- If the population of the world continues to ……at the present rate, some people will die of hunger in the near future.

1) increase                    2) influence             3) interest          4) interfere

  34- Early man depended on nature for protection because he hadn’t learned how to build…

1) bridges           2) churches              3) deserts                      4) shelters

35- After her operation my mother was told to …….for two weeks

1)repeat             2) relax         3) review                      4) recall

36- The closer a region is to the equator, the warmer its climate will be. In this sentence “closer” is the opposite of …….. .

1) farther                2) higher                3) lower                        4) nearer

37- Hamid couldn’t answer the questions because he was completely ………

1) amused                     2) confused         3) fascinated     4) interested


38-Trains, airplanes and ships are the most important means of ………..

1) transportation            2) concentration         3) translation     4) competitor

39- When I saw your friend , he was going to the …….shop to get his hair cut.

1) baker’s           2) barber’s                 3) butcher’s                  4) painter’s

40- Peter respects his teacher and his classmates because he’s a polite boy. “polite” is the opposite of ……..

1) lazy                          2) rude         3) thin                           4) weak

41- They haven’t ……the flight number yet.

1)presented                   2) admitted         3) announced                4) described

42- His car …….so he had to come by bus.

1) broke down               2) feel over          3) broke up            4) fell down

43- The architects will build a building next year. The antonym of “build” is…………

1) deny          2) defend           3) nearly                       4) destroy

44- The handsome horse looked almost like a statue. The antonym of “handsome” is……. .

1) clever           2) lovely                3) ugly              4) strong

45- He ………that we should leave the place immediately .

1) concerned        2) reviewed           3) announced                4) presented

46- Why are the streets of this town so dirty?

Because people throw out tons of ………….every day.

1) truck          2) trash                         3) crash                4) brush

  47- The food was ……and every body enjoyed it .

1) delicious                    2) curious          3) gracious           4) precious

  48- The terrified child began to scream when the light were out. “Terrified” means …...

1) bold                          2) scared             3) fearless                     4) confident

49- The crowd at a ball game can eat hundreds of hot dogs.

1) get                 2) earn        3) consume                   4) display

    50- Hossein ……….for my pen everywhere , but he could not find it.

1) located                      2) searched            3) managed          4) prepared

لغت مهم برای تافل 5000
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۱۸ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤


pyx n. A vessel or casket, usually of precious metal, in which the host is preserved. quackery n. Charlatanry

quadrate v. To divide into quarters. quadruple v. To multiply by four.

qualification n. A requisite for an employment, position, right, or privilege. qualify v. To endow or furnish with requisite ability, character, knowledge, skill, or possessions.

qualm n. A fit of nausea.

quandary n. A puzzling predicament. quantity n. Magnitude.

quarantine n. The enforced isolation of any person or place infected with contagious disease.

quarrelsome adj. Irascible.

quarter n. One offour equal parts into which anything is or may be divided. quarterly adj. Occurring or made at intervals of three months.

quartet n. A composition for four voices or four instruments.

quarto n. An eight-page newspaper of any size.

quay n. A wharf or artificial landing-place on the shore of a harbor or projecting into it. querulous adj. Habitually complaining.

query v. To make inquiry.

queue n. A file of persons waiting in order of their arrival, as for admittance. quibble n. An utterly trivial distinction or objection.

quiescence n. Quiet.

quiescent adj. Being in a state of repose or inaction. quiet adj. Making no noise.

quietus n. A silencing, suppressing, or ending. quintessence n. The most essential part of anything.

quintet n. Musical composition arranged for five voices or instruments. quite adv. Fully.

Quixotic adj. Chivalrous or romantic to a ridiculous or extravagant degree. rabid adj. Affected with rabies or hydrophobia.

racy adj. Exciting or exhilarating to the mind.

radiance n. Brilliant or sparkling luster.

radiate v. To extend in all directions, as from a source or focus.

radical n. One who holds extreme views or advocates extreme measures. radix n. That from or on which something is developed.

raillery n. Good-humored satire.

ramify v. To divide or subdivide into branches or subdivisions. ramose adj. Branch-like.

rampant adj. Growing, climbing, or running without check or restraint. rampart n. A bulwark or construction to oppose assault or hostile entry. rancor n. Malice.

rankle v. To produce irritation or festering.

rapacious adj. Disposed to seize by violence or by unlawful or greedy methods. rapid adj. Having great speed.

rapine n. The act of seizing and carrying off property by superior force, as in war. rapt adj. Enraptured.

raptorial adj. Seizing and devouring living prey.

ration v. To provide with a fixed allowance or portion, especially offood.

rationalism n. The formation of opinions by relying upon reason alone, independently of authority.

raucous adj. Harsh.

ravage v. To lay waste by pillage, rapine, devouring, or other destructive methods. ravenous adj. Furiously voracious or hungry.

ravine n. A deep gorge or hollow, especially one worn by a stream or flow of water. reaction n. Tendency towards a former, or opposite state of things, as after reform, revolution, or inflation.

reactionary adj. Pertaining to, of the nature of, causing, or favoring reaction. readily adv. Without objection or reluctance.

readjust v. To put in order after disarrangement.

ready adj. In a state of preparedness for any given purpose or occasion.

realism n. The principle and practice of depicting persons and scenes as they are believed really to exist.

rearrange v. To arrange again or in a different order. reassure v. To give new confidence.

rebellious adj. Insubordinate.

rebuff n. A peremptory or unexpected rejection of advances or approaches. rebuild v. To build again or anew.

rebut v. To oppose by argument or a sufficient answer.

recant v. To withdraw formally one's belief (in something previously believed or maintained).

recapitulate v. To repeat again the principal points of. recapture v. To capture again.

recede v. To move back or away.

receivable adj. Capable of being or fit to be received - often money.

receptive adj. Having the capacity, quality, or ability of receiving, as truths or impressions. recessive adj. Having a tendency to go back.

recidivist n. A confirmed criminal.

reciprocal adj. Mutually interchangeable or convertible. reciprocate v. To give and take mutually.

reciprocity n. Equal mutual rights and benefits granted and enjoyed.

recitation n. The act of reciting or repeating, especially in public and from memory. reck v. To have a care or thought for.

reckless adj. Foolishly headless of danger.

reclaim v. To demand or to obtain the return or restoration of.

recline v. To cause to assume a leaning or recumbent attitude or position. recluse n. One who lives in retirement or seclusion.

reclusory n. A hermitage.

recognizance n. An acknowledgment entered into before a court with condition to do some particular act.

recognize v. To recall the identity of (a person or thing). recoil v. To start back as in dismay, loathing, or dread. recollect v. To recall the knowledge of.

reconcilable adj. Capable of being adjusted or harmonized.

reconnoiter v. To make a preliminary examination of for military, surveying, or geological purposes.

reconsider v. To review with care, especially with a view to a reversal of previous action. reconstruct v. To rebuild.

recourse n. Resort to or application for help in exigency or trouble. recover v. To regain.

recreant n. A cowardly or faithless person. recreate v. To refresh after labor.

recrudescence n. The state of becoming raw or sore again. recrudescent adj. Becoming raw or sore again.

recruit v. To enlist men for military or naval service.

rectify v. To co rrect.

rectitude n. The quality of being upright in principles and conduct. recuperate v. To recover.

recur v. To happen again or repeatedly, especially at regular intervals. recure v. To cure again.

recurrent adj. Returning from time to time, especially at regular or stated intervals. redemption n. The recovery of what is mortgaged or pledged, by paying the debt. redolent adj. Smelling sweet and agreeable.

redolence n. Smelling sweet and agreeable.

redoubtable adj. Formidable.

redound n. Rebound.

redress v. To set right, as a wrong by compensation or the punishment of the wrong-doer. reducible adj. That may be reduced.

redundance n. Excess.

redundant adj. Constituting an excess. reestablish v. To restore.

refer v. To direct or send for information or other purpose. referrer n. One who refers.

referable adj. Ascribable.

referee n. An umpire.

refinery n. A place where some crude material, as sugar or petroleum, is purified. reflectible adj. Capable of being turned back.

reflection n. The throwing off or back of light, heat, sound, or any form of energy that travels in waves. reflector n. A mirror, as of metal, for reflecting light, heat, or sound in a particular direction. reflexible adj. Capable of being reflected.

reform n. Change for the better.

reformer n. One who carries out a reform. refract v. To bend or turn from a direct course. refractory adj. Not amenable to control. refragable adj. Capable of being refuted. refringency n. Power to refract.

refringent adj. Having the power to refract. refusal n. Denial of what is asked.

refute v. To prove to be wrong.

regale v. To give unusual pleasure. regalia n. pI. The emblems of royalty. regality n. Royalty.

regenerate v. To reproduce.

regent n. One who is lawfully deputized to administer the government for the time being in the name of the ruler.

regicide n. The killing of a king or sovereign.

regime n. Particular conduct or administration of affairs.

طریقه بکار بردن کلمات استفهامی Question Words
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۱٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤


بعضی کلمات شوال بصورت ضمیر و بعضی ها بصورت قید و صفت در جمله بکار می روند. این کلمات بعنوان کلمه ی سوال همیشه در اول جمله واقع می شوند.


طریقه بکار بردن کلمات استفهامی Question Words

بعضی کلمات شوال بصورت ضمیر و بعضی ها بصورت قید و صفت در جمله بکار می روند. این کلمات بعنوان کلمه ی سوال همیشه در اول جمله واقع می شوند.

۱- who:

همیشه ضمیر است و برای اشخاص بکار برده می شود که اگر کلمه (who) در حالت فاعلی قرار گیرد بعد از آن افعال کمکی قرار نمی گیرد ولی اگر در حالت مفعولی بیان شود در این صورت بعد از کلمه ی who افعال to be قرار گیرد و جمله به حالت سوال نوشته می شود.


۲- Whom
شکل مفعولی
who است که بعد از آن همیشه جمله بصورت سوال نوشته می شود.

به صورت های صفت، ضمیر، فاعل و مفعول در جمله بکار می رود. اگر به صورت فاعل بکار رود فعل کمکی بعد از آن نمی آید ولی اگر بصورت مفعولی باشد بعد از آن فعل معین می آید.


۳- what

هم ضمیر و هم صفت و هم بصورت فاعل و هم بصورت مفعول در جمله بکار می رود.

اگر به صورت فاعل بکار رود فعل کمکی بعد از آن نمی آید ولی اگر به صورت مفعولی باشد، بعد از آن فعل معین می آید.



What makes it sweet?فاعل

What did you do last night?مفعول

What book do you reed?صفت


۴- why
اغلب به صورت قید بیان می شود و بعد از آن همیشه جمله به صورت سوالی بیان می شود.

Why are you so sad? قید

۵- Whose
بصورت صفت و ضمیر برای اشخاص بکار برده می شود.
به صورت صفت و ضمیر وهمچنین فاعل و مفعول در جمله می آید. در حالت فاعلی فعل معین بعد از آن نمی آید ولی در حالت مفعولی فعل معین بعد از آن می آید.




Whose book is this?صفت

Whose is this coat? ضمیر



هم ضمیر و هم صفت و هم بصورت فاعل و هم بصورت مفعول در جمله بکار می رود.

در حالت فاعلی فعل معین بعد از آن نمی آید ولی در حالت مفعولی فعل معین بعد از آن می آید.



Which bus goes to Tehran?فاعل وصفت
Which is yours?فاعل -ضمیر
Which book did you take?صفت- مفعول

بعد از کلمات(
why- how- where- when- whom) باید جمله را سوالی کنیم.

کلمات (
how much- how long- how many- whose- which- what) اگرفاعل جمله باشند جمله بعد از آنها سوالی نمی شود و اگر مفعول جمله باشند باید جمله بعد از آنها سوالی می شود.


جلوگیری از تکرار کلمات بوسیله بکار بردن افعال کمکی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:۱٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤


گاهی جمله ای بیان می شود و شخص دیگر می گوید مثلاً "فلانی هم همینطور" برای بیان "فلانی هم همینطور" در زبان انگلیسی اگر جمله اصلی منفی باشد بعد از (neither)، مثبت فعل کمکی جمله اصلی بکار می رود و اگر جمله اصلی مثبت باشد و دارای فعل کمکی باشد، بعد از (so) همان فعل کمکی جمله اصلی بکار می رود و اگر جمله اصلی فعل کمکی نداشته باشد چنانچه زمان حال ساده باشد از (so do) و اگر زمان گذشته باشد از (so did) استفاده می شود.
بطور کلی (
neither) وقتی اضافه می شود که جمله اصلی منفی باشد و (so) وقتی بکار می رود که جمله اصلی مثبت باشد و عکس مطالب فوق صحیح است.


She is going to the mosque and ….


a- neither am I.
b- so I am.
c- so am I.
d- so do I


در زبان انگلیسی بطریق دیگری نیز می توان رابطه ی "فلانی هم همینطور" را نوشت.
اگر جمله اصلی منفی باشد می توان بعد از همان منفی فعل کمکی either به کار برد و اگر جمله اصلی مثبت باشد و دارای فعل کمکی باشد بعد از فعل کمکی too بکار می رود و برای زمان حال do too و اگر زمان گذشته باشد از did too استفاده می شود.

بطور کلی either وقتی در جمله بکار می رود که جمله اصلی منفی باشد و too وقتی در آخر جمله بکار می رود که جمله اصلی مثبت باشد.


You will not enjoy and my son….


a- does either.
b- doesn't either.
c- will either.
d- won't either.

همیشه ضمیر است و برای اشخاص بکار برده می شود که اگر کلمه (
who) در حالت فاعلی قرار گیرد بعد از آن افعال کمکی قرار

ترکیب دو جمله بوسیله (neither, nor, either, or)
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٠٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤


جملاتی که دارای فاعل یکسان هستند بوسیله کلمات or، either و یا nor،  neither به هم ربط داده یا ترکیب شوند، بدین ترتیب که قسمتهای مشترک در هر دو جمله را ابتدا نوشته و سپس کلمه ی either و سپس ادامه جمله اول را نوشته و قسمت مشترک در جمله دوم را حذف کرده و کلمه or را آورده و بعد جمله دوم را نوشته البته برای هر دو جمله مثبت و انجام کار مثبت در دو جمله از کلمات or و either و برای انجام ندادن هیچ کدام از دو جمله و به عبارتی برای ترکیب دو جمله منفی (در عمل) از کلمات nor و neither استفاده کرد.


either this or that   
you can either pay now or later   
either come to the capital as servant / or prepare for war




I could neither laugh nor cry   
he neither smokes nor drinks   
neither here nor there  


Either … or and neither … nor are usually followed by a plural pronoun and plural verb, except in formal writing: If either David or Janet come, they will want a drink. In formal English this would be: If either David or Janet comes, he or she will want a drink.

تذکر مهم:

اگر بعد از
neither، nor ، either ، or فاعل مفرد بکار رود همیشه فعل آن جمله به صورت مفرد خواهد بود و اگر فاعل جمع باشد فعل آن فعل آن بصورت جمع خواهد بود.

ترکیب دو فعل بوسیله (too) و یا (very) (در حالت قید)
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ٢:٠٦ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۳/۱٤

کلمه ی (
too) (به معنی زیاد) نشانه مقدار یا میزان زیاد است که قبل از یک صفت ساده و یا یک قید ساده ذکر می شود و بعد از آن یک عبارت مصدری قرار می گیرد که معمولاً کلمه (too) قبل از هر صفت و قید ساده معنی منفی به جمله می دهد.

برای ترکیب یک جمله منفی به مثبت از
too استفاده می کنیم.

- It is too hot for me to go out.

ولی کلمه ی (
very) (به معنی زیاد) نشانه ی مقدار یا میزان بسیار زیاد دست که قبل از صفات و قید های ساده ذکر شده که معمولاً بعد از آن عبارت مصدری ذکر نمی شود و هم چنین معنی مثبت به جمله می دهد، برای ترکیب دو جمله مثبت از very استفاده می شود.

- It is very cold but we can go out.

تذکر ۱:

برای ترکیب یک جمله مثبت به یک جمله منفی با کلمه ی (too) ابتدا فاعل و فعل جمله مثبت را نوشته سپس کلمه (too) را قبل از صفت ذکر کرده و بعد مصدر با (to) جمله دوم را نوشته.

برای تر کیب دو جمله مثبت با (
very) ابتدا فاعل و فعل جمله اول را نوشته و سپس (very) را قبل از صفت بیان کرده.