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بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

How to read aloud
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:٠٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢٢
 

By way of review, as reading aloud forms part of many language teacher education programmes, certain general pointers on how teachers can read aloud to students are listed below. However, how to read aloud will differ according to the specific students being read to, teachers’ instructional objectives and teachers’ personalities and skills.

a.       Choose stories that will appeal to students and, hopefully, to you (the reader) as well.

b.       Consider whether to modify, summarize, or even omit sections of the book which may be less interesting or overly difficult. In other words, there is no need to read the book exactly as it is written.

c.       Consider places in the book where you might wish to vary your reading style, e.g., when a small or large animal is speaking. At certain places, for instance, you may wish to speak louder or softer, faster or slower than normal. This, however, does not mean that teachers must be professional actors to read aloud.

d.       Stop to ask questions, seek comments, etc. Reading aloud should be two-way interaction, with students not just listening to their teachers’ output; students should also be providing input to their teachers and peers. In this way, teachers are reading aloud with students, not reading aloud to students (Blok, 1999).

e.       Practice reading aloud beforehand in order to accomplish points b, c and d.

Traditionally, teachers read aloud to a group or class of students. Any discussion that takes place before, during or after the read aloud is conducted in a teacher-fronted manner, with students directing their input, if any, towards the teacher. However, research and theory in language education and in other areas of education suggest that students can benefit from peer interaction in addition to the input they receive from teachers and the interaction they have with teachers.

        Sections 1-3 of this article have provided a rather lengthy prologue to the main section of the article. Section 4 suggests 12 activities to accompany reading aloud by teachers. In 11 of these activities, reading aloud is augmented by peer power provided by CL.

 

Section 4: Combining Cooperative Learning with Reading Aloud by Teachers

CL can be used with any age of learner and in any subject area. Furthermore, it can be usefully combined with almost any instructional strategy (for examples, see Jacobs & Gallo, 2002, for how CL can be combined with extensive reading and Jacobs & Small, 2003, for how CL can be combined with dictogloss, a technique for teaching writing). This section presents 12 activities, 11 of which involve CL, to accompany reading aloud by teachers. Included are activities that can be used with fiction and non-fiction, that last for a variety of lengths of time and that can be used with various ages of students. The presentation of each of the activities has two parts. After a brief introduction, first, the Steps are presented, followed by Discussion.

Three of the twelve activities are for before reading aloud, five are for while reading aloud and four are for after reading aloud. However, some of the activities span overlap from one of the three phases of reading aloud to another or may well be useful during more than one phase of a read aloud session. Furthermore, these activities, as with CL techniques generally, can be modified in many ways (Kagan & Kagan, 1992).

Before reading aloud by the teacher

Before reading, teachers often attempt to increase student interest and promote understanding by generating discussion related to the upcoming reading. Here are three CL activities for doing that. The first is a CL technique; the second is a well-known reading technique that has been slightly modified based on CL principles; and the third combines CL with graphic organisers.


 
 
Tsunamis - Killer Waves
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:٠٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢٢
 


On December 26, 2004 a great underwater earthquake near the coast of Indonesia caused the greatest tsunami in history. 280,000 people died and many coastal villages were wiped out.

The word tsunami comes from the Japanese : tsu means harbour and nami waves. A tsunami is a series of ocean waves that can travel over hundreds of kilometres at a very high speed. They are hardly seen in the open ocean, but when they reach the shallow water near the coast they get taller and taller—up to 30 metres. The waves are so powerful that they can destroy everything that gets in their way.

Tsunamis are created by earthquakes on the ocean floor. The earth’s crust is made up of many plates that always move. Where such plates meet one of them may move on top of the other. When a plate moves upward it pushes the water above normal sea level. That is when a tsunami is born.

 

The energy of the earthquake creates waves that spread into all directions very quickly. In the open ocean tsunamis can reach a speed of up to 900 kilometres an hour. When a tsunami approaches the coastline it slows down to maybe 50 km an hour. The water has nowhere to go so it piles up—in some cases it gets taller than a ten-story building. It crashes onto the coast and destroys houses, beaches, roads without difficulty.

Tsunamis cause most damage when an underwater earthquake occurs near a coastal region. The waves can reach the coast within minutes and the population there cannot be warned in time. There is almost no way of escaping.

If quakes happen very far from land it may take the killer waves a few hours to reach the coast. People can be warned and get to a safe place.

On the beach people who witness a tsunami approaching will see a great rise and fall of water. Sometimes the water near the beach will completely disappear and a few minutes later the first of the great waves can reach the shore. In some cases tsunamis don’t arrive as one big wave but as a strong flood.

 

 

People, especially tourists, often make mistakes when they see a tsunami approaching. Curious crowds stay at the beach and watch the giant waves come in. When they realize how tall these waves are, it may be too late to run. The best thing to do is to try to run as far inland as possible and try to reach high ground.

Many regions around the Pacific Ocean have warning centres and special plans on how to evacuate people when a tsunami comes close. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre is located on the Hawaiian Islands. It detects the rise of ocean water and underwater earthquakes and reports information to many other stations in other countries. Local governments must then decide what to do.

On December 26, 2004 the world’s most powerful earthquake in 40 years occurred off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The tsunami that it set into motion hit the coastal areas very quickly—during the middle of the Christmas season. Thousands of Europeans were on the beaches of Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other islands when the tsunami hit. It is thought that about 280,000 people died.

 

Words

  • approach = to come nearer
  • cause =lead to
  • coastline = where land meets the ocean
  • create = make
  • crust = the hard outer part of the earth
  • curious = if you want to know something
  • damage =harm, destruction
  • detect = to find out or discover something
  • destroy =harm, damage, so that you cannot use something any more
  • disappear = go away so that you cannot see it
  • earthquake = a sudden shake of the earth that causes a lot of damage
  • evacuate = to bring people away from a dangerous place
  • disappear = you cannot see it any longer
  • flood = a lot of water
  • harbour = a place where ships stay
  • inland = away from the coast
  • local = regional
  • locate = to be in a certain place
  • occur = happen
  • pile up = to become taller and taller
  • plate = large sheets of rock that form the earth’s surface
  • population = the people who live in a country
  • reach = get to
  • realize = see, find out
  • rise = to become taller
  • sea level =the average height of the sea , used to measure mountains and other places
  • series = many
  • set into motion =to start moving
  • shallow = not very deep
  • speed =how fast something is
  • ten story = ten floors high
  • wipe out =destroy
  • witness = someone who sees something and can tell you how it happened

 
 
Muammar Gaddafi – Revolutionary Leader of Libya
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥۸ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 

Muammar Gaddafi came to power in Libya in 1969 and has ruled the country as a dictator ever since. He is the longest ruling leader in the Middle East and Northern Africa. At 27 he overthrew the Libyan king when he was in Turkey for medical treatment. During the last few years Gaddafi has tried to gain international recognition and become a statesman.

Gaddafi was born in the desert town of Sirte. He came from a Bedouin family who led a nomadic life style. After he had gone to a military college he went to Britain for army training. On September 1, 1969 he overthrew the monarch and became what he called the revolutionary leader of Libya.

Although Gaddafi officially set up peoples’ committees he gave them virtually no power. People who thought otherwise were sent to prison or killed. Many of them were tortured or simply disappeared. The media was under the control of the colonel.

Gaddafi’s ideology is presented in his Green Book, in which he creates a mixture of capitalism and socialism combined with Islamic ideas. Gaddafi is well-known for his 40 female body guards who he chooses himself. Instead of wearing a suit he often wears stylish clothes with sunglasses. Political guests are welcomed in heavily guarded tents instead of state palaces.

 

 

In the past decades Col Gaddafi has tried to gain influence in many parts of Northern Africa. In the 70s he sent an army to Chad and during the 80s Libya was host to rebel and terrorist groups. Over the years western countries have been against Gaddafi’s regime because they say he supported militant groups like the IRA or the PLO.

Relationships with the west worsened towards the middle of the 1980s. Gaddafi’s regime was made responsible for terrorist attacks all over the world. US President Ronald Reagan called Gaddafi a “mad dog” and sent planes to bomb Libyan cities. In one of the air attacks the Libyan leader almost got killed.

In 1988 270 people were killed by a bomb in a Pan Am jet over Lockerbie, Scotland. Gaddafi was suspected of letting the bombers hide in his country. The United Nations imposed sanctions on Libya and isolated the country to get Gaddafi to hand over the terrorists.

Towards the end of the century Gaddafi tried to bring his country out of isolation. He handed the terrorists over to the UN and declared that Libya was behind the bombing. In the last few years Gaddafi has been working hard on normalizing relationships between Libya and the United States.

After Saddam Hussein lost power in 2003 Gaddafi became afraid that he too might have to step down. He allowed weapons inspectors into the country and vowed to dismantle Libya’s weapons of mass destruction. In the last few years Gaddafi turned a statesman and met important western leaders including British Prime Minister Tony Blair, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi.

Although Libya is one of the oil-richest countries in the world, the people of the country have remained poor. They have not received the wealth that Gaddafi has accumulated over the years. Economic experts think that Gaddafi may have a fortune of about $60 billion dollars.

When unrest began in Tunisia and Egypt at the beginning of 2011 it was clear that it would spread to Libya as well. In weeks of fighting Gaddafi has tried to hold on to power. He sent the army to fight against protesters. Hundreds of people were killed. After losing control of most of the country, the only question that remains is how long Gaddafi will stay in power.

Words

  • accumulate = build up
  • although = white
  • attack = to use violence against
  • Bedouin = someone who belongs to an Arab tribe that lives in tents in the desert
  • billion = one thousand million
  • choose = select
  • colonel = high rank in the army
  • combine = together with
  • committee = group, team
  • create = make
  • decade = ten years
  • declare = to say officially
  • disappear = to go away, impossible top find
  • ever since = since then
  • female = women
  • fortune = the amount of money that you have
  • gain = get
  • guard = protect, defend
  • hand over = give to
  • heavily = very much
  • hold on to = keep, stay in
  • host = to invite someone to stay or work in place
  • ideology = what someone believes about a political or economic system
  • impose = to put into effect
  • including = also
  • infl uence = power
  • instead of = in something’s place
  • IRA = Irish republican Army = illegal organization that wants to reunite Ireland
  • isolate = cut off, separate
  • jet = fast passenger plane
  • media = newspapers, radio and television
  • militant = radical, aggressive
  • monarch = the king or queen of a country
  • nomadic = to travel from one place to another and not have one place to live
  • normalize = to become normal again
  • officially = formally
  • otherwise = here: in a different way
  • overthrow = defeat, remove from power
  • palace = official home of an important leader, like a queen or a king
  • PLO = Palestine Liberation Organization = group that wants to create an Arab state in the middle East
  • present = show
  • prison = a building where you keep people who have done illegal things
  • receive = get
  • recognition = respect
  • regime = a government that was not elected in a fair way; rulers that you do not like
  • remain = is left, stay
  • responsible = to blame
  • rule = to have power in a country
  • sanction = law that stops trade or communications with another country in order to force its leaders make changes
  • spread = move to
  • statesman = a political leader who is admired and respected by others
  • step down = to stop being a ruler or leader
  • support = give money to
  • suspect = think, believe
  • torture = to hurt someone so that you can get information out of them
  • towards = near
  • treatment = something that is done to make a person healthy again
  • unrest = conflict, violence, trouble
  • virtually = almost, nearly
  • wealth = riches, capital, money
  • weapons inspector = a scientist who is sent to a country to see if it has weapons that are not allowed
  • weapons of mass destruction = chemical, nuclear or biological weapons that are very powerful and could kill many people and destroy large areas
  • worsen = to make worse

 
 
Did you know that .....
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 
  • Did you know a cats urine glows under a blacklight
  • ·         Did you know white cats with blue eyes are usually deaf
  • ·         Did you know cats have a peripheral vision of 285 degrees
  • ·         Did you know small dogs usually live longer than larger breeds
  • ·         Did you know domestic cats dislike citrus scents
  • ·         Did you know cats can jump up to 7 times their tail length
  • ·         Did you know China manufacturers 70% of the worlds toys
  • ·         Did you know The Great Wall of China is approximately 6,430 Km long (3,995 miles)
  • ·         Did you know paper originated from China
  • ·         Did you know the wheelbarrow is invented in China
  • ·         Did you know tree hugging is forbidden in china
  • ·         Did you know the film 'Mary Poppins' was filmed entirely indoors
  • ·         Did you know all of the clocks in the movie 'Pulp Fiction' are fixed to 4:20
  • ·         Did you know instant coffee was invented in 1901
  • ·         Did you know the human body of a 70 kg person contains 0.2mg of gold
  • ·         Did you know rice is the staple food for 50% of the worlds population
  • ·         Did you know Pearls melt in vinegar
  • ·         Did you know a hard boiled eggs spin (uncooked or soft boiled don’t)
  • ·         Did you know there is no butter in buttermilk
  • ·         Did you know giraffes and rats can last longer without water than camels

 
 
400 Must-Have Words for the TOEFL (3 )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 

 

LESSON  2

Disaster

Target Words

1. anticipate 6. flood

2. catastrophic 7. impact

3. collide 8. persevere

4. eruption 9. plunge

5. famine 10. unleash

Definitions and Samples

1. anticipate v. To expect; to sense something before it happens

By placing sensors in earthquake-prone areas, scientists can anticipate

some tremors in time to warn the public.

Parts of speech anticipation n, anticipatory adj

2. catastrophic adj. Extremely harmful; causing financial or physical

ruin

The architect died in a catastrophic elevator accident.

Parts of speech catastrophe n, catastrophically adv

3. collide v. To come together with great or violent force

As usual, their holiday was ruined when their in-laws’ views on politics

collided with their own.

Parts of speech collision n

8 Nature

4. eruption n. A sudden, often violent, outburst

The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 caused 57 deaths and

immeasurable change to the face of the mountain.

Usage tips Eruption is often followed by an of phrase.

Parts of speech erupt v

5. famine n. Severe hunger; a drastic food shortage

The potato famine in Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century caused

large numbers of Irish people to emigrate to America.

6. flood n. An overflowing of water; an excessive amount

The constant rain and poor drainage system caused a flood in town.

The political party sent out a flood of letters criticizing their

opponents.

Parts of speech flood v

7. impact n. A strong influence

The speech about the importance of education made an impact

on me.

Usage tips Impact is usually followed by on or of.

Parts of speech impact v

8. persevere v. To keep going, despite obstacles or discouragement; to

maintain a purpose

The hikers persevered despite the bad weather and the icy trail.

Parts of speech persist v, persistent adj

9. plunge v. To go down suddenly; to decrease by a great amount in a

short time

He jumped off the diving board and plunged into the pool.

The value of the company’s stock plunged after its chief executive

was arrested.

Disaster

Usage tips Plunge is often followed by an into phrase.

Parts of speech plunge n

10. unleash v. To release a thing or an emotion

When they saw the strange man on their property, they unleashed

their dogs.

He is from such an unemotional family, he will never learn to unleash

his feelings.

TOEFL Prep I Find the word or phrase that is closest in meaning

to the opposite of each word in the left-hand column. Write the letter

in the blank.

1. persevere (a) to pass by without hitting

2. anticipate (b) to give up

3. famine (c) to not see something coming

4. collide (d) harmless

5. catastrophic (e) excess of food

TOEFL Prep II Circle the word that best completes each sentence.

1. Residents of Hawaii must accept the possibility of a volcanic (eruption /

perseverance).

2. Years after the accident, she was finally able to (anticipate / unleash)

her feelings of anger.

3. Houses along the river often face (famine / flooding) during the rainy

season.

4. Many people think it is cruel to (collide / plunge) live lobsters into boiling

water.

5. A well-written essay should make some kind of (catastrophe / impact)

on its readers.

 

TOEFL Success Read the passage to review the vocabulary you

have learned. Answer the questions that follow.

Nature challenges humans in many ways, through disease, weather, and

famine. For those living along the coast, one unusual phenomenon capable

of catastrophic destruction is the tsunami (pronounced “tsoo-NAH-mee”).

A tsunami is a series of waves generated in a body of water by an

impulsive disturbance. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions,

explosions, and even the impact of meteorites can generate tsunamis.

Starting at sea, a tsunami slowly approaches land, growing in height and

losing energy through bottom friction and turbulence. Still, just like any

other water waves, tsunamis unleash tremendous energy as they plunge

onto the shore.They have great erosion potential, stripping beaches of

sand, undermining trees, and flooding hundreds of meters inland.They

can easily crush cars, homes, vegetation, and anything they collide with.

To minimize the devastation of a tsunami, scientists are constantly trying

to anticipate them more accurately and more quickly. Because

many factors come together to produce a life-threatening

tsunami, foreseeing them is not easy. Despite this, researchers

in meteorology persevere in studying and predicting tsunami

behavior.

1. Which sentence best expresses the essential information of this passage?

a. Tsunamis could become a new source of usable energy in the next

hundred years.

b. Tsunamis do more damage to the land than flooding.

c. Tsunamis can have an especially catastrophic impact on coastal

communities.

d. Scientists can predict and track tsunamis with a fair degree of accuracy,

reducing their potential impact.

2. In the first sentence, why does the author mention weather?

a. because tsunamis are caused by bad weather

b. because tsunamis are more destructive than weather phenomena

c. as an example of a destructive natural force

d. as an introduction to the topic of coastal storms


 
 
گرامر برای مکالمه زبان انگلیسی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥۱ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 

ضمایر مفعولی عبارتند از:

جمع مفرد

me به من  مرا us به ما  ما را

you به تو تو را You به شما  شما را

him به او  او را

her ( به او او را (زن

it به آن  آنرا

them به آنها  آنها را

صفات ملکی عبارتند از:

جمع مفرد

my مال من our مال ما

your مال تو your مال تو

his مال او

her مال او

its مال آن

their مال آنها

نمی آید به جز در to افعال کمکی (معین): افعالی هستند که بین فاعل و فعل اصلی می آید و بعد از آنها

.used to و ought to

can توانستن must باید should باید may مثال: ممکن بودن

 

خاصیت های افعال کمکی:

-1 بین فاعل و فعل اصلی می آیند

-2 با جابجا شدن، باعث تغییرات در جمله می شوند یعنی افعال کمکی با رفتن به اول جمله، جمله را

سئوالی می کنند در زبان فارسی برای سئوالی کردن جمله سه علامت (آیا  مگر  لحن ) را به اول جمله

می برند و جلوی جمله علامت سئوال می گذارند ولی در انگلیسی برای سئوالی کردن افعال کمی را به

استفاده می کنیم. does و do اول جمله می برند اگر جمله فعل کمکی نداشت از فعل کمکی

سؤالی در فارسی سؤالی در انگلیسی

Can you go?

Can you?

آیا

مگر میتوانی بروی؟

لحن

You can?

I can go من می تونم برم

I am are you ? : تبدیل می شوند مثال you به we و I تذکر: همیشه

-3 در زبان فارسی اگر بخواهیم جمله ای را منفی کنیم به آن (ن) اضافه می کنیم ولی در زبان انگلیسی برای منفی

اضافه می کنیم و بهتر است آنها را به شکل مخفف بنویسیم. (not) ، کردن به افعال کمی

مخفف نمی شوند. may not وam not تذکر مهم: اشکال

Can not Can't

will not won't

must not mustn't

Shall not Shan't

is not isn't

are not aren't

am not am not

may not may not

4 سئوالی منفی کردن افعال کمکی:

روش اول: افعال کمکی مخفف شده را به اول جمله می بریم.

ر ا هم سر جایش قرار not مخفف نشده باشد فعل کمکی را به اول جمله برده و not روش دوم : اگر فعل کمکی

می دهیم.

آیا

مگر نمیتوانی بروی؟

لحن

You can’t go can’t you go?

You can not go can you not go?

جدول افعال کمکی:

معنی مشتقات معنی افعال کمکی

To be(am-is-are) بودن was-were بودن

Have داشتن Has-had -

Do انجام دادن Does-did -

could توانستن can توانستن

Shall علامت آینده Should علامت آینده

Will علامت آینده Would علامت آینده

May ممکن بودن Might ممکن بودن

Must باید Had to باید

ought to باید

Used to سابقًا

need احتیاج داشتن

Dare جرأت داشتن

Would rather ترجیح دادن

Had better بهتره

:The

حرف تعریف بوده و دارای سه معنی است، ( را  که  کسره)

I eat apple.

I eat the apple.

I eat the apple which is red.

در جمله اول " من سیب می خورم"، سیب نا مشخصی خورده میشود. در جمله دوم " من سیب رامی خورم

سیب مشخص می شود یا به عبارتی تعریف می شود. . در جمله سوم " من سیب قرمز رامی خورم یا من سیبی را

کهقرمز است، می خورم"، سیب مشخص تر می شود یا به عبارتی، دقیقتر تعریف می شود.

دو مصدر استثنا یی : در انگلیسی دو مصدر داریم که استثنائی هستند یعنی با فا علهای مختلف به شکلهای گوناگون

در می آیند اگر پس از صرف کردن ، در داخل این جملات افعال کمکی بکار ببریم به مادر خود بر می گرد ند یعنی

است که با فاعلهای مختلف در بعضی جاها به شکلهای to have بر می گردد دومین مصدر be به am-is-are

دیگر در می آید و اگر در آنها افعال کمکی بکار ببریم به شکل مادر خود بر می گردند.

18

I have I can have I am I must be

you have you can have You are You can be

They have They can have He is he must be

We have we can have

She has she can have

Have Am

to have Is Be

Has are

تمرین جملات فارسی :

جملات زیر را به انگلیسی ترجمه کنید.

1 نمیتوانی به من هر روز اینجا کمک کنی؟

2 آیا نباید به ما ساعت 2 یک روز در میان در اینجا درس بدهی؟

3 آیا من بداخلاق نیستم؟

4 آیا آنها درس نمی خوانند هر روز اینجا؟

5 آیا تو هر روز به معلم گوش نمی دهی؟

6 من میتونم مؤدب باشم توی کلاس؟

7 پدرم باید در خانه مهربان باشد.

8 خواهرهایم ممکن است تنبل باشند.

9 والدینشان میتوانند اینجا باشند.

10  پدرم میتواند نهار بخورد.

11  او ممکن است یک ماشین داشته باشد.

19

پاسخ :

1. Can’t you help me here every day?

2. Mustn’t you teach us here every other day at 2 o’clock?

3. Am I not bad tempered?

4. Don’t they study here every day?

5. Don’t you listen to the teacher every day?

6. Can I be polite in class?

7. My father must be kind at home.

8. My sisters may be lazy.

9. Their parents can be here.

10. My father can have lunch.

11. He may have a car

بسیار مهم

"دو فعلیها در جمله و طرز بکار بردن دو فعلیها در جمله":

بکار می بریم و (to) -1 اگر در جمله دو فعل اصلی بیاید بین دو فعل اصلی علامت

used : و (سابقًا ought to لازم نیست بجز دو فعل to -2 اگر در جمله یک فعل کمکی و یک فعل اصلی بیاید

have و has یعنی To have و یا از مصدر (am-is-are) باشد یعنی To be اگر فعلهای ما از مصدر .(to

به مادر خود ( have-has و am-is-are ) وقتی که در جمله افعال قصدی را بکار می بریم

تبدیل می شوند. (have , be) یعنی به

افعال قصدی عبارتند از:

want خواستن pretend وانمود کردن

like دوست داشتن refuse امتناع کردن

would like مایل بودن plan قصد داشتن

hope امیدوار بودن decide تصمیم گرفتن

wish آرزو داشتن intend قصد داشتن

20

try سعی کردن be going to قصد داشتن

promise قول دادن hate متنفر بودن

prefer ترجیح دادن dislike متنفر بودن

: have to و must تفاوت

I must go (تاکید زیاد) من حتمًا بایدبروم

I have to go منمجبورمبروم

(باید  مجبور بودن)





has to

have to

must

میباشد. had to ، must تذکر: با توجه به مطلب فوق گذشته فعل

اسم بیاید معنی داشتن و خوردن دارد. has , have تذکر: اگر بعد از

I will have my lunch. . من ناهارم را خواهم خورد

She has a book. . او یک کتاب دارد

have

داشتن و خوردن اسم+

has

بیاید معنی مجبور بودن را دارد. (to) has , have تذکر: اگر بعد از

have

+ to مجبور بودن

has

21

تمرین جملات فارسی:

الف) جمله مثبت، سئوالی، منفی و منفی سئوالی جملات زیر را بنویسید؟

1 آنها می خواهند به معلم گوش بدهند هر روز.

2 من باید انگلیسی صحبت کنم هر روز.

3 شما می خواهید مؤدب باشید اینجا.

4 او دوست دارد یک ماشین داشته باشد.

5 ما تصمیم داریم امسال زرنگ باشیم.

پاسخ :

1. They want to listen to the teacher every day.

  • Do they want to listen to the teacher every day?
  • They don’t want to listen to teacher every day.
  • Don’t they want to listen to teacher every day?

2. I must speak English every day.

3. You want to be polite here.

4. He likes to have a car.

5. We decide to be clever this year.

ب) جملات زیر را توسط فعل داخل پرانتز اصلاح نمائید.

1. They Study engineering ( Plan: ( قصد داشتن

2. Most students succeed (want)

3. We understand the lesson. (Pretend: (وانمود کردن

4. I work hard. (Promise )

5. Most of the people fact/tell the truth. (refuse)

6. You are very successful. (can)

7. They practice sentence patterns (must)

8. Many students ask questions (may)

9. We are polite. (Ought to)

10. I dine with you. (would like)

11. We play football. (prefer)

22

پاسخ :

1. They Plan to Study engineering

2. Most students want to succeed.

3. We pretend to understand the lesson.

4. I promise to work hard.

5. Most of the people refuse to fact/tell the truth.

6. You can be very successful.

7. They must practice sentence patterns.

8. Many students may ask questions.

May they not ask questions?

May not they ask questions?

9. We ought to be polite.

سئوالیOught you to be polite? Are you ought to polite?

منفیYou ought not to be polite. You aren’t ought to polite.

منفی سئوالی Ought you not to be polite? aren't you ought to polite?

10. I would like to dine with you.

11. We prefer to play football.


 
 
Simple Present Tense ( زمان حال ساده )
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 


زمان حال ساده: کاری است که به صورت عادت و تکرار انجام می شود.

ی مصدری را برداریم و به جای آن فاعل بگذاریم فعلی که به دست می آید زمان حال ساده یا to طرز ساخت : اگر

اضافه می شود . (ies-es-s) به آخر فعل (it-she-he) حاضر ساده است .در سوم شخص یعنی

نشانه های حال ساده :

در سوم شخص مفرد در آخر فعل مثل : s -1 وجود

He works/she eats/it runs

در آخر فعل در سوم شخص مفرد es -2 وجود

می گیرند مثل: es ختم می شوند در سوم شخص مفرد z,o,x,ch,sh,s تذکر: افعالیکه به

Washes/buzzes/watches/fixes/misses/mixes

s داشته باشد در سوم شخص فقط “a,e,I,o,u” حرف صدادار y ختم می شوند اگر قبل از y -3 افعالی که به

می گیرد.

play 􀃆 سوم شخص مفرد 􀃆 Plays

را برمی داریم و به جای y حرف صدادار نداشته باشد در سوم شخص y ختم می شوند اگر قبل از y افعالی که به

می گذاریم . es و سپس i آن در سوم شخص مفرد

Carry 􀃆 carries

Study􀃆 studies

یا

-4 وجود قیود زمان مثل :

very other + زمان ( every other week (یک هفته در میان

-5 وجود قید تکرار مثل :

ever – never – always – usually – often – sometimes

They never play golf.

-6 با حقایق دنیا و یا چیزهایی که قب ً لا اثبات شده است، جمله زمان حاضر ساده است.

The sun sets in the west. . خورشید در غرب، غروب می کند

انجام می شود. does ,do تذکر مهم : تغییرات در حاضر ساده یا حال با دو فعل کمکی

هم همین طور) doesn’t پران است و ies - پران es - پران s ) does : بسیار مهم

تکراری از قبل : قیود مکان همیشه قبل از قیود زمان می آیند.

He goes to school every day.

تمرین جملات فارسی :

جملات زیر را به انگلیسی ترجمه کنید.

-1 او به مدرسه می رود هر روز

-2 معلم کمک می کند به ما در کلاس ساعت 2 روزهای زوج

-3 پدرم درس می خواند در خانه روزهای فرد

-4 پدرش می خواهد کمک کند به آنها اینجا هر روز

پاسخ:

1. He goes to school every day.

2. The teacher helps us in the class at 2 o’clock on odd days.

3. My father studies at home on even days.

4. His father wants to help them here every day


 
 
آپدیت نود 32 برای 17 اسفند 1391
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 
Username:EAV-82491527 
Password:88benk8p5x
Username:EAV-82491471
Password:paampa4t8k
 Username:EAV-82314707
Password:dd5emcu7ev
Username:EAV-82509905
Password:8c46tr4seh
Username:EAV-82314682
Password:ns3nd3r7fd

 
 
Question Words. . کلمات پرسشی یا استفهامی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۱٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩۱/۱٢/٢۱
 

Question Words. . کلمات پرسشی یا استفهامی

چه کسی who : -1 اگر فاعل مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

کی را ، چه کسی را whom : -2 اگر مفعول مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه چیز what : -3 اگر فاعل و مفعول ما غیر شخصی باشند از کلمه پرسشی

کجاwhere : -4 اگر قید مکان مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه وقت- کیwhen -5 اگر قید زمان مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه تعداد how many -6 اگر تعداد مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه مقدار how much -7 اگر مقدار مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چگونهhow -8 اگر حالت و چگونگی مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه ساعت what time -9 اگر وقت و رأس ساعت مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه مدت how long -10 اگرمدت و زمان مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چند دفعه how often -11 اگر دفعه و بار مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

برای چه کسی است whose + -12 اگر صفات ملکی مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی اسم

مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی. an, a -13 اگر

مورد سوال قرا گیرد از کلمه پرسشی that ,this ,those ,these + صفت و یا اسم + the -14 اگر

کدام. which

چراwhy -15 اگر حالت و دلیل مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چند ساله how old -16 اگر سن مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه مسافتی how far -17 اگر مسافت مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه قد و اندازه ای how tall -18 اگر قد و اندازه مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه سرعتی how fast -19 اگر سرعت مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

چه رنگی what color -20 اگر رنگ چیزی مورد سوال قرار گیرد از کلمه پرسشی

27

(wh questions): کلمات پرسشی دارای سه قانون هستند

قانون 1- به اول جمله می آیند . جمله را سوالی می کنند و حتمًا بعد از آن افعال کمکی می آیند :

Where

When

How

Why +

What time

How often

How fast

I can answer 􀃆 Can you answer?

Why can you answer?

When can you answer?

How fast can you answer?

قانون 2- اگر کلمات پرسشی وسط جمله بیایند جمله را از حالت سوالی خارج می کنند یعنی بعد از کلمه

پرسشی فاعل می آید.

Where do you go? 􀃆 I know where you go من میدونم کجا می ری

Why don’t they study 􀃆 I know why they don’t study

من می دونم چرا آنها مطالعه نمی کنند

I am sure why he is happy من مطمئنم که چرا او خوشحال است

قانون 3- کلمات استفهامی می توانند به جای سوم شخص بنشینند و مثل سوم شخص مفرد عمل کنند یعنی به

اضافه شود . ies و یا es و یا s آخر فعل

He works او کار می کند

Who works? ؟ چه کسی کار میکند

Whose brother works? ؟ برادر کی کار می کند

do you work?

28

Which teacher works? ؟ کدام معلم کار می کند

What kind of student works? ؟ چه نوع دانش آموزی کار می کند

تمرین جملات فارسی :

جملات زیر را به انگلیسی ترجمه کنید.

: -1 من میدونم کجا فوتبال بازی میکنی هر روز ساعت 2

-2 من نمی دونم چرا شاگردها درس نمی خوانند در مدرسه

-3 من مطمئنم چرا آنها خسته هستند

-4 آیا می دونی برادر کی می خواد صحبت کند انگلیسی ؟

-5 من مطمئن نیستم چرا آنها تنبل هستند در کلاس.

پاسخ:

1. I know where you play football every day at 2 o’clock.

2. I don’t know why the students don’t study at school.

3. I am sure why they are tired.

4. Do you know whose brother wants to speak English?

5. I am not sure why they are lazy in class