آموزش انگلیسی به عنوان زبان دوم

بانک سوالات دبیرستان و پیش دانشگاهی . مکالمه . مقالات . آپدیت روزانه Nod 32

نمای از جنگل زیبای فندوقلوی اردبیل
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱:۱٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱۳

Language Learners’ Errors – Approaches of Significance
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:٥٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱۳


 At first sight , it may seem rather odd to focus on what learners get wrong rather than on what they get right. However, there are good reasons for focusing on errors. Many teachers nowadays regard student errors as evidence that progress is being made. Errors often show us that a student is experimenting with language, trying out ideas, taking risks, attempting to communicate, and making progress. Analyzing what errors have been made clarifies exactly where the learner has reached and helps set the syllabus for future language work. In dealing with errors, teachers have looked for correction techniques that, rather than simply giving learners the answer on a plate, help them to make their own correction. This may raise their own awareness about the language they are using. So it is important for the teacher to understand, and to feel deeply, that errors are inevitable and a natural part of the learning process. It is important for the teacher to transmit this attitude to learners. The learner who understands that learning involves making mistakes, errors, is more likely to make progress. Therefore, the important titles explained in details in this article are:

-                      different kinds of errors, especially certain errors which are often very important to the communication

-                      Sources of errors

-                      different steps in analyzing learner errors before inviting correction

-                      different correction techniques

-                      over-correction


Key words: mistakes, errors, analyzing errors, correction techniques,



شاید در نگاه اول پرداختن به خطاهای یادگیرندگان بجای توجه به عملکردهای صحیح آنان عجیب به نظر آید اما دلایل قانع کننده ای برای تمرکز بر روی خطاهای یادگیرندگان وجود دارد:

امروزه برای بیشتر معلمین خطاهای دانش آموزان مدرکی است که میزان پیشرفت آنها را نشان میدهد. اغلب موارد خطاها نشان میدهند که تا چه میزان دانش آموز با زبان درگیر شده و در حال آزمون و خطاست و تا چه حد برای برقراری ارتباط تلاش کرده و پیشرفت نموده است. تجزیه خطاهایی که توسط یادگیرندگان انجام می شود دقیقاً مشخص می کند که آنها به چه مرحله ای رسیده اند و بعلاوه در تدوین برنامه درسی بعدی نیز بسیار کمک کننده است . زمانیکه دانش آموزان اشتباه می کنند بیشتر معلمین بجای اینکه پاسخ صحیح را مستقیماً به دانش آموز ارائه کنند به دنیال تکنیک های تصحیح هستند چون آگاهی یادگیرندگان را نسبت به زبانی که استفاده می کنند بالا می برد بنابراین بسیار مهم است که معلمین بدانند خطاها جزئی غیر قابل اجتناب و بخشی طبیعی از فرایند یادگیری هستند و باید این مهم را نیز به دانش آموزان منتقل کنند.     یادگیرنده ای که بداند خطا کردن جزئی از فرایند یادگیری است پیشرفت بیشتری خواهد داشت.

به همین جهت عناوین زیر به تفضیل در این مقاله شرح داده می شوند :

? انواع مختلف خطاها ، خصوصاً انواع خاصی که مربوط به فرایند ارتباط برقرار کردن هستند

?  منشا خطاها

? تجزیه خطاها قبل از تصحیح آنها

? تکنیکهای تصحیح خطاها

? تصحیح بیش از حد

کلمات کلیدی : اشتباهات ، خطاها ، تجزیه خطاها ، تکنیکهای تصحیح ، تصحیح بیش از حد




Language is complex phenomenon, and language learning a correspondingly complex activity. Many factors contribute towards the success or failure of the individual language learner. One of the most important, however is probably the confidence the learner has in his ability to succeed in the task. Teachers frequently undermine this confidence by emphasizing the difficulties the student faces. Probably even more important, however, in undermining the learners’ confidence, is the teacher’s over-zealous correction of mistakes. Inevitably it will appear unnatural and few students will succeed. Most students learning a foreign language, except the very young, bring with them the idea that the new language will behave like their own mother tongue. Interference of this kind will mean that structural mistakes are inevitable. It is necessary that teachers transmit to students the idea that mistakes are an essential part of the learning process, and definitely not something to be feared (James, 1998; Lewis, 2007).

     All students make mistakes at various stages of their language learning. It is part of the natural process they are going through and occurs for a number of reasons. In the first place, the students’ own language may get in the way. This is most obviously the case with ‘false friends’ – those words which sound or look the same but mean something different. False friends are more common where the learner’s language shares a common heritage with English (i.e. Romance languages).

     Grammatical considerations matter too: Japanese students frequently have trouble with article usage, Germans have to get used to positioning the verb correctly, Arabic students have to deal with a completely different written system etc. (James, 1998).

     Interference from the students’ own language is not the only reason for making mistakes. There is a category which a number of people call ‘developmental’ errors. These are the result of conscious or subconscious processing which frequently overgeneralises a rule, as, for example, when a student, having learnt to say things like ‘I have to go’, then starts saying ‘I must to go , not realizing that the use of ‘to’ is not permitted with ‘must’.  

     Some mistakes are deep-seated and need constant attention (ask experienced teachers about the third-person singular of the present simple!). While these are examples of ‘errors’, others seem to be more like ‘slips’ made while students are simultaneously processing information and they are therefore easier to correct quickly.

     Whatever the reason for ‘getting it wrong’, it is vital for the teacher to realize that all students make mistakes as a natural and useful way of learning. By working out when and why things have gone wrong, they learn more about the language they are studying (Hokkanen, 2001; Schneider, 1998).


دامنه لغات
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:٥٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱۳



ادعا کردن


پافشاری‌ کردن‌



space craft

بررسى کردن






پیشین‌- اصلى


باغ ملى

national park



ماده‌ معدنی‌،




کم‌ عمق‌،


ماهر،مشگل وپیچیده




توده‌ انبوهی از غبار

Clouds of dust



ذره غبار

particle  of dust

خارق‌ العاده‌






مقایسه کردن


گشادن‌- نموکردن






سر خوردن








رسیدن‌ به‌


جمع‌ شدن‌






گداخت هسته اى

nuclear fusion



سن- عصر




خرد کردن،فشرده


بى نور شدن

fade away









بالا رفتن دما

rise temperature

‌نمایش‌ دادن‌






‌ وزن




کم‌ کردن‌






عصر ‌ یخبندان‌


آب‌ وهوا کره زمین

earth climate







عقب‌ نشینی‌ کردن‌


چشم‌ انداز


هم‌ فشرده‌ کردن‌






غول‌ پیکر


خلاص شدن

get rid of

چرخه طبیعی

natural cycle

مرور کردن‌


گرم شدن کره زمین

global warming



اقامت‌ کردن‌






تهیه‌ دیدن‌




تکامل‌ زندگی

6.evolution of life

جنگ‌ نگار،


حفر، کاوش‌




بوم شناختى






زیر زمین‌






پر مخاطره‌،






بیرون‌ کشیدن‌،


برطرف‌ کردن‌،






تولید مثل‌


قلم‌ مو زدن‌


قالب ریخته گرى-

کپک‌ قارچی‌


در این مرحله

25.at this stage

 قسمت ناپیدا

26.missing part

ستون‌ فقرات‌


قضاوت‌ کردن‌


احیا کردن‌


‌وصله‌ کردن‌،

 یک تکه کردن










 هنگام لزوم

34.on occasion

بی‌ نام


فوق‌ العاده‌،



         vision   37.





یاداوری‌ کننده‌










قابل دیدن


توسعه‌ دادن‌


صفحه‌- تکتونیک

9.tectonic plate



ضمیمه کردن




ضربت‌ زدن‌


برخورد کردن


روش تدریس زبان اول نظری درس ششم بخش دوم
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٤٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٢

   Lesson 6 -  English Book One                                                       

  BY:Mohammad  Heidari Chegeni  (KhorramAbad )                                                         

SESSION: Two / Time :90 min

       Subject: Reading Section  of Lesson Six ( The Boy Who made Steam Work )

 Objectives: To teach students how to skim for main idea of the passage- identify key words

Prior knowledge: Students have become familiar with the new words of the lesson.

Materials: Reading text on pages71 & 72 of the book( The Boy Who made Steam Work), the board, a handout



















5  min

Asking some questions from new words of lesson 6.


Introducing the topic.


Activating schema for the reading


Listening and answering questions about new words.


Restating some sentences containing those new words.

T            Ss


T= teacher



Preparing students


for reading passage

(new lesson)





10  min

 Asking a question such as this: “Do you know James Watt?”

Introducing James Watt.


Asking students to name some other famous inventors.


Calling out answer to teacher’s questions.


Asking and Answering each other




Ss          T


Arousing interest


Focusing attention







60 min

Presenting the reading text ( in English as much as possible. )


 providing some explanations about the text.( not all details)

 Reading aloud .

 Letting students ask questions if they have any.

 Checking Understanding

( randomly and orally).

 Asking questions on  pages 72  & 73  from each group and individual students.

Responding to questions.


Silent reading


Discussing the whole meaning in groups




Answering questions orally.

Answering questions on  pages 72  & 73 

Summarizing the text in groups.








T      Ss



 S  S

Getting students

to read the passage quickly to get the overall meaning.


Being able to retell (rewrite) the text in their own words.




10  min

Asking students what they have learned.

Questions like these can be used: " Who was James Watt?”

Giving  handout  to the students


Telling what they have learned


Answering the desired questions.


Filling in the handout.




Ss        T


Reminding students what they have learned and why.




5  min

To reinforce some concepts, the teacher may use some extra activities.



Interacting with each other about the teacher’s question/s.


S      S

S      Ss


Developing pupils’

metacognitive awareness










  Lesson 6 -  English Book One                                                            

   BY:Mohammad  Heidari Chegeni (KhorramAbad )         

                                                                                   SESSION: Three / Time :90 min


                 Subject: Grammar, Exercises and Parts F,G & H of Lesson Six





 Comprehending the new grammatical structure ( Tag Questions )   

 Using Tag Questions well while speaking & doing the exercises.

 Doing Exercises of lesson six

 Doing F,G, and H parts of lesson ( PP.74,77,78 )




 Doing the exercises on pages 74 & 75 under the guidance and support of the teacher.

 Performing the F part ( Language Function) communicatively in class in groups and         pairs work.

 Uttering the words in G part( pronunciation practice) after the teacher

 Working on them among themselves.

 Accomplishing the H part ( vocabulary review) in a cooperative mood .







Being able to use the new grammatical points( Tag Questions) in new and meaningful sentences and situations.


 Being able to utilize the newly learned features( Language Functions) in their daily communication.


 Being familiar with the new phonetic sounds and exert them while speaking.







An Eclectic method is established in which some components of GT, CLT and Audio-lingual are taken into consideration as well.








The book, board, chalk, cassette player – pictures -



(75 min)




Teacher's activities








 Performing the primary evaluation.

 presenting the new grammatical forms ( Tag Questions )

 Asking students to read speaking 1 (73 & 74 )

 Reading aloud the sentences in the F section.

 Focusing on Meaning and exchanging new ideas.

 Reading the words aloud in section G.

Students activities


 Answering the questions in the primary evaluation.

 Answering teacher’s questions orally; individually or in chorus

 Working on the exercises ( 74 & 75)  in groups.

 Practicing the sentences in the F part in pairs.

 Repeating aloud the words in the G part after the teacher.

 Accomplishing the section H ( on page 55) in groups.

 Each group will present its response.


Final evaluation,


(15 min)


 Writing ten multiple-choice and completion-form questions on the board


Asking students to write them down and answer them.


 Encouraging students to have a review on the reading text


As homework assignment, fresh and well-formed sentences( 10 to 20 ) 


روش تدریس زبان اول نظری درس ششم
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۳٤ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٢

  General Specification  of  Lesson 6 - English Book One 

  BY: Mohammad  Heidari Chegeni (KhorramAbad )

SESSION: One / Time :90 min





Students should be able to internalize and use the news words (steam –burn –enough


 – else- turn into – rise – hardly move - build ) in new sentences and situations.


Teaching aids


Book, board, chalk, some classroom immediate objects, some pictures and drawings,


some questions written on forms



Teaching     method


The method is eclectic, taking into considerations some features of GTM , TPR, Audio-


lingual and TPR





The students will be divided in groups, each group consists of three members. Based on


 the number of students we may have groups: A,B,C,D,E,F,… .


T   e   a   c   h   I   n   g     p   o   r   t   I   o   n   s

Preview  ( 10 min)


 Instructional objectives: cognitive


Teacher’s activities:


Warm up   -  Administering the primary evaluation   - Showing a picture / or pictures.


Students' activities:

 Answering  the questions of primary evaluation - Getting ready for the new lesson.


View ( 6 0 min)

 Instructional objectives: cognitive and behavioural

Teacher’s activities:

Introduction: setting the scene.

Defining new words( steam –burn –enough – else- turn into – rise – hardly - move –


 build) by explaining, applying gestures, realia, some objects, pictures and drawings   prepared in advance ,using synonyms, antonyms.


 Writing the Words on the board one by one.


 Repeating the words aloud


 Asking questions , commanding some students to do some actions


 Reading the sentences on pages 68,69 and 70.


 Asking students to think and discuss their meanings in groups.


Review  ( 2 0 min)

 Instructional objectives: cognitive with performance skills

Teacher’s activities: -  Final evaluation

 Assigning  homework assignment.

 Students’ activities:

 Reacting the questions of final evaluation.

 Asking their questions from the teacher / their classmates.

 The pupils' correction of their own errors cooperatively.


روش تدریس ذرس دوم زبان پیش دانشگاهی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢٩ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٢



 Lesson Plan 3                                                        Lesson 2                         Time: 90min.

 Kimiya Pre-university                                                                                         Number of students: 12


Material: Whiteboard, text book, dictionary, notebook,

extra prepared exercises, the prepared table


Reading Skill








5 min.



Review of the previous session.

* Check homework and ask the students to pre sent their summaries.

* Ask questions

  1- Is it good to make pauses when you are giving a speech?

  2- Name four of the communication power tools.                                       

  3- How can you involve your audience?

  4- In paragraph 9, find a way how we can reduce our nervousness.


Ø                       Any questions from the previous session?


15 min.



- Ask the students to sit in their groups to do exercises one and two of part A on page 15.

- For doing part B the teacher should give the students some explanation.

Ø                       Imperatives are often used for giving advice. For instance, "Involve your audience by asking them some questions" is used to recommend or offer a piece of advice.

-Groups of students have a brief discussion to do the first exercise of part B on page 16 using BUZZ GROUPS.

- Ask the students to do the second exercise of part B on page 17 as their homework.


25 min.



Reading Skills                                  Word formation

Goal: A way of guessing meaning of some unfamiliar words in passage by
adding derivational affix.



Warm up


- Give some relevant examples.

- Speak topically about word formation which is the creation of new words. There are several ways of doing this, e.g. the addition of an affix in DERIVATION.

- Ask the students to give some more examples.


5 min.


- Ask the students to sit in their own groups and use not only their text books but also their dictionaries to complete the given table.



Parts of speech

Formed from




…. (adj)


emotion (n.)


embarrass (v.)



…   (v.)


humor (n.)












- Go around the class and give help as needed.

- Ask the students to find such examples through the reading.


20 min.

Checking Students’ Comprehension

-Give the students some multiple choice tests to do.


1. I asked him not to ……. me in his family arguments.

a. add                           b. involve                      c. distract

2. The man could not hide his …….. at his children’s rudeness.

a. expression                 b. projection                  c. embarrassment

3. Mary was not ……… that her son was having difficulties at school.

a. confident                   b. firm                          c. aware

4. We enjoyed every minute of spending our weekend with John, because he has a wonderful sense of ………. .

a. contact                      b. humor                       c. gesture

-Check the answers and explain any probable problems.

15 min.

Assigning homework

- Ask the students to copy the word formation table and fill it with other words from the passage using their dictionaries.

- Ask the students to do the related book exercises on page 18.

- Remember that you should do the second exercise of part B on page 17.

5 min.





 Lesson Plan 4                                                         Lesson 2                    Time:  90min.                         Kimiya Pre-university                                                                     Number of students: 12


Material: Whiteboard, text book, CD, cards, dictionary, notebook,

extra prepared exercises


Focus on Grammar








5 min.


Review of the previous session.

* Check homework

* Ask questions

A- Sentence Function:

   1- Suppose that your friend keeps her voice with the same speed during her speech.

What will you advice her to do to improve her speech?

 If your friend was too serious while giving a speech, how would you advice her.

B- Word Formation:

  1- Can you tell me which of the followings an adjective is?

a. emotion               b. confident               c. silence                d. variety

  2- Give two examples of adjective ending with ' –less '


Ø                       Any questions from the previous session?


15 min.


Focus on Grammar (1) Expressing manner

Learning Objective: Practice by + gerund to describe how to do things.



- Write some incomplete sentences on the board.

            * You can improve your accent by ………… (listening to language CDs.)

            * ……………………

- Focus students’ attention to the conversation.

- Ask students to complete the sentences by listening to the conversation.

6 min.


- Complete the sentences and point out the by + gerund structure in each sentence.

- Write some useful phrases on the board.

- Give students time to think about.

- Then students discuss their ideas in small groups.

- Set a time limit of about five minutes. Go around the class and give help as needed. Encourage students to use by + gerund.

- A monitor of each group completes one of the incomplete sentences on the board.

- Ask the students to open their books and look at the focus box.

- Students read or repeat the sentences.

- Point out the by + gerund structure in each sentence.

- Ask a question to elicit students’ suggestions.

Ø                    What kind of verb form do you use after by? What does it mean?

- Give a short explanation about the usage of by + gerund structure.


12 min.


- Ask the students to sit in their own groups and do the related exercises in the book.

- Use one of the useful techniques e.g. Cross-over Groups or Pyramid Group.

* In this way ideas from the different groups are shared without the need for a FEEDBACK SESSION.

- Go around the class and give help as needed.

- Give the students some extra exercises to do.


10 min.

Home Work

- Ask the students to write ten sentences on a piece of paper using their reading or outside readings. 

3 min.


Focus on Grammar (2)            Let

                                                Make + object + bare infinitive


Goal: the students get familiar with the words: Let, Make, and Help so that they can use them correctly in sentences.




* The teacher has chosen some sentences through the reading and has divided them into some parts which are written separately on some cards.

- Give the relevant cards to each group and ask the students to make correct sentences.

- Ask the students to do the job in their own groups.

* It causes a kind of challenge.

- The students think and try to do their best during the given time.


6 min.


- Ask the students to open their books and look at the focus box.

- Students read or repeat the sentences and get the gist of idea.

* Then they go back to their own sentence(s) and check them again.

- A monitor of each group goes to the board and writes their own sentence(s).

- Give an explanation about the grammatical point in a relative short time.


15 min.


- Ask the students to do related exercises in their books.

- Use one of the common modes.

- Go around the class and give help as needed.

- Give some other related exercises to do.


15 min.


- Ask the students to write ten sentences according to the given point on a piece of paper.

- Ask the students to get ready for a test from this lesson next session.

3 min.

روش تدریس زبان پیش دانشگاهی درس سوم زبان یک
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٢٢ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٢


Cover Sheet

Teacher's name: Fateme Rahimi

School: Al- Zahra High School

Class: First Grade

Learning Stage of Class: Average

Age Level of class: 15-17

Number of Students: 15 students

Lustic Composition of Class: Farsi

Other Relevant Factors: Positive Attitude toward the Teacher, High Motivation


Lesson Plan

Teacher's Name: Fateme Rahimi

Date of Presentation: 5th of Azar

Estimated Time of Presentation: 90 minutes

Book (1), Lesson "3"


·                     Teaching Points:

A: Lexical Items:

New words: angry – any body- as … as- be afraid of – boil- boiling – by- clean- coat  Englishman – few – find – five – foot – forget – great – high school – if – later – leave – London – might – move – number – out of reach – out side – page – pan – pocket – return – servant – size – sleepy – solve – story – telephone number- than – therefore – time – tomato – until – whatever – where – who – wise – would

B: Reading Comprehension:


C: Grammar:

   Comparison with (as + adj + as) and ( - er than …)

D: Language Functions:

   (Asking about Some one's Family)

E: Pronunciation Practice:

    Sound ( / /)


·                     Greeting: ( 1 minute)

The teacher enters the classroom and greets the students. She looks at them one by one in order to make an eye contact with all of them and to show that all of the students are important for her.

For instance she greets so


روش تدریس زبان پیش دانشگاهی یک درس سوم
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۱٧ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٢

Lesson Plan

Pre-University English

Book  One

Lesson Three

By: Homeira Abdor-rahimee Afshar

Qazvin Province

Fajr High school-  Qazvin 2nd district



This paper is a lesson plan of lesson three in Pre-university book 1.

The first part is a table of activities and time allocation of each activity,

the purpose of each part and also the task of teacher and the students and their interaction.

The second part is step by step activities in details, done in the classroom, along with the flash cards,

the handout and true/false questions, also the passage given as an assignment, and a CD containing the whole lesson plan along with some of the words

of this lesson in power point. 


Time: 8-9:20    Subject: English Language          Class: secondary 2 English (mixed ability level)        

Language Focus: Reading            Topic: Global Warming, Global Concern


To teach students how to skim for the main idea of the passage or paragraph and scan 

for the specific idea of the passage or a certain paragraph   

Prior knowledge: Students have learned how to locate information by reading and finding the main sentence of each paragraph



Reading materials-article about global warming, blackboard and chalk,

flash cards or pictures and a computer to show the slides of vocabulary on CD in power point setting.









Opening: introduction to the topic (global warming)T activates schema for global warming .

T shows them a picture of a globe melting like an ice cream. Or if possible a piece of film.

asks Ss to help him/her write as many words as they can about global 



T Ss

Arouse interest




Distributing a printed report about global warming and greenhouse effect. T asks Ss to read it quickly and answer the T/F questions that follow it within 3 minutes.


T goes over to the answers and shows how he/she found the answers based on key words in an article.



Ss read the handout

Ss answer the questions.



Ss checks their answers      






T Ss




Ss T







T Ss



Focus attention of Ss on the concept of skimming for the general gist with authentic material.



Getting Ss read a passage quickly to get an overall meaning.



T tells Ss that they just practiced skimming to get the gist of a passage.




T tells Ss about the importance of skimming and how it can help them to locate the required information quickly.

Ss listen

T Ss

To develop Ss’

metacognitive awareness




Familiarizing Ss with the topic: global warming and related subject greenhouse effect. T writes the word: Greenhouse effects and asks Ss whether they understand the meaning of written word, if not s/he would talk about what it means.


Ss listen

T Ss

To make Ss interested in the subject.














a passage or a paragraph

•Ss will read and understand a passage about global warming in this lesson and similar passages

Ss will learn to




Lesson Plan               

Pre-university Book One- Lesson Three

Goals & Strategies

            Goal: understanding a passage and finding main and specific idea of the passage using skimming and scanning.

1. Objectives


a. Terminal objectives:

_Ss successfully understand how to control global warming and ways to reduce the greenhouse effects

 _Ss will be able to guess the meaning of unknown words using the context


b. Enabling Objectives

Ss will read, understand how to find the general idea of


fix main point of a certain paragraph or the passage


 Ss will be able to produce correct sentences using the vocabulary learned in this lesson


روش تدریس زبان پیش دانشگاهس یک درس جهارم
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۱۳ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٢


Sample Lesson Plan Based on Lesson Four, BOOK 1 Pre -University Textbook

 By : Mohammad Karimi Pasargad Disrtict English Group Winter 1387

Earthquakes and How to Survive Them



Communication objectives:

To describe the structure of the earth To discuss how an earthquake happens To plan what to do before/ during and after an earthquake

Language Objectives :

To improve the students' reading comprehension skills (scanning, skimming, guessing meaning from the context, identifying main ideas etc.) To use so/such ... that

To use enough ltoo

To understand so/such ... that l enough ltoo in sentences

To understand the connection between sentence and text parts through punctuation marks (,- . etc. )

Learning Strategies and thinking objectives To apply prior knowledge

To identify details To classify

To sequence

To cooperate with peers To skim and scan

To recall by visualizing

To guess the meanings of unfamiliar words through pictures, and cognates and borrowing words

To make connections to real life situations To compare and contrast

Materials :

Pre-university text book lA computer set and its necessary hard wares l Data projector / Whiteboard /Longman Digital Dictionary (CD's) / Crayons or Markers /Earthquake poster /Drop, Cover and Hold on Poster /Paper Copies of Vocabulary Task / Soft music /



Lesson presentation:

Suggested time :100 minutes

 Warm up

Hi everybody. Today you're going to read another interesting article in your text book, unit 4. I'm sure you'll enjoy it since the writer in this article is trying to give you information about a very common happening on our planet, the earth.

But before going to the text and read it, I guess you'll have to become familiar with some new words and expressions which are really helpful to you for your better and quicker understanding of the passage.

0. k. are you ready ? everybody here? Books closed, please. Just listen and learn the new words extracted directly from the passage in unit 4.


Key words and expressions in the passage :

A : Pronunciations and correct stress patterns: ( 5 minutes)

Soft music on - of course not loudly;

Using the data projector 1 project the power point slid show of the key words (the table below) or ( 1 write the key words and expressions on the board very quickly. Then 1 pronounce them with the correct pronunciations and stress patterns.

1 ask the students to identify the stressed syllable in each word when they hear It.

Music off;

Then 1 have my students repeat them after me several times to master the correct pronunciations.

Using the pointer, 1 ask the class or call one certain student to pronounce the pointed word or expression.


earthquake / survive / layer / in comparison to - with / float / liquid / consist of / smoothly / experience / common / instrument / shake / rattle / damage / shock / populated / luckily / destructive / destruction / probable / hit / entirely / predict / prediction / locate / possibility / organization / forecast / flood / reality / mechanism / emergency / procedure / fire department / calm / provide / aid / aftershock

Key words and expressions in the passage :


 B : Dictionary definitions and meanings (15 minutes)

1 give a copy of this dictionary word definition and the example sentences to each one of the learners. Then quickly check each word with its meaning. To be sure that they have got the exact meaning intended in this unit, 1 try to extract the Persian equivalent for each word from the students after they saw and read the meaning.

As needed 1 use some pictures (provided by the Longman Digital Dictionary) to explain the meanings of these words.

I also project the Longman Dictionary by the Data Projector on the screen and try to screen the word definitions and sample context/s or example/s in which each word is used so that the students can learn from both the word definitions and contexts.

1. earthquake : a sudden shaking of the earth's surface The powerful earthquake caused a lot of injury and death. 2. survive : continue to live after an accident, war or illness These plants cannot survive in very cold conditions.

3. layer : an amount of substance that covers a surface

The earth is made up of three main layers: the crust, the mantle and the core. 4. in comparison to : when compared with sb / sth

Tom is a tall boy in comparison with the boys of his own age. 5. float : stay on the surface of a liquid without sinking

A plastic bag was floating on the water. 6.liquid : a substance that is not a solid or gas The liquid in that bottle is dangerous. Keep it out of reach of small children. 7. consist of : be formed from ; be made up of

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. These two gases combine to form water. 8. smoothly : without any sudden movements or changes; in a steady way Based on the new report, the traffic is moving smoothly.

9. experience: skill gained from doing a job

The people living in this area have never experienced a strong earthquake. 10. common: happening often; shared by everyone

Heart disease is one of the common causes of death. 11. instrument: tool

They have ordered new surgical instruments for this hospital. 12. shake : move sth up and down or from side to side

It is necessary to shake the bottle well before taking the medicine. 13. rattle : move sth with a sound

The open windows were rattling in the wind all night. 14. damage: physical harm

Smoking can easily damage health.

15. shock: violent shaking ; unpleasant surprise

The shock of the explosion could be felt up to s ix miles away. 16. populated: full of people

Unluckily, the earthquake happened in a populated area. 17. luckily: fortunately

Luckily, I got a good job as soon as I received my university degree. 18. destructive: causing damage and destruction

We're worried about the destructive effects of modern bombs. 19. destruction : the act of destroying sth

We are concerned about the environmental destruction caused by humans. 20. probable : likely to exist or to be true

The probable cause of the accident was high speed. 21. hit : come against sb/sth with force

Earthquakes usually hit the places that are in earthquake zones. 22. entirely : completely

I entirely agree with you about changing our house. 23. predict : say that sth will happen

Scientists are looking for a reliable method of predicting earthquakes.

24. prediction : the act of predicting sth

The results of the experiment showed that our predictions were right. 25. locate : find the exact place of sth

We couldn't locate the source of the radio signals.

26. possibility : the fact that sth might exist or happen There is a possibility that our plane will not arrive on time. 27. organization : a group that has formed for a particular purpose They have formed a new organization to support the environment. 28. forecast : say what the weather will be like

Weather organization have forecasted snowfall and rainfall for the weekend. 29. flood : when a lot of water covers an area that is usually dry

The heavy rain has caused floods in many parts of the country.

30. reality : what actually happens or is true, not what is imagined I don't know why she refuses to face reality.

31. mechanism : the way that sth works

We need to learn more about earthquake mechanisms. 32. emergency : an event that needs immediate action The plane had to make an emergency landing in this airport. 33. procedure : a way of doing sth

My father pays a lot of attention to safety procedures at home. 34. fire department: fire service

The fire department is going to employ some firemen. 35. calm : relaxed and quiet; not angry, nervous or upset It's very important to keep calm in an emergency.

36. provide : give sth to sb, make sth available for sb who needs it He provided me with everything I needed.

37. aid : help

He survived only because first aid was given to him at the scene of the accident 38. aftershock: a small earthquake that happens after a bigger one

Many buildings were destroyed because of the aftershocks.


After introducing the correct pronunciations, stress patterns meanings, definitions and sample contexts, I provide the students with some vocabulary tasks.

Music On ;

Vocabulary task A : (10 minutes)

I distribute the paper copies of these voc. tasks among the students. I ask them to do the activity in pairs.

After 10 minutes ,I ask each pair to exchange its paper with the neighboring pair for comparison. (4 minutes)

Match the items in column A with those in column B.

Pad A

paw $

A. when compared with sb / sth

( )earthquake

B. stay on the surface of a liquid without sinking

( )survive

C. an amount of substance that covers a surface

( )layer


D. a sudden shaking of the earth's surface


)in comparison to

E. continue to live after an accident, war or illness



F. be formed from ; be made up of



G. without any sudden movements or changes; in a steady way


)consist of

H. skill gained from doing a job



I. happening often; shared by everyone



J. a substance that is not a solid or gas



Pad A


Part $

A. tool



B. move sth up and down or from side to side



C. move sth with a sound



D. physical harm



E. violent shaking ; unpleasant surprise



F. full of people



G. fortunately



H. causing damage and destruction



I. the act of destroying sth



J. likely to exist or to be true



K. come against sb/sth with force



L. completely






Part A


Pait $



)fire department

A. say that sth will happen



B. the act of predicting sth



C. find the exact place of sth



D. the fact that sth might exist or happen



E. a group that has formed for a particular purpose



F. say what the weather will be like



G. when a lot of water covers an area that is usually dry



H. what actually happens or is true, not what is imagined



I. the way that sth works



J. an event that needs immediate action



K. a way of doing sth



L. fire service



M. relaxed and quiet; not angry, nervous or upset



N. give sth to sb,make sth available for sb who needs it help



O. a small earthquake that happens after a bigger one



Vocabulary task B : ( 5 minutes )

Match the words or expressions with the suggested Persian equivalents given below.

earthquake / survive / layer / in comparison to - with / float / liquid / consist of / smoothly / experience / common / instrument / shake / rattle / damage / shock / populated / luckily / destructive / destruction / probable / hit / entirely / predict / prediction / locate / possibility / organization / forecast / flood / reality / mechanism / emergency / procedure / fire department / calm / provide / aid / aftershock

Music off :


(Now I ask the students to open their textbooks on page 33.)

Before Reading Activities : A : the Opening page (p. 33) ( 3 minutes): The purpose of this page is to draw the readers into the theme and content of the lesson.

I call my students' attention to the lesson title, the photo and the sentences in the box on page 33.

I read the title aloud. "Earthquakes and How to Survive Them". I ask: What do you think this passage is about?

I ask them to identify what they see in the photo. I ask them to guess what the passage is about.

I have them read the English sentences below the photo and restate it in their own words and then say if they agree with it or not.

Finally, I ask them about the connection that might be between the photo, the title and the sentences on this page.

I also help them understand the picture on page 34, showing the structure of the planet earth : the crust, the mantle, the core ( outer and inner)


B: Before Reading Questions ( 10 minutes):

In this section I ask questions to reflect on my students' prior knowledge of the passage " Earthquake and how to survive them".

I give the students enough time and chance to think about these questions and discuss them with the purpose of helping them activate their background knowledge on the topic.

I also ask the students to scan the reading and use the information they have found to answer some of the pre-reading questions or tasks.

Using the Data Projector I project the following questions one by one in the form of power point slides on the screen. I ask the whole class to think

about each question and then I call a name to discuss and express his idea(s).

Note : If the data projector is not available or some problems happen when using it, I'll ask the questions orally or write some of them on the board very quickly.

Before Reading QUESTIONS :

•           Have you ever experienced an earthquake?

•           When was the last earthquake that you remember?

•           Has your house been damaged by an earthquake?

•           Were you frightened the first time you experienced an earthquake?

•           How can you prepare for a possible earthquake? (you can scan the text in the book.)

•           What preparations should you make before the earthquake hits?

•           What happens during an earthquake? (you can scan the text in the book)

•           What areas of the world have many earthquakes? (you can scan the text in the book)

•           What kind of injuries are caused by earthquakes?

O                   How do you treat these injuries?

•           What frightens people most after an earthquake?

•           How can you deal with post traumatic stress resulting from an earthquake? •        Where is the best place to go during an earthquake? ( you can scan the text in the book.)

•      Is it possible to know in advance that an earthquake is coming? (you can scan the text in the book)

•        Is an earthquake always followed by a tsunami?

•        What causes a tsunami after an earthquake?

•        How do you measure earthquakes?

•        Is your home built to withstand earthquakes?

O       Where in your house would you hide if there were an earthquake? •           What causes aftershocks?

•        Do you live in an area that has earthquakes?

O                   Are you afraid to be living in an earthquake prone place?

O                   Have you thought about moving?

While Reading Activities : (40 minutes)

Now please open your books on page 35. this is the beginning of the passage we're going to deal with today.


What's the title?

Well, class. Scan the passage and tell me - every body, please :

In which paragraph does the writer explain the earth's structure?

In which paragraph does the writer gives the number of shocks that occur every year?

In which paragraph does the writer talk about earthquake prediction?

Now tell me: How many sub-headings does the writer provide under the heading "What to Do?"

Under which sub-heading does the writer probably talk about ' fixing heavy things on the walls?"

Under which sub-heading does the writer probably talk about "Standing away from buildings and tress?"

Under which sub-heading does the writer probably talk about " Providing first aid?"

Now I ask the students to refer back to the first paragraph of the passage.

I have them read the first paragraph silently with their eyes not their lips.

At the same time, I project the pre-prepared power point slide of the paragraph on the screen.

I encourage the students to try to guess the meanings of unfamiliar and challenging words from the context around .(I remind them of this important skill.)

The students are also allowed to use the voc. sheets I gave them in the form of voc. tasks A and B to remember the meanings of the new words in the passage. (I remind them of this.)

They can also refer to the right sidebar to get the meanings of some challenging words or expressions. (I remind them of this.)

They can also use their own dictionaries. (I remind them of this.)

I refer them to the picture depicting the earth's structure on page 34 . I point to that picture (p.34) to help them understand the paragraph far better.

I also encourage the students to read actively.

They should circle the words, write questions in the margins, and take notes which make their reading more active and meaningful.                                                                                    (I remind them of this.)

I make sure my students know how to use the vocabulary glosses and other support tools to assist them in the reading process. (I check and monitor their performance while reading silently.)


Pointing to the projected slide on the screen , I read the paragraph aloud and ask the students to listen to how the words are arouped together. As they listen, I have them lightly underline or circle the groups of words.

Now I ask some questions ( \Nh. Or Yes/No ) and some true/false statements based on the first paragraph to check their comprehension.

1- What are the three main layers of the planet earth?

2- What's the crust?/ mantle/ core? What are they made or /what are they like? /

3- Is the crust layer the same every where? How does it differ? 4- What are the broken pieces of the crust called?

5-True /false : The mantle layer is broken into many pieces called plates. 6-True/false : The crust layer is thinner than the other two layers.

7- Describe the core layer.

8- Restate the par. With your own sentences.

I also call somebody to ask a question Other peers should find the answer. Paragraph 2 :

The same procedure as I did with the first paragraph;

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

silent reading

projecting the par. on the screen circling new and unfamiliar words encouraging students to guess the meaning of challenging words from context reading aloud

checking comprehension

asking for the paragraph main idea restating the paragraph

How does an earthquake occur? / What happens before happening ?

Using the data projector,I project the following sentences on the screen. Then I ask the students to put them in the correct order of their happening.

I follow almost the same procedure with the rest of the passage and the other paragraphs. I also time the students' reading.

The same procedure

a.     silent reading

b. projecting the par. on the screen c.     circling new and unfamiliar words d. encouraging students to guess the meaning of challenging words from context e.          reading aloud ( me or a certain student)

f.     checking comprehension

g. asking for the paragraph main idea h. restating the paragraph

Comprehension check questions :

par. 3.

1.     What's the main idea of par. 3?

2.     What does "it" refer to in line 2?

3. Do all people experience an earthquake?

4. Do you know the special instrument used for measuring earthquakes? 5.           Look at the structure of "so light that..." . what does it mean?

6.     Pay attention to the place of the word "enough" in the last sentence. 7. Whatis the structure following "adj. enough..."?

I briefly explainthe structure of " so .....that...." and " "adj. enough ...I I.

Comprehension check questions :

Paragraphs 4. / 5 / 6/ 7 :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

( true / false ). Most earthquakes happen in populated areas. Where's the most probable area for today's earthquakes?

( true/ false) Nowadays earthquakes can be predicted. Almost ............earthquakes happen each year. What's the main idea of par. 7?

Is earthquake prediction a future possibility? What does "this" refer to in line 3 of par. 7? When does earthquake prediction become a reality?

The "What to do" part.

Here I also hang the large poster ( containing 10 different pictures )on the classroom wall. This poster depicts what we should do before and during an earthquake. Pointing to each part of the poster, I ask the students to distinguish the related sentence in the "what to do" part.

I also do the same procedure :

a.     silent reading

b. projecting the par. on the screen c.     circling new and unfamiliar words d.       encouraging students to guess the meaning of challenging words from context

e.     reading aloud ( me or a certain student)

f.     checking comprehension

g. asking for the paragraph main idea h. restating the paragraph

Comprehension check questions : ( par. 8/ 9/ 10 page 36)

1.     What's the rest of the passage about?

2.     What are the things that the writer suggests us to do before an earthquake?

3. What should we do during an earthquake? 4. What should we do after an earthquake? 5.          Questions asked by the students.

After Reading

Post reading activities: (10 minutes)

I have my students refer to "Comprehension Check" part on page 37 of their textbooks.

I call the students by name, point to a certain number of the Comprehension Check statements or questions and give them a chance to think and discuss about this part.

I also get the students to discuss their reaction to the reading passage in pairs and groups with the purpose of giving them an opportunity to check their comprehension more critically and analyze their reaction to the passage.

I show the students the value of returning to the reading passage again and again to answer the comprehension and discussion questions. I ask them to point out the specific places in the reading where they have found answers to the questions.

Now I give them a 10 minutes time to write a summery of the passage and hand it to me.

I read two of the summaries written (chosen by chance) to the class and ask for their ideas about them.

For further reading ,I encourage the students to refer to some internet sites and search for topics related to EARTHQUAKE in English.

I also provide them with the following text for extensive outside reading. I ask them to read the text at home and check their understanding with me the next session in the classroom..

Earthquakes strike without warning, and the major shock is usually followed by numerous, after shocks, which may last for weeks or months. An earthquake's effect on buildings will vary from building to building. Fire alarm or sprinkler systems may be activated by the shaking. Elevators and stairways will need to be inspected for damage before they can be used.

The major threat of injury during an earthquake is from falling objects and debris, and many injuries are sustained while entering or leaving buildings. Therefore, it is important to remain inside the building and quickly move away from windows, glass and free standing partitions and shelves. Take cover under a sturdy desk or table, in a doorway, or against an inside wall until the shaking stops.


Give DROP AND COVER command.

1.     After shaking stops, check for injuries, and render first aid

2.         If ordered by Site Coordinator, evacuate.

3.         DO NOT return to building.

4.         DO NOT light any fires.

5.         Keep a safe distance from any downed power lines.

6.          Check attendance whether or not evacuation takes place. Report any missing students to Site Coordinator.

7.          Stay alert for aftershocks

8.         Site Coordinator will issue fur.her instructions.

Drop Co ve r

1.     Get under desk or table or other sturdy furniture with back to windows.

2. If not near any furniture, sit in a corner or with back against a wall with back to windows.

3.     Drop to knees, clasp both hands behind neck, bury face in arms, make body as small as possible, close eyes, and cover ears with forearms.

4.     If notebooks or jackets are handy, hold over head for added protection.

5.         Stay away from windows, bookcases, or other heavy objects.

6.         Maintain position until shaking stops.

1.     Assume DROP AND COVER position in an open space.

2.         Maintain position until shaking stops.

3.         Move away from buildings, trees, overhead wires, and poles.

4.         Do NOT enter building until it is determined to be safe.

Goodbye and Have a Nice Day

روش تدریس درس هشتم پیش دانشگاهی دو بخش دوم
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:۱٠ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٢




Match these words and phrases to their definitions.





not public




not simple




sth that shows what is happening




a kind of metal




continue to live




experience of pain




done not by force




a building for nuns


live on


help sth to grow




help for the poor




Complete the sentences using the correct form of must, could and might and the verbs in parentheses.

1.I made some sandwiches earlier and left them on the table when I went to answer the phone. Some one…… them because they are gone. (take)

2.I wonder why the radio is on in the kitchen . No one is there. Grandma… to turn it off. She was in the kitchen earlier.(forget)

3.I do not know where Ms. Adams is she is not in her room . she …..(be) a meeting ,or may be she is in the employee lounge.

4.I wonder how old Rita is. I think she was born around the same time

our daughter was born. She …….(be) about ten.

5. George had to give a speech in front of 5oo people . He …(be) nervous.

6. She went out after dinner and left the window open. There was a bad storm. She……………. (leave) the window open.

7. While she was cooking dinner, she was talking on the phone with her sister. The potatoes burned. She……. (talk) on the phone.

8. He does not have to come to class late every morning . He ………(come) to class on time if he tried.



1.False- Paragraph 1 says, ‘ When she was a student, she knew she had a duty to help the poor’.

2.True- Paragraph 3 says, ‘ The community is still active does charity work.’

3. True- Paragraph 4 says, ‘  her work received a lot of attention all over the world.’

4. False- Paragraph 1 says, ‘ His memory will live on because of the large number of inventions.’

5. False- paragraph 2 says, ‘ His serious hearing problem may have been the reason.’

6. True- Paragraph 6 says, ‘  He worked unit he was very old, though he suffered from many diseases.’



1.G                   2.I                                3.F             4.H          5. J

6.A                    7.D                              8.B             9.E          10.C



1.must have taken                                             2. must have forgotten

3. might/may have been                                     4. might/many have been

5. must have been                                             6. should not have left

7. should not have talked                                    8. could have come


روش تدریس درس هشتم پیش دانشگاهی دو
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٠:٠٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٢

teachers pack

Lesson plan and student worksheets with answers

Great Men and Women


Prepared by Firoozeh Khalife Shirazi




 1. Level, topic, language, aims, material

2.Lesson Stages

3. Student Worksheet 1,2,3

4. Answers

5. Reading passages


Level: Intermediate

Topic: Great men and women

Language: Vocabulary of a story

Aims: Reading skills                  Understanding a short passage

           Language skills              Grammar  - Modals

           Writing skills                  Encouraging students to stick to the                        

                                               deductions and possibities/ in the past.

Materials: worksheet 1              comprehension   questions

                 Worksheet 2            Vocabulary  matching task

                 Worksheet 3            Grammar/ language focus modals


Learning English – Words in the Text

Mother Teresa

1 Mother Teresa was born in Skopje in what is now Yugoslavia on August 27, 1910. Her Albanian father had a small farm. At the age of twelve, when she was a student at a Roman Catholic elemantary school, she knew she had a duty to help the poor. She decided to get training for missionary work and, a few year later, made India her choice. At the age of eighteen, she left home and joined Irish community of nuns with a mission in Calcutta. After a few months training in Dublin, she was sent to India and in 1928 she became a run.


2 From 1929 to 1948 Mother Teresa taught at St. Marys High School in Calcutta. The suffering and poverty she observed outside the convent walls made a deep impression on her. In 1946, she received permission from her superiors to leave the convent  school and devote herself to working among the poor in the slums of Calcutta. Although she had no money, she started an open-air school for homeless children. Soon voluntary helpers joined her, and financial support came from various church organizations, as well as from the city officials. In 1950, she was permitted to srart her own religious community The Missionaries of Charity. Its task was to care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after.

3 Mother Teresa had fifty charity projects in India, including work among people living in slums, children, homes, and clinics. The community is sltill active and does charity work for the poorest of the poor in a number of countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America,  Europe, and United States.

4 Mother Teresa’s work received a lot of attention all over world, and she was given a number of awards including a Nobel Peace Prize in 1979, for her promotion of peace and brotherhood among the nations. Mother Teresa died on September 5,1997.


Thomas Edison

1 Thomas Alva Edison was one of the most important scientists and inventors of the past twi centuries, His memory will live on because of the large number of his inventions and their usefulness even today, Most likely, the next electronic device you pick up he once invented or improved, or at least tried to.

2 Edison was born February 11, 1847, in Milan, Ohio, and grew up in Michigan. At an early age. He showed signs of a serious hearing problem. This may have been the reason for Edisons poor performance at school. Edison did not do well there and was often annoyed by the other children. Three months after starting school, Edison ran away. His mother was forced to teach him at home.

3 Edison enjoyed reading chemistry books beside, he was a very interested observer of anything that was complex- electronic, or telegraphic. He never stopped studing studing and experimenting.

4 In 1871 Edison moved to Newark, New Jersey and started his first laboratory. Later that year, he married Mary Stilwell, and they had three children. In 1876, when his lab in Newark got too small for his research activities, Edison decided to build a big factory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. This was the first private research laboratory in the U.S.

5 Edison worked on many projects, including sound recording devices, In 1877, he successfully recorded and played back a message by phonography. The phonography machine, or phonograph, was like a record player without the disc. Instead, it used a cylinder with tin foil to record and play sounds.

6 In 1879, Edison developed the firs successful electric light bulb. This invention made Edison rich and famous. Edison worked until he was very old, although he suffered from many diseases.He died on October 18, 1931.



 A Stimulate student interest in text

Ask students  what makes people famous and put their names on the board.


Being rich


Inventing sth to make our lives easy


Playing in a movie


Exploring foregin lands


Playing sports



Conduct a survey to find out which one is the most popular in the class.

Being rich


Inventing sth to make our lives easy


Playing in a movie.


Exploring foreign lands


Playing sports



B Pre – teach essential vocabulary

Elicit/ present key vocabulary that students need either to understand the key points in the text or to understand and/or andswer any questions that them later in the lesson.

You  could eithet pre-teach the vocabulary at this stage of the lesson or you could use the vocabulary building activity from further down in this lesson plan. Have students working together in small groups and ask them to try to match the vocabulary with the definitions.

Encourage them to work with  the other groups to pool their knowledge.

When they have done as much as they can, if they dictionaries, ask them to look up the word to check their answers and to find out the definitions of any words they are not sure of. If they don’t have dictionaries, check  their answers and give them help with any words they arent sure of.

Whichever method you use to elicit/present the vocabulary, you should then model it (say it cleary, highlighting the word stress) and get them to repeat the words after you.

missionary work

teaching about the christian religion


a group of people having the some religion/job/etc.


a woman of a Christian community


experience of pain and unpleasant emotions


a building for nuns


give most of your time/ energy, etc to sb / sth


very poor part of a city


done not by force


of money


help for the poor


help sth to grow

live on

continue to live


sth that shows what is happening


not simple


not public


a kind of metal (sn)                                            


D Set a skimming question

Tell the student they are going to read a text about great men and women. Put this question on the board.

(A)mother Teresa was so rich that she could do all charity work on her own.

(B) Mother Teresa got the physics Nobel Prize in 1979.

(C) Edison was the best student in his school.

(D) Edison made all his inventions when he was young.


Students read texts the first time.

Give them a time limit(1-2 minutes) to read the text quickly to find the answer to the question- They donot need to understand the details of the texts to answer it.

E Check answers

Paragraph 2 in text number 1 mentions Mother Teresa had no mong and paragraph 4 also mentions she got a Nobel Peace Prize.

Paragraph 2 in text number 2 refers to Edison’s poor  performance at school and paragraph 6 mention Edison worked until he was very old.

F Set specific information questions

Hand out worksheet 1, students complete the worksheet to help them understand the text in more detail- Give them a time limit (5 -6 minutes) to read the text a second time in more detail and to answer the qustions.

G Check answers

Elicit True or Fals answer- Direct attention to particular paragraph if an answer is wrong to try to elicit the correct answer(see worksheet 1 and answer key).

H  Vocabulary consolidation /building

Students do the vocabulary matching exercise( worksheet 2 that you cut up before the lesson). In small groups they match the correct word with the right definition.

I Check answers

Elicit answers. If an answer is wrong , ask other student to try to elicit the correct answer.

J Grammar focus: modals

Elicit/ teach some of the rules of using modals



A: Mother Teresa knew she had a duty to help the poor

B: she must have been very kind.

A: She received a lot of attention all over the work.

B: The people must have loved her so much.


A: Other children annoyed Edison at school.

B: He could have talked to the teacher.

A: Edisons mother had to teach him.

B: His father could have taught him.


A: Three months after starting school, Edison ran away.

B: He should not have run away.


In these sentences: The speaker is making a logical conclusion, e.g., I thought about Mother Teresa and found out that she was kind. I think that is the reason why she was loved. I can not think of any other reason.


Could have offers ‘hindsight possibilities.’ In these sentences, the speaker is saying ‘He had the chance to do this or that. It was possible for this or that to happen. He missed some good opportunities.


Should have gives ‘hindsight advice.’ In was important for him not to run away, but he did. He made a mistake.


K check answers

If an answer is wrong, ask other students to try to elicit the correct answer (see worksheet 3 and answer key).

L Follow-up activity: writing

Ask students to comment on the following situation using should+ have+ past participle, could+ have+ past participle and might+ have+past participle.( you are supposed to write down the following sentences on the board).


Tom did not study for the test. During the exam, he started looking at other student’s test papers. He did not think the teacher saw him,but she did.

I bought an old  BMW, but I am unhappy with it , can you suggest some other possibilities that I did not think of ?

My favorite magazine doesn’t come in the mail anymore. I wonder why.

Students work by themselves to write their own sentences.

Give them 2 or 3 minutes to think about the situations and about 5-10 minutes to write their sentences.

Circulate, while they are working , givinig help with grammar and spelling/ if necessary.

M Feed back

If possible, display the sentences around the classrom. Ask the students to look at each one and vote on which one they think is correct. Give praise for correct language and give feed back on incorrect language .

You could write some example phrases or sentences on the board and elicit from students which ones are correct and which ones are wrong and why.



STUDENT                              WORKSHEFT 1


Are the following sentences true or false


Mother Teresa”s parents persuaded her to be  a nun.



The poor people have been looked after by the Missionaries of Charity up to now.




The people all across the world had respect for Mother Teresa.




Edison invented just a few electric devices




Edison did not perform well at school because other children annoyed him.




Edison kept working on his project, although he was sick.




Praise With God
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:٠٥ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٠

I asked god to take away my habit
God said : no it is not for me to take away, but for you to give it up

از خدا خواستم عادت های زشت را ترکم بدهد
خدا فرمود : خودت باید آنها را رها کنی

I asked god to make my handicapped child whole
God said : no, body is only temporary

از او درخواست کردم فرزند معلولم را شفا دهد
خدا فرمود : لازم نیست، روحش سالم است، جسم هم که موقت است

I asked god to give me happiness
God said : I give you blessings happiness is up to you

گفتم مرا خوشبخت کن
خدا فرمود : نعمت از من، خوشبخت شدن از تو

I asked god to make my spirit grow
God said : no, You must grow on your own but
i will prune you to make you fruitful

از او خواستم روحم را رشد دهد
خدا فرمود : نه تو خودت باید رشد کنی،
من فقط شاخ و برگ اضافی ات را هرس می کنم تا بارور شوی

I asked god for all things that i might enjoy life
God said : I will give you life, so that you may enjoy all things

از خدا خواستم کاری کند که از زندگی لذت کامل ببرم
خدا فرمود : برای این کار من به تو زندگی داده ام

I asked god to help me love others as much as he loves me
God said : Ahah, finally you have the ide

از خدا خواستم کمکم کند همان قدر که او مرا دوست دارد من هم دیگران را دوست بدارم
خدا فرمود : آها بالاخره اصل مطلب دستگیرت شد

الفبـــای خــوشبختی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱٢:٠۱ ‎ق.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/۱٠


Happiness Alphabet

Accept - پذیرا باشید
دیگران را همانگونه که هستند بپذیرید، حتی اگر برایتان مشکل باشد
که عقاید، رفتارها و نظرات آنها را درک کنید.

Break away - خودتان را جدا سازید
 خود را از تمام چیزهایی که مانع رسیدن شما به اهدافتان می شود جدا سازید.

Create - خلق کنید
 خانواده ای از دوستان و آشنایانتان تشکیل دهید
و با آنها امیدها، آرزوها، ناراحتی ها و شادی هایتان را شریک شوید.

Decide - تصمیم بگیرید
 تصمیم بگیرید که در زندگی موفق باشید. در آن صورت شادی راهش را
به طرف شما پیدا می کند و اتفاقات خوشایند و دلپذیری برای شما رخ خواهد داد.

Explore - کاوشگر باشید
 جستجو و آزمایش کنید. دنیا چیزهای زیادی برای ارائه کردن دارد و شما هم قادرید چیزهای زیادی را ارائه دهید. هر زمان که کار جدیدی را آزمایش می کنید خودتان را بیشتر می شناسید.

Forgive - ببخشید
 ببخشید و فراموش کنید. کینه فقط بارتان را سنگین تر می کند و الهام بخش ناخوشایندی است. از بالا به موضوع نگاه کنید و به خاطر داشته باشید که هر کسی امکان دارد اشتباه کند.

Grow - رشد کنید
 عادات و احساسات نادرست خود را ترک کنید
تا نتوانند مانع رشد و سد راه شما برای رسیدن به اهدافتان شوند.

Hope - امیدوار باشید
 به بهترین چیزها امید داشته باشید و هرگز فراموش نکنید که هر چیزی امکان پذیر است،
البته اگر در کارهایتان پشتکار داشته باشید و از خدا کمک بخواهید.

Ignore - نادیده بگیرید
 امواج منفی را نادیده بگیرید. روی اهدافتان تمرکز کنید و موفقیت های گذشته را بخاطر بسپارید. پیروزی های گذشته نشانه و رابطی برای موفقیت های آینده هستند.

Journey سفر کنید
 به جاهای جدید سر بزنید و با فکر روشن، امکانات جدید را آزمایش کنید. سعی کنید هر روز چیزهای جدیدی را بیاموزید، بدین صورت رشد خواهید کرد و احساس زنده بودن می کنید.

Know - آگاه باشید
 آگاه باشید که هر مساله ای هر چقدر هم که سخت و دشوار باشد در نهایت حل خواهد شد. همانطور که گرمای مطبوع و دلپذیر بهار پس از سرمای طاقت فرسای زمستان می آید.

Love - دوست بدارید
 اجازه دهید که عشق به جای نفرت، قلبتان را پر کند. زمانی که نفرت در قلب شما ساکن است هیچ فضای خالی برای عشق وجود ندارد، اما موقعی که عشق در قلبتان ساکن است،
تمام خوشبختی و شادی در وجودتان قرار دارد.

Manage - مدیر باشید
 بر زمان مدیریت داشته باشید، تا استرس و نگرانی کمتری شما را رنج دهد.
استفاده درست از زمان باعث می شود که روی موضوعات مهم بهتر تمرکز کنید.

Notice - توجه کنید
 هرگز افراد فقیر، ناامید، رنج کشیده و ضعیف را نادیده نگیرید
و هر نوع کمکی را که قادرید به این افراد ارائه دهید از آنان دریغ نکنید.

Open - باز کنید
 چشم هایتان را باز کنید و به تمام زیباییهایی که در اطرافتان وجود دارد نگاه کنید،
حتی در سخت ترین و بدترین شرایط، چیزهای زیادی برای سپاسگزاری وجود دارد.

Play - بازی و تفریح کنید
 فراموش نکنید که در زندگیتان تفریح و سرگرمی داشته باشید.
بدانید که موفقیت بدون شادی و لذت های مشروع، مفهومی ندارد.

Question - سوال کنید
 چیزهایی را که نمی دانید بپرسید، زیرا که شما برای یاد گرفتن به این کره خاکی آمده اید.

Relax آرامش داشته باشید
 اجازه ندهید که نگرانی و استرس بر زندگی شما حاکم شود
و به یاد داشته باشید که همه چیز در نهایت درست خواهد شد.

Share - سهیم شوید
 استعدادها، مهارتها، دانش و توانائیهایتان را با دیگران تقسیم کنید،
زیرا هزاران برابر آن به سمت خودتان برمی گردد.

Try - تلاش کنید
 حتی زمانی که رویاهایتان غیر ممکن به نظر می رسند تلاشتان را بکنید.
با تلاش و مشارکت در انجام کارها ماهر و خبره می شوید.

Use - استفاده کنید
 از استعدادها و توانایی هایتان به عنوان بهترین هدیه استفاده کنید. استعدادهایی که تلف شوند ارزشی ندارند. استفاده صحیح از استعدادها و تواناییهایتان برای شما
پاداش های غیرمنتظره ای به دنبال دارد.

Value - احترام بگذارید
 برای دوستان و اقوامی که شما را حمایت و تشویق کرده اند، ارزش قایل شوید
و هر کاری که از دستتان بر می آید برای آنها انجام دهید.

Warm - صمیمی باشید
 با اطرافیانتان صمیمی باشید و نگذارید فضای اخلاقیتان
به سمت و سویی جز صمیمیت منتهی شود.

X-Ray - اشعه ایکس
 با دقت و شبیه اشعه ایکس به قلب های انسانهای اطراف خود بنگرید،
در نتیجه شما زیبایی و خوبی را در قلب آنها خواهید دید.

Yield - اجازه دهید
 اجازه دهید که صداقت و درستکاری وارد زندگیتان شود.
اگر شما در راه درستی حرکت کنید در انتها سعادت واقعی را خواهید یافت .

Zoom - تمرکز کنید
 زمانی که خاطرات تلخ، ذهنتان را پر کرده است سعی کنید با مثبت اندیشی به آینده فکر کنید
و بر خوشبختی که در ادامه ی عمر در انتظارتان است تمرکز کنید

نکات ضروری در جهت حفظ سلامتی
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/٩

Answer the phone by
LEFT ear

پاسخ دادن به موبایل از گوش چپ استفاده کنید

Do not drink coffee
TWICE a day

روزانه بیش از دو فنجان قهوه ننوشید

Do not take pills with
COOL water

قرص و داروها را با آب خیلی سرد
مصرف نکنید

Do not have
HUGE meals after 5pm

بعد از ساعت 5:00 از خوردن غذای چرب خوداری کنید

Reduce the amount of
TEA you consume

مصرف چای روزانه را کم کنید

Reduce the amount of
OILY food you consume

از مقدار غذای چرب و اشباع شده با روغن در وعده های غذایی کم کنید

Drink more
WATER in the morning, less at night

در صبح آب بیشتر و در شب آب کمتر
ی بنوشید

Keep your distance from hand phone

از گوشی موبایل در زمان شارژ شدن دوری کنید

Do not use headphones/earphone for
LONG period of time

از سمعکهای تلفن ثابت و موبایل برای مدت طولانی استفاده نکنید

Best sleeping time is from
10PM at night to 6AM in the morning

بهترین زمان خواب از ساعت 10:00 شب تا ساعت 6:00 صبح است

Don't lie down immediately after taking
Medicine before sleeping

پس از مصرف دارو فوراٌ نخوابید

When battery is down to the
LAST grid/bar
do not answer the phone as the radiation is 1000 times

زمانیکه باتری موبایل ضعیف است با
جایی تماس نگیرید و تماس کسی را پاسخ ندهید چون در این حالت امواج منتشره از گوشی 1000 برابر است


چند نکته برای بهتر زیستن
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/٩


- هرگز گره ای را که می شود باز کرد، نبر؛ هنگام مواجهه با کار سخت، طوری عمل کن که انگار شکست غیر ممکن است.

- مردم دار باش ، هرگز کسی را از خود نرنجان

- خود را با معیار های خودت بسنج، نه با معیار های دیگران

- فراوان بخند ، شوخ طبعی درمان تقریبا همه دردهای زندگی است

- از زمان یا کلمات با بی توجهی استفاده نکن ، هیچکدام قابل بازگشت نیستند.

- برای کسانی که از دست رنج خود ارتزاق می کنند- هر قدر هم کارشان پیش پا افتاده باشد- احترام قائل باش

- هیچ فرصتی را برای ابراز محبت از دست نده.

- نگو وقت نداری ، تو دقیقا همان تعداد ساعت در روز را در اختیار داری که پاستور، میکل آنژ، مادر ترزا، هلن کلر، لئوناردو داوینچی، توماس جفرسون و آلبرت انیشتین در اختیار داشتند.

- حال و هوای بچگی را فراموش نکن

- خود را به "خود بهسازی" دائم متعهد کن

- به افکار بزرگ فکر کن، اما از شادی های کوچک لذت ببر

- شریک زندگیت را با دقت انتخاب کن ، نودوپنج درصد خوشبختی ها و بدبختی های زندگی ات از همین یک تصمیم خواهد بود

آیا میدانستید؟!
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/٩


در این دنیای عجیب و غریب از دیدن خیلی از چیزها انسان هاج و واج می ماند و دچار شگفتی میشود و این در حالیست که نمیشود خیلی از چیزها رو باور نکرد !
آیا میدانستید که یک سوسک حمام می‌تواند 9 روز بدون سر زندگی کند تا اینکه از گرسنگی بمیرد.
آیا میدانستید که یک کوروکودیل نمی‌تواند زبانش را بیرون بیاورد.
آیا میدانستید که حلزون می‌تواند 3 سال بخوابد.
آیا میدانستید که به طور میانگین مردم از عنکبوت بیشتر می‌ترسند تا از مرگ!
آیا میدانستید که اگر جمعیت چین به شکل یک صف از مقابل شما راه بروند، این صف به خاطر سرعت تولید مثل هیچ‌ وقت تمام نخواهد شد.
آیا میدانستید که خطوط هوایی آمریکا با کم کردن فقط یک زیتون از سالاد هر مسافر در سال 1987 توانست 40000$ صرفه‌جویی کند.
آیا میدانستید که ملت آمریکا بطور میانگین روزانه 73000 متر مربع پیتزا می‌خورند.
آیا میدانستید که چشم‌های شترمرغ از مغزش بزرگتر است.
آیا میدانستید که بچه‌ها بدون کشکک زانو متولد میشوند. کشکک‌ها در سن 2 تا 6 سالگی ظاهر می‌شوند.
آیا میدانستید که کوبیدن سر به دیوار 150 کالری در ساعت مصرف می‌کند.
آیا میدانستید که پروانه‌ها با پاهایشان می‌چشند.
آیا میدانستید که گربه‌‌ها می‌توانند بیش از یکصد صدا با حنجره خود تولید کنند در حالیکه سگ‌ها کمتر از 10 تا!
آیا میدانستید که تعداد چینی‌هایی که انگلیسی بلدند، از تعداد آمریکایی‌هایی که انگلیسی بلدند، بیشتر است!!
آیا میدانستید که دوئل کردن در پاراگوئه آزاد است به شرطی که طرفین خون خود را بر گردن بگیرند.
آیا میدانستید که فیل‌ها تنها حیواناتی هستند که نمی‌توانند بپرند.
آیا میدانستید که هر بار که یک تمبر را میلیسید 10/1 کالری انرژی مصرف می‌کنید.
آیا میدانستید که فوریه 1865 تنها زمانی بود که ماه کامل نشد.
آیا میدانستید که کوتاهترین جمله کامل در زبان انگلیسی I am است.
آیا میدانستید که اگر عروسک باربی را زنده تصور کنید سایزش 33-23-39 و قدش 2 متر و 15 سانتی‌متر خواهد بود با گردنی 2 برابر بلندتر از یک انسان نرمال.
آیا میدانستید که تمام خرسهای قطبی، چپ دست هستند.
آیا میدانستید که اگر یک ماهی قرمز را در یک اتاق تاریک قرار دهید، کم کم رنگش سفید می‌شود.
آیا میدانستید که اگر به صورت مداوم 8 سال و 7 ماه و 6 روز فریاد بزنید، انرژی صوتی لازم برای گرم کردن یک فنجان قهوه را تولید کرده‌اید.
آیا میدانستید که در مصر باستان افراد روحانی تمام موهای بدن خود را می‌کندند حتی ابروها و مژه‌ها.
آیا میدانستید که کوتاه‌ترین جنگ در تاریخ در سال 1896 بین زانزیبار و انگلستان رخ داد که 38 دقیقه طول کشید.
آیا میدانستید که در 4000 سال گذشته هیچ حیوان جدیدی رام نشده است.
آیا میدانستید که هیچوقت نمیتوانی با چشمان باز عطسه کنی.
آیا میدانستید که تعداد انسان‌هایی که به وسیله خر کشته می‌شوند، از انسان‌هایی که در سانحه هوایی می‌میرند بیشتر است.
آیا میدانستید که چشم‌های ما از بدو تولد همین اندازه بوده‌اند، اما رشد دماغ و گوش ما هیچ‌وقت متوقف نمی‌شوند.
آیا میدانستید که هر تکه کاغذ را نمی‌توان بیش از 9 بار تا کرد.
آیا میدانستید که در هرم خئوپوس در مصر که 2600 سال قبل از مبلاد ساخته شده است، به اندازه‌ای سنگ به کار رفته که می‌توان با آن دیواری آجری به ارتفاع 50 سانتی‌متر دور دنیا ساخت.
آیا میدانستید که اگرتمام رگ‌های خونی را در یک خط بگذاریم، تقریبا 97000 کیلومتر می‌شود.

نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٥٠ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/٩


Practice the Conversations of This Topic with ………….


A: Hi, how are you doing?
B: I'm fine. How about yourself?
A: I'm pretty good. Thanks for asking.
B: No problem. So how have you been?
A: I've been great. What about you?
B: I've been good. I'm in school right now.
A: What school do you go to?
B: I go to PCC.
A: Do you like it there?
B: It's okay. It's a really big campus.
A: Good luck with school.
B: Thank you very much.


A: How's it going?
B: I'm doing well. How about you?
A: Never better, thanks.
B: So how have you been lately?
A: I've actually been pretty good. You?
B: I'm actually in school right now.
A: Which school do you attend?
B: I'm attending PCC right now.
A: Are you enjoying it there?
B: It's not bad. There are a lot of people there.
A: Good luck with that.
B: Thanks.


A: How are you doing today?
B: I'm doing great. What about you?
A: I'm absolutely lovely, thank you.
B: Everything's been good with you?
A: I haven't been better. How about yourself?
B: I started school recently.
A: Where are you going to school?
B: I'm going to PCC.
A: How do you like it so far?
B: I like it so far. My classes are pretty good right now.
A: I wish you luck.
B: Thanks a lot.


. Fish Are Everywhere
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٤٩ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/٩


A: The ocean is so big.
B: You can’t see the end of it.
A: It goes on and on forever.
B: And it’s deep, too.
A: I think it’s five miles deep.
B: Are there fish at the bottom?
A: There are fish at the top and the bottom.
B: Are there more fish or more people?
A: I think there are more fish.
B: I hope so. I love to eat fish.

درک مطلب شماره 2
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:٤٤ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/٩


 2  Reading Comprehension


 Science News


Do you want to keep up with the latest research and discoveries in science? There are many good websites that you can visit to make that easy.

One great site is called Science News for Kids. This site reports science news covering a wide range of subjects. The articles are written with the interests and educational experience of younger readers in mind, but adults will find this site suitable for them as well.

1. The author believes that adults _______

a. won't understand a site for kids.
b. will find Science News for Kids useful.
c. don't like science as much as kids.

Another wonderful site, one that I check out every day, is called Science Daily. The site is constantly updated with news, often about exciting findings that change how we look at the world and the universe. Whether it's newly unearthed discoveries about creatures that have been extinct for millions of years or the latest advances in cures for human diseases, you'll find it at Science Daily.

2. What does “daily” mean?

a. never at night
b. only for scientists
c. every day

3. What does “unearthed” mean in the paragraph?

a. dug up
b. from another planet
c. shot into space

These sites post stories as they become news and also archive all the past articles. That way you can enter a search term and find articles on just about anything related to science that they've ever published.

4. What does “archive” (AR-kive) mean?

a. a nest in a boat
b read carefully
c. keep in a safe place

If you haven't done so already, why not visit these fascinating sites and see what you think? You can find them at http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/ and http://www.sciencedaily.com/.



These are just a few lines from In Memoriam A.H.H. by Alfred, Lord Tennyson. The author wrote the poem as a tribute to a close friend who died as a young adult. It was published in 1850.

You can find the entire poem and all of Tennyson's works at http://home.att.net/~TennysonPoetry/

         Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky,
       The flying cloud, the frosty light:
       The year is dying in the night;
       Ring out, wild bells, and let him die.

       Ring out the old, ring in the new,
       Ring, happy bells, across the snow:
       The year is going, let him go;
       Ring out the false, ring in the true.

       Ring out the grief that saps the mind,
       For those that here we see no more;
       Ring out the feud of rich and poor,
       Ring in redress to all mankind.

       Ring out a slowly dying cause,
       And ancient forms of party strife;
       Ring in the nobler modes of life,
       With sweeter manners, purer laws.


1. What holiday would you associate with these lines?


2. What kind of changes does Tennyson hope to see in the future?

3. What is a feud?

a.  an ongoing quarrel with bad feelings on each side
b. a game that creates feelings of comfort
c. a waterway that is similar to a deep river
d. a home with separate living quarters for servants

4. What does "redress" mean in this poem?

a. to get dressed again, to change clothes
b. clothing worn by an older person
c.  making up for a wrong or injustice
d. playing holiday music

5. Do Tennyson's words make you think about anything in your own life or in the news?

Teaching English as a foreign language
نویسنده : غلامعلی عباسی - ساعت ۱۱:۳٦ ‎ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/٧/٩

Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) refers to teaching English to students whose first language is not English. TEFL usually occurs in the student's own country, either within the state school system, or privately, e.g., in an after-hours language school or with a tutor. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English.

This article describes English teaching by native Anglophones working outside their own country, a small subset of English taught worldwide. To learn about other aspects of English teaching, see English language learning and teaching, which explains methodology and context, and explains abbreviations (e.g., the difference between ESL and EFL, or TESOL as a subject and an organization). For information on foreign language teaching in general, see language education and second language acquisition.



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