By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman
Researchers have identified three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct: (1) phonological deficit, (2) processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, and (3) comprehension deficit.
Researchers have made considerable progress in understanding all types of reading disabilities (Fletcher et al., 2007). For purposes of research, "reading impaired" children may be all those who score below the 30th percentile in basic reading skill. Among all of those poor readers, about 70-80 percent have trouble with accurate and fluent word recognition that originates with weaknesses in phonological processing, often in combination with fluency and comprehension problems. These students have obvious trouble learning sound-symbol correspondence, sounding out words, and spelling. The term dyslexic is most often applied to this group.
Another 10-15 percent of poor readers appear to be accurate but too slow in word recognition and text reading. They have specific weaknesses with speed of word recognition and automatic recall of word spellings, although they do relatively well on tests of phoneme awareness and other phonological skills. They have trouble developing automatic recognition of words by sight and tend to spell phonetically but not accurately. This subgroup is thought to have relative strengths in phonological processing, but the nature of their relative weakness is still debated by reading scientists (Fletcher et al, 2007; Katzir et al., 2006; Wolf & Bowers, 1999). Some argue that the problem is primarily one of timing or processing speed, and others propose that there is a specific deficit within the orthographic processor that affects the storage and recall of exact letter sequences. This processing speed/orthographic subgroup generally has milder difficulties with reading than students with phonological processing deficits.
Yet another 10-15 percent of poor readers appear to decode words better than they can comprehend the meanings of passages. These poor readers are distinguished from dyslexic poor readers because they can read words accurately and quickly and they can spell. Their problems are caused by disorders of social reasoning, abstract verbal reasoning, or language comprehension.
Subtypes of Reading Disability
Researchers currently propose that there are three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct:
If a student has a prominent and specific weakness in either phonological or rapid print (naming-speed) processing, they are said to have a single deficit in word recognition. If they have a combination of phonological and naming-speed deficits, they are said to have a double deficit (Wolf & Bowers, 1999). Double-deficit children are more common than single-deficit and are also the most challenging to remediate. Related and coexisting problems in children with reading disabilities often include:
About 30 percent of all children with dyslexia also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD
Ask yourself weekly: What do I want to learn this week?
Asking yourself this question every week will help you stop and think for a moment about what is most important to you. It is easy to focus only on the current unit, grammar exercise, etc. If you take a moment to stop and set a goal for yourself every week, you will notice the progress you are making and, in turn, become more inspired by how quickly you are learning English! You will be surprised at how this feeling of success will motivate you to learn even more English.
اصطلاح Get in a wreck یا Have a wreck
از این اصطلاح برای اشاره به تصادف شدید استفاده میشه.
I just got in a wreck on the way over here
“تو راه که میومدم اینجا بدجور تصادف کردم”
I was in a wreck the other day and my car was totaled. He was at fault
“چند روز پیش بدجور تصادف کردم و ماشینم حسابی داغون شد. مقصر اون بود”
نکته ۱: The other day یعنی روز پیش یا The other night یعنی “چند شب پیش”
نکته ۲: واژه Total به عنوان فعل در گفتگوهای محاورهای و Slang به معنی “داغون شدن” بکار میره. این واژه معمولا در مورد “ماشین/خودرو” استفاده میشه.
نکته ۳: To be at faultیعنی مقصر بودن. برای مثال:
Both drivers were at fault because they were driving too fast
“هر دو راننده مقصر بودن چون داشتن خیلی تند رانندگی میکردن”
📍 Reverse gear دنده عقب
📍 Automatic or Manual car ماشین اتوماتیک یا دستی
📍 Rear seat صندلی عقب
📍 Alley way کوچه
📍 Road railing نرده کنار جاده
📍 Barrier ورودی یا خروجی اتوماتیک پارکینگ یا ساختمان ، الکتریکی بازشونده
📍 Stone paved خیابان سنگی
📍 Court محوطه میان چند ساختمان
📍 Driving licence گواهینامه رانندگی
📍 No Entry ورود ممنوع
📍 One way system خیابان یکطرفه
📍 Farm road جاده خاکی کشاورزی
📍 Dual carriage ways جاده دو طرف تندور بلوار وسط
📍 Single carriage ways جاده دوطرفه بدون بلوار
📍 Single track road جاده های روستایی بدون خط کشی ، موقع شاخ به شاخ شدن یکی باید بکشه کنار تا بتونند رد بشند
📍 Cul de sac بن بست ، فرانسوی هستش ولی تو انگلیس بکار میره
📍 Uneven road جاده ناهموار و دست انداز
📍 به دور برگردون وسط خیابونا یا اتوبان U-Turn میگن و وقتی میخوای بگی از دور برگردون دور بزن میگن Make a U-turn
📍 به تصادفات جزئی که خسارت قابل توجهی نداره Fender Bender میگن.
📍 وقتی میخوای بگی گازشو بگیر یا سریعتر برو میگن Pedal to the metal.
📍 به ماشین های 4 سیلندر اصطلاحا Four-Banger میگن.و به همین ترتیب به تعداد سیلندر عدد رو تغییر میدن.: Six-Banger
📍 جا نرفتن دنده رو Miss shifting میگن.
📍 به دور زدن نمایشی در جا میگن Donut ..
📍 وقتی ماشینا با سرعت های خیلی بالا از کنار آدم رد میشه و بادش آدمو تکون میده به اصطلاح میگن Fly by
📍 به خط ترمز و جای لاستیک ها رو آسفالت میگن Tyre Trace یا Brake Trace
📍 به لنت ترمز میگن Brake Pad
📍 بنزین تموم کردن میشه Run out of fuel
📍 به کاروان های سیاری که پشت ماشین میبندن و توش آشپزخونه و حموم اینا هست میگن Recreational Vehicle
📍 به دکه های عوارضی کنار اتوبان ها و ورودی پل ها Toll میگن.
📍 به سرعت گیر Speed Bump میگن. تو بریتانیا و British English به سرعت گیر Sleeping Policeman هم گفته میشه.به جاده های غیر هموار که چاله چوله زیاد دارن میگن Bumpy Road.
📍 به سپر ماشین میگن Bumper و یه اصطلاح هم هست Bumper To Bumper که به معنی ترافیک سنگین هستش. برا مثال وقتی دیر کردن برا رفتن به جایی میگین sorry, it wasn't my fault.I had stuck in a bumper to bumper trafic!
📍 به خروجی جاده ها یا اتوبانها Slip Road میگن البته Exit-off یا Exit-on هم استفاده میشه.
📍 به پیاده رو Side Walk گفته میشه و به شانه خاکی کنار جاده میگن Roadside shoulder یا Soft-shoulder.
📍 به خطوط عابر پیاده هم Pedestrian crossings یا Zebra crossings میگن.
📍 یه عده هستن که تو شهر های بزرگ کنار خیابون وا میستن و از ماشین های سوپر اسپرت مثل Ferrari , Lamborghini , Bugatti و .. عکس میگیرن که بهشون میگن Super Car Spotters!
📍تو فیلما میبینید که یارو کنار جاده وا میسه انگشت شصتشو نشون میده تا یکی نگه داره و سوارش کنه تا یه مسیر رو مجانی بره. به این کار میگن Hitchhiking.
📍 به میدون یا فلکه هم میگن Trafic Curcle.
📍 به خیابون اصلی شهر میگن Main Drag
نام نوعی کشتی (معنی اصلی آن گل بهار است)
The Mayflower was the name of the ship in which the 102 Pilgrims sailed from England to what is now Massachusetts, on the northeastern coast of the USA. The Pilgrims landed on December 11, 1620
A minivan is a small van
A motorcycle has two wheels and can go fassssttttttt
An oar is used to row a boat
A paddle is an oar for rowing a small boat
Planes are machines that fly in the sky. People ride in them
A porthole is a window in a ship
پروانه کشتی، هواپیما و غیره
A propeller is a device with blades that is turned by an engine; it makes boats (and some airplanes) move
دماغه کشتی، عرشه کشتی
The prow is front part of a ship
Trains run along railroad tracks
When you take a ride, you travel on something else, like a bicycle, a horse, or other means of transportation
A rocket is a machine that propels itself into space
A rowboat is a small boat that is propelled by oars that a person moves
A sail is a large piece of strong fabric that catches the wind and propels a boat or sailboard through the water
A sailboat is a boat that has sails and is powered by the wind
A school bus carries children to and from school
A ship is a very large boat
ماشین خاک برداری
A steamshovel is a machine that digs large holes and can move dirt
A submarine is a vessel that can travel underwater and carry people
The tail is the rear section of an airpane
کامیون نفت کش (حمل مایعات)، تانکر
A tanker is a truck that carries liquids, like milk or gasoline
People pay a taxi driver to drive them places
A tire is an air-filled covering for a wheel. Cars, bicycles, and many other vehicles use tires
ماشین یدک کش
A tow truck is a strong truck that can pull cars and other trucks when they cannot move
Trains run along railroad tracks
A tractor is a powerful vehicle that can pull a plow or other farm tools
A traffic light directs traffic safely. Green means go, yellow means prepare to stop, and red means stop
A train has an engine that pulls railroad cars along a track
A truck is a vehicle that can carry big loads
The trunk is the large compartment in the back part of a car
قایق یدک کش
A tugboat is a sturdy boat that guides large boats in and out of harbors
A unicycle is a vehicle with one wheel that is moved by pedals
خودروی بارکش یا مسافری کوچک، وانت
A van is a truck used to haul people and things from one place to another
A vehicle moves people and things from one place to another
You can pull things in a wagon
A wheel is a circular object that rotates around its center
فرقان، چرخ دستی
A wheelbarrow is a small cart with one wheel and two handles
صندلی چرخدار، ویلچر
A wheelchair is a chair on wheels that handicapped people can use to get around
کشتی کوچک تفریحی
A yacht is a very nice small ship
بالن، کشتی هوایی
A zeppelin is a metal-framed, motorized balloon-like airship that floats in the sky
Goats are being hired to do the work of men in a neighborhood just outside of San Diego. The fires that occurred in Hill borough four years ago destroyed thirty homes, most of which have been rebuilt. While contractors were rebuilding the homes, nature was reproving the grasses, bushes, and shrubs. The area is now so overgrown in brush that it again poses a major fire hazard.
The city council asked f or bids to remove he b t rush. The lowest bid they received was $50,000. And that was if the city provided breakfast and lunch for the work crews for the six weeks it would take to clear the overgrown area. The city countered, offering unlimited coffee (black only) and a doughnut a day for each crew member. When that offer was rejected, the city asked for help on its website.
A sheepherder in Montana and a goat herder in San Bernardino read about the city's plight while surfing the web on their laptops They both offered to do the job for $25,000. The council chose J the goat herder because he lived closer. When told that the city dump was overflowing, the goat herder said, "No problem. My goats
will eat everything in your dump. Except for the automobile engines, of course." So, for another $5,000, the city killed two birds with one stone. If all goes well, they will invite the goat herder and his "family" back every three years. The I goat herder said he will probably visit San Diego while his goats are I just in the dump. I want to take one of those hang-glider rides. I just hope we don't crash. My goats would miss me a lot," he said.
12. A Young Girl Knows How
She is six years old. She knows how to walk. She knows how to run. She knows how to swim. She knows how to play soccer. She knows how to ride a horse. She knows how to walk her dog. She knows how to read. She knows how to write.
13. A Baby Goes to Sleep
Thebaby crawls on the floor. It stops. Then it crawls some more. Then itstops again. Mama looks at the baby. She picks up the baby. She carriesthe baby to the crib. She puts the baby in the crib. She puts a blanketon the baby. The baby falls asleep.
14. He Eats a Candy Bar
Hepicks up the candy bar. He reads the label. The label says Baby Ruth. He unwraps the candy bar. He throws the wrapper into the trashcan. Hebites into the candy bar. He chews it. He swallows it. He bites into thecandy bar again. It is delicious. He loves candy bars.
15. A Backpack and a Bus
Itis time to go to school. He puts his books into his backpack. He putshis arms through the straps. He puts his backpack on his back. He walksoutside. He goes to the bus stop. He stands at the bus stop. He waitsfor the bus. He sees the bus.
16. An Airplane in the Sky
The boy hears a sound. He looks up. He sees an airplane. The airplane is in the sky. It is a silver airplane. It has two wings. It has a tail. It has two jet engines. There is a pilot on the airplane. He flies the airplane. He lands the airplane.